Edit Translation

Revelation of the Qur'an to seven characters (1)

Reviewed in the previous issue of this periodical "patrol life" stages documenting the Koran, and I at the end of the search to that there are aspects of authentication of the text book of God Aziz merited further speech inadvertently pushed some similarities feared to find enemies of the religion where Mtana in the Qur'an, {But Allah will not allow but that is averse}(1). Of the revelation of the Koran to issue seven characters, and what arose regarding interpretation among the eminent scientists from different, then sued writing Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him Imam Quran on one character of these seven characters, and get people To read it without anything else of characters.

Multi problem have not seen a difference in something like scientists differences in the interpretation of these characters. And get people to suit one of them insult to injury increased and wider difference.

The one in front of the huge crowd of views of scientists Aftahal in interpretation, and between contradiction – Sometimes- Confused by any opinion clings to any exhibits, is hardly reassuring to say even seen in other what ينقضه of the foundation, and then see that this did not hand it is the turn of criticism, and so on.
What these seven characters?:
Many of the implications of character, said الفيروزابادي in "dictionary ocean" in Article (H t P):
«Character of everything tip, Hverh, alone, and the mountain above the specified… And one lettering spelling, and camel vestigial, المهزولة or great, and a torrent of water, and Aram's north blacks properly, and when grammarians what came to the meaning neither the name nor do »[اهـ].
It is this term joint venture between several meanings understood intended Balgarina, is that the word characters seven come true legitimacy, such as the use Shara utter prayers to worship propria, albeit in its linguistic absolute prayer, and such as cereals six zakat, such as varieties usury six, Wherever .
There have been many conversations would in many ways and various grounds until it reached the limit frequency as narrated Abu Obeid al-Qasim ibn Peace; recounted of countless companions. فقد روى الحافظ أبو يعلى الموصلي في مسنده الكبير أنَّ
عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه قال يومًا وهو على المنبر: «أُذكِّر الله رجلا سمع النبيء صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: "The Koran was revealed to the whole seven characters balmy enough" for what he and they did not even يحصوا Vhhdoa that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him said: "Quran revealed to all seven letters balmy enough". Osman said, may Allah be pleased with him : I certify them »(2).
Bukhari narrated from Omar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him said: «I heard Hisham bin rule reads Al-Furqan in the life of the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him Fastmat to read it if he read many letters not Ikrinyha the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, Vkdt Osawrh (Any Oathbh the) In prayer, Vtsbert the so him, Vlbpth the poorly I said: Of Oqrok this Sura which I heard you read? : Oqronyha the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, I said, lied, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him may Oqronyha on is what I've read. So I went him Ocodh to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, I said,: إنِّي سمعت هذا يقرأ بِسورةِ الفرقان على حروف لم تُقرئنيها، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : أرسِله، إقرأ يا هشام، فقرأ عليه القراءة التي سمعتُه يقرأ، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : كذلك أُنزلت. ثمَّ قال: Read my age, I read that my peers reading, said the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and also revealed, that the Quran was revealed to seven characters, Vagheraua with what facilitates it »(3).
The management of this talk can be noted that:
* Saw both Omar and Hisham bin rule Ben Asadi belt that the Prophet, peace be upon him is that I read Sura (Al-Furqan).
* Allenbe said peace be upon him after reading each of the Al-Furqan it revealed like this. In his words, peace be upon him feel adjusts each to save, even for the Apostle lowest observed faulty warned it.
* That the Quran was revealed to seven characters.
* That may flow from reading the Koran, without quantifying it, – With that comes to mind- Perhaps he wanted the was uttered easy to tongue, Fatejer the next what he wants from these readings.
* Did not want to talk to anyone of them asked Allenbe peace of God upon him all you want.
* Surprised by Omar ibn al-Khattab what he has heard from reading Hisham until he almost deeply as he read Sura in prayer and be patient, and then lie after him, but BPH and led him to the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, then surprised corrected the Prophet peace be upon him reading all of them, and then .
This was stated by Ibn Hajar in his commentary to talk on the Sahih Bukhari that he had signed to a group of companions for what happened to Omar with Hisham; That's what happened to dad Ben heel with Ibn Masood in Surat bees, and it was narrated by Ahmad: That a man read a verse from the Quran Amr said to him,: "It is a such and such", فذكرا it Nbe may Allah bless him and said,: "This Quran was revealed to seven Any characters that read rightly there is nothing Tmaaroa that…"».
But Ahmed, too, Dad slaves, and Tabari narrated from Abu Jahm bin embolism that two men have clashed in a verse from the Koran, both alleged to have received from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, stated about modern Amr ibn al-Aas. And Tabari and Tabaraani, from Zayd ibn Arqam said: «A man came to the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, said: "README Oqronyha Ibn Masood Al Zaid, and Oqronyha bin Abi heel, Fajtfatt reading, whichever is Vbaqrah?" Remained silent messenger of Allah peace be upon him and Ali to his side, he said to Ali: "For everyone of you read it also learned Hassan Jamil" »(4).
This is a sample, which fell from the difference between the companions may Allah be pleased with them, and perhaps who signed them and did not tell us experience more than you reached them.
Scientists have confused the interpretation of conversations contained in the affair of the seven characters of old, confusion still exists to this day.
Imam Hafiz Abu al-Khair Muhammad ibn Muhammad island famous son: «… Nor still أستشكل this talk and think about it and given careful consideration of the thirty-odd years, until God opened on what could be rightly God willing »(5).
Sheikh Mohammed said Abdel Azim Zarqaani: «This Study of Tarif Interesting, but it is scary and spiky; the Travch is because it shows us a manifestation of God's mercy and diluted slaves, and facilitate the book on all the Arab tribes, but on all Muslim peoples, of every generation before, even utterance by soft themselves, easy to Hindustani , despite each other of different languages ​​and the diversity of the characteristics and features, and also funnier this topic in which you see an overview of the products of many ideas,ar…
The fear of this section and fork, that is because many gossip which, to some extent almost blurs fact Lights, even stubborn to understand some of the scientists and fled from him, and he said the problem… Add to that the error in this section may be taken from the enemies of Islam a crooked way to direct malicious المطاعن to Quran »(6).
The أطنب scientists and Avadoa in conversations Detectives seven characters surprisingly, some of whom had rounds receipts fill your chest surprising and admiration, and in recognition of the efforts of scientists in this field.
I put between your hands – Dear Reader – Models for them aware of the complexity of speech in conversations seven characters.
The first model: Imam Ibn island: «The people spoke against this modern types of speech, the class of Imam Hafiz Abu Shama – God's mercy – A book full, and after the people spoke, and other misdemeanors to something else, which appeared to me to speak it is limited to ten aspects:
First: The cause of the receipt, the second: In the sense of the characters, the third: In the fourth intended here: Face being seven? : Anything directs these seven different? : On how the meaning of these include the seven? : Are these seven scattered in the Koran? : Does the Koran Ottoman containing them? : Do readings in the hands of people today are seven or some of them? : What is the truth of this difference, and usefulness?(7).
The second model: Said Sheikh Mohamed Abdel Azim Zarqaani:
«… We use God Nstahedah that concludes our roses of thorns in this Thread Caúq, prickly, and prepares us from our affair, and Snjul in this field – God willing – Several rounds we talk about evidence of the descent of the Koran on seven characters, and prominent evidence in these conversations contained, among them many benefits to the different letters and readings, and the meaning of revelation of the Qur'an to seven characters, and the seven faces in the selected denomination, and the achievement of the ratio between the chosen and his ilk doctrine, and on the faces of the selection of this doctrine, and the payment of the objections received it, and the survival of these seven characters in the Koran, and other words and refute, and the total payment of the last words of them, and then conclude the treatment section suspicions contained on this subject, and God »,ar(8).
You can then review the two models can imagine the complexity of the words in the subject, and to realize that sprawling, with footnotes and tails, it is very useful to see what the efforts of gurus scientists in all detective referred to, is that this research in the Journal can not be absorbed, but .
And that concerns us in the first place Study of the interpretation of the seven characters conversations:
No text or rather did not tell us infallible, peace be upon him in the interpretation of anything, except what was narrated by Ibn Hajar in the "conquest" of saying: «The people who went to seven characters seven varieties of speech, and protested the hadeeth of Ibn Masood from Allenbe peace be upon him said: "It was the first book [He wants to come down from her books before the Quran] Less than one door on one character, and the Quran was revealed from the seven gates; injunction and order, and halal haram, textured and similar, and the likes, Vahloa Halaleh and denied Hramh, and do what أمرتم it, and they finished what Nhim him, and considered Bomthalh, and do court, and believe Bmchapha, and say . Narrated by Abu Obeid and other. Ibn Abd al-Barr said: This interview does not prove, because it is narrated by Abu Salamah ibn Abdul Rahman Ibn Masood, did not receive Ibn Masood. The response of the people of folk, including Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Imran, I said: And أطنب DSi at the forefront of interpretation in response to said »(9).
Ibn al-Arabi said did not come in the seven meaning of this text, with no trace, and people differed in the set(10).
Also did not tell us that none of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with him asked the Prophet, peace be upon him for interpretation, as well as I have not seen as I read the words of the Companions in the matter.
That is why there is disagreement many scientists in this regard; talk in fact the problem in several ways; hand how coming off these characters, then the identification to be Basbah; Do you want her number between six and eight, in other words you want by the fact that the number or fired
Zarqaani transfer that Judge Aaada and followed incline to the seven that the word in the Hadith is not what is meant by a number known fact, but it is a metaphor for the multitude on Sundays, and the seventy-used metaphor for the multitude in the dozens, and seven hundred also used a metaphor for the multitude in the hundreds(11).
And which دونته works of the statements and opinions in the interpretation of the following seven characters:
1- This statement attributed to Imam Abu Fadl al-Razi, said:
«Talk does not deviate from the seven characters in the difference:
* First: Different names of individuals, Deuteronomy, collection, and to remind the feminization.
* II: Conjugation difference from past, present indicative form and is.
* Third: Different faces to express.
* IV: Difference of inferiority and increase.
* V: Difference submitters and delays.
* VI: Difference بالإبدال the.
* VII: Different languages ​​"wants dialects" Kalfath and the tilt, laminating and aggrandizement, and Manifesting and slurring, and so on(12).
2- Inter statements that the owners want to see the seven letters that came down the Koran, seven varieties, but they differ in the appointment of these varieties, and in the method of expression:
* Some of them say: It is forbidden and halal and haram, textured and similar likes.
* And some of them say: It promised to intimidation and halal and haram, sermons and the likes of protest.
* And some of them say: It's tight and similar burner and copied and especially pan and stories.
* And some of them say: They show the Godhead and proof of oneness and maximize the divinity and worship God and avoiding involvement and carrots in reward and intimidation of punishment(13).
There are other words left for fear of elongating.
When you meditate on the words of the seven characters and conversations reasons they are received, or rather the occasions they are received, it is clear to us that the earliest words to right in interpreting what the which is related to the text of the Koran; any Bolvaza and style. That is why Saying which was accepted by many scholars say Imam Abu al Fadl al-Razi; because the dispute that the trees between the companions in the era of Allenbe peace be upon him was because of the difference in reading, then that is what happened to Muslims after that was the result of dispersed companions in the regions, and people took which read the companion who solution among them. Sham was the people of reading by reading bin Abi heel, and the people of Kufa reading Abdullah bin Masood, and the people of Basra to read the Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, until almost Fajtlfoa be including sedition and evil metastasizes,,ar
Especially when she met the Muslim masses legions in some Mghazém, such as those obtained in the open Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari, citing Muhammad bin Sirin: The man reads even a man say to his companion: Pardon including says… NASA and Iraq, someone asked about if he read verse said: Not that I deny this, Vfsha in people(14).
You see Dear Reader that the dispute resulted from differing readings and not the inclusion of the Koran commands and prohibitions and Halal and Haram and the promise and intimidation, and sermons and parables, or show your Lordship and demonstrate oneness and so on, this does not make sense to be a source of difference تخطئة and atone.
Perhaps one of the best what نستنير in this place, and raises a lot of confusion and ambiguity, to go back to reading books, from which – I mean readings- Clear to us what was determined cause of the difference companions behind.
Let us take, including Al-Furqan – Model – لأنها التي نصَّ عمر على سماعه هشام بن حكيم يقرؤها على حروف كثيرة لم يُقرئه الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم .
I've counted Workbook book "facilitation" Imam Abu Amr proximal section brushes characters(15) It twenty odd word, seven readings differed frequent in the faces read by nearly fifty face(16).
In the book "Publishing in the ten readings" Hafez Abu Khair Muhammad Ibn island mentioned is proven by the author of the book "facilitation" and increased by nine last words(17).
Ibn Hajar said in "Baari": «Did not stand in any of the ways of modern life on the set of characters that differed where Omar and Hisham Al-Furqan… The tracking Abu Omar bin Abd al-Barr what readers which differed from that of thermoplastic companions and later in this Sura Vordth the summary and increase it as much as you mentioned, and increase it …»Then he said,: «Said Abu Omar bin Abd al-Barr after it reported some reported: This is what the Al-Furqan of the characters in the hands of scholars, the Koran, and God knows what he denied Omar Hisham, and read by the age, it can be no other characters did not reach, and not everyone read something move it with him, but that rolls of . However we say is likely to be kept things not seen it, for I left things which relates to particular performance of insults and tidal rum and Alahmam and so on, and then after I wrote this إسماعه stood on the Big Book called "Mosque largest and sea Alozachr" by Sheikh elderly Abu Qasim Issa … فالتقطت him what did not make-mentioned difference Faqarb the amount you first reported…» (18).
Then he said,: «This is fifty-six subject is not which of the famous thing, Vladv to what I said first, shall be inter alia, the order of one hundred and thirty subject»(19).
To zoom put your hands samples those words Qubsthe of the book "facilitation"(20):
1- {Eat them}: مسندًا إلى الغائب، ومرجع الضمير الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم . {Eat them}: مسندا to the group of speakers.
2- {It makes you}: بالجزم, {It makes you}: Annexation lam.
3- {Narrow}: Bia tight broken, {Narrow}: Bia static.
4- {The day He will gather them together}: Bia, {Nhacarham}: Benon.
5- {Says}: Bia, {We say}: Benon.
6- {And We send down angels}: بنونين second is static and G static diluted, and the monument Angels. {The Angels Inn}: The past tense passive, and raise the angels.
7- {A lamp}: On individuals, {سرجا}: Without thousand included Alra on combining.
8- {No يقتروا}: Annexation AZ breaking na, {No يقتروا}: Open AZ and break na, {No يقتروا}: Open AZ included na.
This If you know the extent of investigating companions kept them to the Book of Allah and their keenness on it and struggle without replace it and change it, you have to understand the position of Omar and his strike with those who heard him read the Koran is read received from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him easy, so let them know that the Koran was revealed to seven characters , and realized that both of them had received from the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him what received, there is no need for controversy and Almmarah, Vozanoa and Radwa by virtue of the Prophet and handed over to him in recognition, but they did not leave the validation moment of moments, do not accept only the true novel and proven transferred him, peace be upon him,ar . Has Osafhm in power حوافظهم that the like Date machines, does not leave the small or great, but Ahstha.
It is searchable at the end of that short cut some provision – Which دونته some books Quran sciences- From the revelation of the Qur'an seven characters:
First: Facilitate the recitation of the people; the Qur'an – The inn was clear Arabic tongue – The Arabs were the various accents, including many differences, if carried on reading the Koran one character or read one to نالهم the curse and got hardship. That's what it was like Arabs who Hovhoa the Koran in an era Allenbe peace be upon him, so how about behind of the Persians who entered the religion of Allah in crowds and nations, and then how the case came after them until God inherits the earth and them.. Islam is a religion omnes, the Koran its constitution immortal and the remaining miracle? .
Secondly: The multiple faces of readings – It is falling in the seven characters – What explains Mourad street from the verse if the word is likely more than one meaning, shall be one of the readings on some variant faces a presumption that suggest some doctrinal statements on others, that interpretation of the meaning: {وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلاَلَةً أَوْ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ اَوُ اخْتٌ من أمٍّ} It turned this increase in reading this that the brothers in this judgment to the mother without brothers and brothers were the father.
Thirdly: May serve different readings pay just is not what is meant from the words of the street interpretation of the meaning: {O ye who believe When the call to prayer from on Friday فاسعوا to mention God}(21), And read out {Vaamadoa to mention God}, The first reading of fancy should strive to prayer, has forbidden the Prophet, peace be upon him to bring the prayer as we seek, but the second reading of this illusion lifted(22).
IV: The multiplicity of characters and faces a form of readings miracle of the Koran, and the challenge for all the Arab tribes, Flo came without language to language said those who did not come in their own "dialect" if our language came to came in kind(23).
V.: The different faces of the readings get grammarians to be directed, richest This guidance Arabic; said Zarkashi: «It is an art Jalil, and has known Majesty meanings and Dzaltha, has cared for him and imams Avrdoa the books… Each of which may be included on the benefits »(24).
That's what pleased God to me in this difficult subject, and I hope that I participated – If hard bdellium – In removing ambiguity about some of its aspects, and what was rightly it is God and thanks to him and his mercy, and praise Him Almighty on it, and was it a mistake or they فمني I ask God pardon and forgiveness, I do not know that God Almighty gave one of his creation preserved from the mistake, and secure . And thank God first and foremost, and Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

Professor: Bakir bin Mohammed Sheikh Haj (Pashadel)


1 Repentance, verse: 32.
2 Abdel Azim Zarqaani: «Fountains Gratitude in Quranic sciences». Vol 1, p: 132. Deployment of reviving Bestsellers, portal Jesus Halabi. Ø 2.
3 «Sahih Bukhari, Chapter V, of the virtues of the Holy Book. رَ: Fatah al-Bari by Ibn Hajar, vol 9, p: 23. Dissemination of knowledge House. Beirut. Lebanon.
4 Ibn Hajar: Fatah al-Bari. Vol 9. P: 26.
5 Ibn island: «Publishing in ten readings» . Vol 1. P: 26. Arab publishing house book. (D. T.. N).
6 Zarqaani: «Fountains Gratitude». Vol 1. P: 130، 131.
7 Ibn island: «Publishing in ten readings». Vol 1. P:21.
8 Zarqaani: «Fountains Gratitude». Vol 1. P: 131.
9 Ibn Hajar: Fatah al-Bari. Mg 9. P: 29.
10 Zarkashi: «Science in the Quran proof». Vol 1. P: 212. Dissemination of knowledge House. Beirut. Lebanon. Ø 2. Ramadan 1376 AH / 1957 AD.
11 Zarqaani: «Fountains Gratitude». Vol 1. P: 166.
12 Ibn island: 'Publishing'. Vol 1. P: 27. / Zarqaani. Fountains Gratitude. Vol 1. P: 148.
13 For these and other statements, see the book: 'Publishing' to the son of island. Vol 1. The beginning of the p: 23. And Book: 'Proof'. Zrkachi. Vol 1. The beginning of the p: 211. And Book: «Fountains Gratitude». Zarkana. Vol 1. The beginning of the p: 146. And Book: Fatah al-Bari. Ibn Hajar. Vol 9. The beginning of the p: 23.
14 Such talk should verify it, and Nrbo Balsahabp wise to issue them.
15 Authors usually took place in the science of readings on the division of their works in two: First: Department of steady provisions; progressive governance is the total power that is going on in all investigated by the terms of that judgment, as tide provisions and the palace, and Manifesting slurring, Open tilt… This section called "assets section". Secondly: Department of solo rule is steady; which is mentioned in the fence of how to read every word Quranic different among readers, with the attribution of each reading to its owner… They call this section also: Brushes characters, and he called some of the branches interview assets.
16 'Facilitation'. P: 163. Arab publishing house book. Beirut. Lebanon. Ø 2. 1406E / 1985ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
17 Ibn island: 'Publishing', vol 2, p: 333.
18 Ibn Hajar: Fatah al-Bari, vol 9, p: 33, Onwards.
19 Mr. N, p.: 36.
20 'Facilitation', p: 163.
21 Friday, verse: 09.
22 Zarqaani: «مناهل العرفان»، مج1، ص: 140، 141.
23 ـ مصطفى لطفي الصبَّاغ: «لمحات في علوم القرآن». P: 179. نشر المكتب الإسلامي. Beirut. Lebanon. Ø 3. 1410E / 1990ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
24 Zarkashi: «البرهان»، مج 1، ص: 339.

Life article was published in the journal, Issue: 08, Issued in October 1425 / November 2004, pp.: 11.


This article contains No comment

Write your comment here

Please put article below
Your comment