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Means of communication and networking among Muslims – Waqf and Zakat model

To stop the social and economic importance of private charity in the history of Islam. The afternoon stop in the Muslim community since the time of prophecy, and included multiple areas of economic and social activity and charity, and was attended by governors and dignitaries and merchants, and so the stay was a significant phenomenon in the Islamic civilization drew consider students of this civilization, and made them care about Bdoafh and types and objectives.

Origin of the endowment is the Hadith: «When the son of Adam dies, his only three: Ongoing charity, beneficial knowledge, or Born in favor of calling him, was considered LV ongoing charity, because often inadvertently standing it is to meet the needs of the needy, as we shall see. The endowment is also based in its origin to question Omar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him to the Messenger of Allah bless him and has struck fertile ground did not yield what makes them, Umar said the Prophet peace be upon him : «إني أصبتُ أرضًا بخيبر لم أصب مالاً قطُّ أنفس عندي منه، فما تأمرني به؟» فأجابه الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم : «If you wish origin and held their charity of the rest is an incredible life, God bless him . They are not sold or donated or inherited. That is the meaning of the moratorium on the whole, that the king is not sold or endowed or inherited, but it is ongoing charity.
I knew a contemporary scholars endowment saying: «Prevent the disposition of the neck of the eye that can be utilized with the same survival, and make beneficial in terms of good starting points and ending». This definition is accurate and inclusive images when cessation of jurists. Valoagaf is imprisoned eye, such as land, then Giving charity Butmrtha the face of philanthropy(2).
LV sense Old, and was present when non-Muslims as well, and appears especially so in the temples, preserved as it was rumored among those who believe it, فالبيت Haram and Al-Aqsa Mosque were present before Islam, and people were benefiting from them on الشياع, as was the case for temples and churches when non-Muslims . As people were holding sales contracts and marriage contracts and leasing contracts before Islam also has admitted that Islam but put his systems and laws officer, and so the endowment is present only by the sense of Islam(3).
We note that the Waqf in Islam exceeded temples to other facilities and the types of charity, it includes all types of charity, كالوقف on the poor and العتقاء and the mujahideen and the needy, relatives and offspring, as well as the institutions that we will refer to it, and there is a difference between the endowment gift, that gift-owned gifted to him, .
To stop the formula must be respected, and are not considered eye suspended only if, a:
First: Create a contract saying or reference or write, if during the contract of one of these things was a contract void or corrupt.
Secondly: That benefit formula achievement, ie not be hung on the condition, if suspended on the condition does not exist stay was void(4).
Thirdly: Benefit formula التأبيد and always, because the timing invalidate charity, Valoagaf is timely corrupt.
IV: Non-coupling condition that affects the formula out of the stay, such as requiring standing right to dispose of his home after Thabaysha selling and so on, or its requirement recourse after having been imprisoned his home mosque. But if the condition is related to the benefit or yield is legal كتحويل the ground rent from one person to another, or Carpentry benefit transfer for the stay to the other.
There is also a requirement should be available at the same standing, most notably:
First: To be free to dispose of his property, because a servant does not permissible for him because the money belongs to his master, but may Abdul endowment on behalf of the master.
Secondly: Be standing right mind so you do not stay true for the mentally ill.
Thirdly: To be selected to do because the impeller is not correct him stay. As in the standing required to be an adult, and an adult, which is a quarry it, nor bankrupt, nor سفيها.
Among the most prominent conditions in this area that do not have the money you want to stop the whole immersed in religion, but Islam is not the necessary condition, it is true cessation of non-Muslims as well, provided that the bladders in the eyes of Islam, and a healthy endowment to be kind or in cash. The endowment would also provide detail on the exchange in various areas.
The conclusion that the stay may not be true unless it is in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, كالعقارات owned property is true, but if the property is incorrect such as land which يحبسها sultans or it was land princely, does not apply to the conditions of the stay right, it is considered as the allocation of plots of land .
The endowment is divided into two types: The first is the the civil atomic or cessation, a moratorium on the children and grandchildren and relatives. And II charity cessation; intended to face good starting basis to talk mentioned: «When the son of Adam…», And there it becomes a charity cessation is intended to ongoing charity, and this kind of endowment (Charity) Is the one who popularized throughout Islamic history, and played a prominent socially and culturally.
Reminded us that the stay has been known since the prophetic era, has participated in a number of companions, such as Omar ibn al-Khattab, then became known widely since the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. Whenever progress of Islamic history increased endowment prevalent in different countries, particularly in Egypt and the Levant. In many cases, the land was property of the state, and therefore were not subject to stop, and workers were ground work by the measure is not an angel, but as many of them into the hands of the ruling is abscess fare, how era الإخشيديين were endowments in Egypt does not include agricultural land, but the role and weightlifter .
In the Ayyubid and Mamluk many stop land, and became for endowments collections, including Diwan Ahbas mosques, and the Office of Ahbas of the Two Holy Mosques, and the Office of Religious Endowments eligibility (Atomic), And the judges are المتولين of endowments and supervision, particularly civil endowments(5). Then became a management endowment is المتولية Endowment public after extinction (IAEA), was this administration that appoints from oversees the endowment when disputes or when the CAA to exchange, or when you do not achieve the incumbent senses, and it appears that the stay, which was managed by the financed committed to the terms of standing was the most common types (6).
The endowment provides a great service to the Muslim community because of charity ongoing, as we mentioned, it serves the purposes many pour all in the breeding doors goodness, have contributed to each of the country's Islamic Waqf, فكثرت by religious institutions, educational, health and social services; there was integration between the various service sectors in . The endowment was doing what you are doing today and Ministries: Education, social affairs, health, religious affairs, and so on, in addition to what you are doing civic associations, cultural and charitable.
When popularized injustice and corruption in some communities resorted people, especially in eras Mamluk and Ottoman to "smuggle" their property Vidkhalunha in huge endowment so as not to tamper with العابثون, that tampering may be the owner of the stay the same, it has taken some way to differentiate between males and females, . The motivation sometimes is the fear of takeover rulers of darkness on their property, were Ihsnon properties of infringement entered in the moratorium on themselves first and then on mosques and charities after them, and he did so the rulers of the Mamluks who abounded endowments in their era as we who were subjected to coups, political .
As Muhammad Ali ruled Egypt Enter waqf property in the property of the state and make the proceeds hurt in the State Treasury, has established a special department Waqfs, and make them responsible endowments of the Two Holy Mosques (Mecca and Medina). Also make them responsible to the hub and grain and foodstuffs that have become out of the state treasury after it was independent of. It will be recalled that the Kaaba making and processing Charge Masri was Muhammad Ali before the money endowments, but since I took Muhammad Ali step mentioned became Send cladding and Charge of state money(7).
It is noteworthy in this regard that the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II abolished the waqf system and make him a special ministry under his authority, becoming is on the disbursement of those who are benefiting from endowment. And when France occupied Algeria seized the property of the Waqf and annexed to the ownership of the French state, and acted in their incomes, including the endowment of the Two Holy Mosques, religious institutions, and education, which led to the publication of poverty among important class in society, and the weakening of teaching the Quran and the Arabic language(8).
Whatever the case, the large endowments in the country's Islamic another of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century has caused the weakness of the exploitation of the earth suspended, and became their incomes prey for those in charge her, or was around them of their beneficiaries, has called for some reformers reform the waqf system because arrived (Atomic) So as not to continue tampering.
يخدم الوقف مختلف الأغراض الاجتماعية والتعليمية، ومن أبرزها تحفيظ القرآن الكريم في الكتاتيب أو المدارس القرآنية، وقد جرت العادة على أن يكون الكتَّاب قريبًا أو ملتصقًا بأحد المساجد، وكانت الكتاتيب منتشرة في الأحياء السكنية بالمدن والبلدات، وحتى في الأرياف حيث تُنصب الخيام لاستقبال الأطفال وتحفيظهم القرآن الكريم، وتتوفر الكتاتيب على النظافة والمرافق الصحية والألواح وأجرة الشيخ أو المعلم، بالإضافة إلى الماء والإنارة، وكانت المساجد وموظفوها (Preachers and teachers and cleaners…) Schools and مدرسوها are luck important endowments that provide staff needs, but also provide water to these institutions from distant places, brushes mosques carpets or mats, and buy oil for lighting lamps and chandeliers, cleanliness, and above all the maintenance of mosques and schools in order to remain constant in the performance of its mission noble. The Bretton mosques and schools are also available on houses and art students telecommuters or strangers, and they stay free, as well as their food, drink, and some mosques and schools were included libraries too, so find a student where the manuscripts and reference books needed in the study, which is in the habit wrote locked owners (الخانقاه)(9).
وكان ذلك هو شأن مختلف المساجد، ولا سيما الكبيرة منها، فالحرمان الشريفان والجامع الأعظم ببغداد، وجامع القرويين، وجامع الزيتونة، والجامع الأموي، والجامع الأزهر، والأقصى بالقدس، وجامع قرطبة، والجامع الأعظم بالجزائر، وغيرها كان لها أوقاف عظيمة تسمح لها بأداء مهمتها الدينية والتعليمية والثقافية، فهذا الجامع الأزهر الذي صُلِّيت فيه أول جمعة سنة 361هـ والذي شيَّده الفاطميون ليكون مثابة للمذهب الشيعي، أوقف عليه الحاكم بأمر الله كثيرًا من الأراضي الزراعية والعقارات والمباني والدور والأسواق والمخازن والرباع، ثمَّ تنافس الحكام بعد ذلك في الوقف عليه فازدادت أوقافه(10). As does the villagers built mosque in reign Idrisid, and received them and others like the Children Marin Boagaf the huge and continuous(11).
It can limit some of the issues that the cessation coverage, including: النفقة على العلماء والفقهاء والطلبة، والإحسان إلى الفقراء والتخفيف من معاناتهم، والحد من تعسف الحكام والهروب من ظلمهم، وإتاحة الفرصة أمام العجزة والقاصرين لكي يستغلوا أرزاقهم ويسيِّروها على أفضل وجه، وحفظ قيم الأسرة وتماسكها، وصيانة حقوق الورثة، بالإضافة إلى صيانة المرافق العامَّة كالعيون المائية ومحطَّات المسافرين، وبناء وترميم الثكنات العسكرية، وتحصين الأسوار والقلاع حول المدن، وتوفير عدَّة الجهاد، وفدية الأسرى…
Endowments include in addition to what we have: Shops, and shops, RTF, hotels, stables, houses, mills and bathrooms, bakeries and contemporary oil, and soap factories, paper, sugar, and there is also a property agricultural Kalpsatin farms, but there are entire villages were suspended.
But that does not relieve us from saying that although this face bright for the stop, which is often, therefore, there are some abuses him; Sometimes surplus was on the exploitation of all of the income of endowment is used for maintenance, and if there is no surplus, the institution remains a matter for negligence .
There are numerous incidents indicate the occurrence of such abuses, under the direction of the proceeds to the cessation or personal purposes not specified in the endowment, so come who usually charge of Endowments, who sometimes called agents or principals, there are incidents of fraud in the accounts of the stay(12). Has passed us that some referees have encroached on the sanctity of stop life imprisonment Vholoh the lot to the State Treasury.
Secondly: Zakat and Islamic values:
Zakat one of the five pillars of Islam, which is right on the money in the eyes of Islam, it is also the right of the group over the individual, as the Koran explicitly in saying,: {وَالذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ لِلسَّآئِـلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ}(13). وهي عبادة «تطهِّر ضمير الفرد من غرائز الشح والبخل وحب الذات»(14). وقد جاء في القرآن الكريم: {خُذْ مِنَ اَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا}(15). فالزكاة تطهِّر المسلم من الأثرة والأنانية، كما تطهر المال من الحرام والخبائث.
Islam has initiated Zakat in different proportions of the property, but a few ratios does not harm the owner, however they represent significant income and the wealth of society can benefit a large number of people in need. And zakat thus able, if performed by the owner in the best possible way, to secure the expenses of social solidarity, which urged him Shara, which makes it one Muslims live كالجسد,.
Zakat of these social right side and not ment Yemen by property owners deprived of them, the Quran has forbidden manna to invalidate the Zakat alms from which, in the verse: {O ye who believe not vain صدقاتكم Balmain and hurt like that spends his wealth to be seen of men and Yumen in Allah and the Last Day}(16). The quorum Zakat I have said is not confined to the rich, but that most of the members of the community participate in it to secure social solidarity, and if you do not do so it becomes the duty of the people of each country to carry out the needs of their poor and provide them with the necessities of the pension(17).
The verse is provided for the Zakat which is given to a {إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَآءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُوَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ}(18). فالجهة الأولى والثانية معروفة وهم الفقراء المسلمون والمساكين الذين ليس لهم وسيلة للعيش، والعاملون على الزكاة هم الجباة الذين يبذلون الجهد في تحصيلها من أصحابها، فالجباة لهم حق في الزكاة، والمؤلَّفة قلوبهم هم أناس أسلموا ولكن إسلامهم لم يكن متمكِّنًا بعدُ من قلوبهم، فيُعطَون الزكاة تأليفًا لقلوبهم، ولكن بعد أصبح الإسلام قويًّا توقَّف إعطاء هؤلاء الزكاة، وكان أول من حكم بذلك هو الخليفة عمر بن الخطاب. In their necks and are intended slaves who contracted with their masters on their contract did not have money to play them to be freed, so the Zakat to help them get out of slavery, and this is proof that Islam urged to get rid of slavery. And debtors who are accumulating debt they did not have what they pay to get rid of it, has been ruling that they really Zakat because Islam does not accept for a Muslim to be a debtor, because religion humiliating to its owner, and the Muslim must be strong dear. In the name of Allah and their intended Mujahideen who came out in defense of Islam, and everything related to arming the army and the defense of the Islamic Dawa, a state has to allocate a portion of the Zakat money for jihad and to protect religion. The Wayfarer is interrupted by the ways away from his family and his money, even if it is in his country from the rich, he has the right to zakat even come out of the Daúgueth.
From here it is clear, and that the term target of zakat money is cleared, and disarm the envy of hearts, and build a clean, safe and harmonious morally, socially and economically.
So that there are values ​​and virtues governing Islamic society since the dawn of Islam and make it different from other societies dominated by injustice, tyranny and deadly competition and poor ethics, and the first Islamic values ​​are brothers: God Almighty says: {إِنَّمَا الْمُوْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ}, There are many verses and sayings indicate that the Muslims constitute one flesh whatever diverged their homelands, these brothers have appeared between immigrants and supporters in Medina and then continued through the ages. It values ​​outstanding and distinctive of the Muslim community the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, there are also verses and sayings of many requests from Muslims to Atnahoa evil and order the Promotion of Virtue, the individual part of the community, the community is Saher on the interests of individuals so that does not count in violation of the sanctity of not exceeding the rights not prevail .
Although slavery existed in ancient societies, Islam work on the gradual abolition means not destabilize the social and economic relations between people.
There are also verses and sayings of the Emancipation describes how different ways to get to equal society, not the preferred color on color, or sex for sex only piety {The sight of God} (Closets, 13).
ويمكن أن نشير باختصار إلى قيم أخرى ثابتة في تعاليم الإسلام، ومنها لزوم الجماعة عند الفتنة وافتراق الكلمة، والحُكم بالعدل والقسطاس المستقيم في القضاء، والنهي عن الظلم الذي وصفه بأنَّه ظلمات يوم القيامة، والابتعاد عن الاستبداد باللجوء إلى الشورى التي فسرت بالاستفتاء في الحكم، والوصول إلى رأي الجماعة بالتراضي، وهو الأقرب إلى ما يسمى اليوم حكم الشعب عن طريق ممثِّليه، ولعلنا لا نبالغ إذا قلنا إنَّ حث الإسلام على التعلم وطلب العلم ودعوته إلى القراءة في أوَّل سورة نزلت يُعتبر من أهم القيم والمبادئ الإسلامية، والهدف من ذلك كما هو واضح من تجارب الأمم، أنَّ المجتمع المتعلِّم هو المجتمع القائد والعزيز، وذلك هو ما يهدف إليه الإسلام، وقد اعترف الإسلام بالأنبياء والمرسلين جميعًا واحترم حرِّية العبادة عند أصحاب الديانات الأخرى، وتسامح معهم في إقامة معابدهم وصلواتهم وقضائهم وحقِّهم في التملُّك وحسن الجوار.. And other aspects of tolerance, provided that the word Islam is supreme and should not be a humiliation for Muslims.
وقد كان الإسلام حصنًا قويًّا للمسلمين في تغلُّبهم على المستعمرين عندما جاؤوا غزاة، سواء في عهد الحروب الصليبية، أو في عهد الهيمنة الأوروبية على أوطان إسلامية في العصر الحديث، حين تغلغل الاستعمار في إفريقيا وآسيا، معتمدًا على قوة التكنولوجيا والجيوش والمبشرين، وقد عانت الحضارة الإسلامية من هذا الغزو كلَّ المعاناة، ولا سيما اللغة العربية والدراسات القرآنية، والتعليم والتربية والفنون والآداب. It also raped Muslim lands and given to settlers strangers forcing many groups to scatter and migration, and it was exile and prison share a lot of them, however, the resistance to colonialism was thanks to the Islamic spirit underlying, so that the liberation movements in Asia and Africa were mostly raise the banner of Islam and jihad, .
That if foreigners had contact with Muslims discover them virtues and common habits derived from the teachings of Islam, and can be summarized in the following titles: أنواع اللباس المحترم والمحتشم للرجال والنساء، والشراب الطاهر الخالي من المسكرات، والطعام الحلال الخالي من لحم الخنزير وشبهه، والعناية بالأسرة وتربية الأبناء، ورعاية حقوق المرأة، والاحتفال بالأعياد والمناسبات الدينية، والاعتزاز باللغة العربية باعتبارها لغة القرآن الكريم، وأداء والمناسك والعبادات على أحسن وجه، والتنويه بالأمانة والنظافة، وعيادة المريض، وعدم إيذاء الجار، والحثِّ على إتقان العمل، والاعتماد على النفس، والاتكال على الله وحده في كلِّ الأمور، وذلك هو معنى التوحيد في الإسلام(19).

Author / d. Abu al-Qasim Saadallah

Margins
*)- D / Abu al-Qasim Saadallah, Department of History, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan.
2)- Muhammad Abu Zahra, lectures in the LV, the Arab Thought House, Cairo, 1971, pp.: 7.
3)- The same source.
4)- When all imams doctrines except Imam Malik which authorized to comment on the condition emancipation.
5)- Abu Zahra, op cit, p: 12.
6)- Some said that the text on the التأبيد not a condition for the validity of the moratorium, Imam Malik said the temporary suspension of passport, to be returned to its owner if he is alive or to his heirs at the expiration of the period, and the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal not allow endowment is life. Abu Zahra, op cit, p:72.
7)- Seyed Mohammad Adakkn, Kaaba binoculars through history, Cairo, 1406 / 1986M, p: 109 ـــــ 111.
8)- Types of stay in Algeria in 1830: Endowment of the Two Holy Mosques, endowments Whole greatest, endowments ways good deeds (Tap the Turks), Endowments parents and supervision, the people of Andalusia endowments, endowments soldiers and barracks and public utilities, endowments angles and connectivity, endowments eyes (Way) Travel stations… See it: Saidona, historical studies in the endowment and property taxes, Dar Muslim West Beirut, 2000. See: Saadallah, the cultural history of Algeria, Dar Muslim West Beirut, 1998.
9)- See Book: Algeria cultural history, c 2, previous source, and Book: Mohammed Khoja: Date of unification landmarks in the old and the new, 2nd Floor, Dar Muslim West Beirut, 1985. As well as Mohammed Afifi: Endowments and economic life in Egypt during the Ottoman era, 1517 1658, the Egyptian Authority, Cairo, 1991.
10)- Look: Mahmoud Morsi Lashin, Farouk Omar abscess, Cairo, 1990, pp.: 77. Maqrizi was quoted also. C 2.
11)- Endowment for the Great Mosque in Algiers (And other), See: Abu al-Qasim Saadallah, the cultural history of Algeria, c 1, Op, and see: Saidona, op cit, and see: Abdul-Jalil al-Tamimi, a document on the property of the hermitage on the Grand Mosque in Algeria, Tunisia, 1981.
12)- The first Islamic Encyclopedia, 1913 1936, Volume 8, p: 1098 1099, Article (LV).
13)- Ascent, verses: 24، 25.
14)- Subhi Saleh, Islamic regimes, origins and evolution, 2nd Floor, Dar El Ilm million, Beirut, 1982. P: 372.
15)- Repentance, verse: 103.
16)- Cow, verse: 264.
17)- Ibid, p: 373، 374. See also: Mahmoud Morsi Lashin, Op.
18)- Repentance, verse: 60.
19)- About Islamic values ​​and characteristics of the Muslim community see: Mohammed Abu Zahra, op cit, and Hussein Shehata: Accounting Zakat understood and system, Cairo, 1980, and Hussein sociable: Islam civilization, Casablanca Arabia, 1987, White and Anis: Research in the history of the Arab-Islamic civilization, Tripoli, Lebanon, in 1994, and Malik bin Nabi: The point of the Islamic world, translating Abdel Sabour Shahin, Dar thought, Damascus, 1986.

Life article was published in the journal, Issue: 08, Issued in October 1425 / November 2004, pp.: 93.

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