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Khalafon – About his life and his answers jurisprudential

Perhaps many of the researchers did not hear about that name within the flags Ibadi, despite marked its already in the curriculum authoring idiosyncratic in Ibadhi Morocco, and perhaps the lack of fame due to the lack of production this character, and to the "marginalization" deliberate exposure Sheikh in his life as (1)
It is son Khalafon?

First, the Son Khalafon the definition:
Abu Yaqub Yusuf bin Khalafon Almzzati Allowargelana: Ibadi scholars in the sixth century the Islamic Maghreb, (Class: 550ـــ600هـ / 1155ـــ1203م), Belonging to the tribe of Berber Mzach, he lived in the village of 'Tin Bamareis', from villages and Argelan the south-east Algeria. Described Aldrgeni as: «Access investigator to end in the science of branches and assets»(2).
I do not know exactly the date and place of birth or death, and only sources Baaradh in class XII, the second session of the sixth century AH(3), And that he witnessed the father of Jacob Yousef Bin Ibrahim Alsdarata (T.: 570E), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi (T.: After 570 e) Allowargelanyen.
It also does not indicate the sources to learn and trips to receive the flag, nor to the teachers, and this is contrary to what stated in the dictionary flags Ibadi it received from Sheikh Abdullah Alnphusi, and Sheikh Abu Imran Musa Alnphusi Tripoli and Sheikh Abu Rahma Alekshna, it was pure illusion, caused by a Aldrgeni(4) Which may suggest that those who did not Mulls the consideration.
But that brings him sources that excelled in jurisprudence and assets, and it was characterized by scientific method substantive, P «does not confer on the books of former dress holiness, and brought to a place infallibility of error, but was criticized by criticism of the expert, Faatri what Astjad them, and criticizes what (5). He was broad-minded, fond of studies comparison, are interested in a study of doctrine for different Islamic sects, familiar with the books of the people of the dispute, and possibly adopted at the Asamith, because the environment in which they found in it were not in the level of accept such openness, has written the traditional method, which connects .
The drag him this openness troubles considerable despite what was known of his defense of his doctrine of argument and evidence as abandoned some scholars and time is short, extended about twelve years, accusing him of بالاستهانة books doctrine Ibadi, and lax stick out, but they changed their attitude from him .
Second, the effects of Shaykh Ibn Khalafon,:
As for the effects it is regrettable that the sources do not indicate the names of his disciples, although some historians confirm that he was taught, and well; Recalling Aldrgeni of this by saying: «The studied Vlguen the best teach»(6), Adds Sheikh Ali Yahya Muammar without that brings us to source it «was brilliant in the explanation and clarification when teaching, tortured talk, it was science students flock to his council»(7). This what not نستبعده, inter alia,:
* That some scholars in the province which declared against Sheikh were science students prevented from contact(8).
* That Khalafon son after a boycott was a reference pilgrims in Noazlhm and Astvtaathm(9).
* That the environment in which he lived Sheikh was replete scientists and teaching workshops for students from different horizons, in the framework of the system named system Aezzabh.
As for the production of film saves us time is two works of this world, two: Message to people of Mount Nefoussa not still manuscript, printed doctrinal answers.
The researcher may wonder: Did not leave'm Khalafon comprehensive book Principles of doors (Starting from Tharrat to transactions) With his knowledge and capacity briefed, and enable them, as described Aldrgeni as «achieved access to end in the science of branches and assets…»(10) ? (11).
In any case, we will try to display a glimpse of the letters with the following:
1 Message to the Nafusa Mountains (Libya):
We can not see the text of this letter, which is still a manuscript; Therefore, it is inevitable to rely on what the historians. The was Aldrgeni according to let us know first referred to, only saying: It «incorporating the jurisprudence and preaching»(12). Then he said curtains in one of his answers on the subject of the Paljoara: «In Ibn Khalafon message to the Nafusa Mountains, the second a lot of stress and forbidden to leave the neglect and lack of control slain»(13). As we note the curtains he added us new information, namely, that Ibn Khalafon, two letters, not just one message.
Then finally mentions Dr. developing he saw, including a copy of the manuscript in the library of every Bator(14) Bualg Jerba, which is the size of the answers made by or slightly smaller(15).
2 Doctrinal answers (Asked Khalafon):
Message is achieved by Dr. Amr Khalifa developing, as a supplement to his letter for his doctorate at the University of Cambridge in 1971(16), And published in the Journal of the mosque to call House(17), Then published by Beirut's Open, the year 1394/1974, under the title: «Answers son Khalafon», located at 128 r, occupy the answers of which eighty pages, and the rest of the investigator and the introduction of indexes, a newsletter that we saw them and we have adopted in the description and analysis, which is taken up in detail:
A investigation:
The methodology of scientific investigator Academy, which are as follows:
1 Introduction eating: Out of the investigation, a brief definition of the doctrine Ibadi and upbringing, and a brief translation of the author of the message (Khalafon), Then an investigation into attributed to its author, subject, and its importance in terms of approach and content. The four versions adopted in the investigation, labeling and scientific value, and his work in manuscript. (ص8 ـــ20).
2 Metn recording and comparing the copies. (ص23 ـــ103).
3 Index flags: Merely a translation to Ibadi flags; because ترجمتهم sources say is not available, because most of them unknown to the others, and include 34 Translation. (ص107ـــ117).
4 Graduation conversations contained in the message, which is 40 Recently, attributed to sources Hadith. (119ـــ127).
However, the observation taken by the investigator that he did not put the questions sub-headings make it easier for the reader referenced, so have a researcher in any jurisprudential topic that was browsing each book to see whether the matter is that looking around or not. Note that the answers were mixed arranged by Doors jurisprudence according what it Taourv, which will notice when you've listed issues message.
B reason authoring:
أشار الشَّمَّاخِي إِلىَ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الأجوبة رُبـَّمَا كانت هِيَ الأولى الموجَّهة إِلىَ أهل جبل نفوسة، وأيَّده المحقِّق في هَذَا الرأي مستندا إِلىَ كلام البرادي، وَإِلىَ معطيات تَارِيخِيَّة تَتَمَثَّلُ في وجود مثل هَذِهِ الرسائل الفِقْهِيَّة المتبادلة بـين أهل المغرب في ذَلِكَ العصر بالذات، كأبي العَبـَّاس أحمد بن محَمَّد بن بكر، وأبي يعقوب الوارجلاني، وفي غيره أَيضًا، كالإمام عبد الوَهَّاب، وابنه أفلح، والقطب اطفيَّش(18).
A message board:
The message contains twenty-three answer, with footer. It is noticeable that the liquid each time emphasizes that shows him Sheikh jurists difference in the issues, which also comes:
1- Women rule that her husband فارقها or master any reason and Bold came after six months, separate questions on the subject of the near or far, said scholars differences. (ص23ـــ34).
2- The rule of a Muslim woman married Spaha polytheists, missed them children of. (ص34ـــ35).
3- Fuck Muzani rule. (ص35ـــ43).
4- Sentenced to marry or Muzani or built. (ص43ـــ52).
5- Enjoy man with a woman without her vagina or rectum (Or a man) Can he marry her?. (ص52ـــ56).
6- Judgment freeing Hqs of slave. (56ـــ59).
7- The rule of refused to يستخلف the dead on the commandment. (ص59ـــ60).
8- Is performed Zakat debt and goods? (ص60ـــ64).
9- Marriage secret guardian rule without announcement. (ص65ـــ66).
10- Marriage contract without a guardian (ص66ـــ71).
11- Is Lefty sanctity of marriage without the Crown? (ص71ـــ72).
12- Do you inherit Almtnakhan without a crown? (ص72ـــ73).
13- Is it permissible to a universal المكرهة marriage it? (ص73ـــ74).
14- Is there not to say, necessity of atonement private parts and Banadam fasting during Ramadan adulterer? (ص74ـــ75).
15- The rule of washing the bathroom during the day in Ramadan. (ص75ـــ78).
16- A man has an excuse in the face, you wipe it or tayammum? (ص78ـــ82).
17- Do you sing reading verses of the prayers written in prayer? (ص82ـــ85).
18- Praise rule in bowing and prostrating if exceeded three times. (ص85ـــ86).
19- Fairly password Secret Prayer. (ص86ـــ88).
20- The rule of not bowing and prostrating, and clicks Prayer. (ص88ـــ89).
21- The rule of sight is not in prayer. (ص89ـــ89).
22- Woman who does not see the rule, but stiff after her period or Addiqha (ص89ـــ90).
23- Less purity and most of it, as well as mortality. (ص90ـــ95).
Footer in:
* Statement of methodology in Answers. (ص95ـ ــ96).
* Tip of the liquid to be strongest evidence tracing purpose, do not follow licenses. (ص96 ـــ97).
* Fundamentalist principles: What jurist should know of science Shara. The role of scientists and public. When is it permissible tradition and when it is not permissible. Jurisprudence split into known and surmised. Inferred assets. The rule of the Terms of diligence was completed and not completed by. Final word and a prayer. (ص97ـــ103).
As the reader notes, "scattering" threads the answers, could have been arranged according to the doors of the doctrine as follows:
Threads questions page numbers
Tharrat: Impurity, tayammum 15, 16. 75 ـــ 82
Tharrat: Menstruating or bleeding 22, 23. 89 ـــ95
Prayer 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 82 ـــ89
Fasting 14, 15 74 ـــ 78
Zakat 8 60 ـــ 64
Marriage, adultery, irregularity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 9، 10، 11، 12، 13. 23 ـــ 35. 65 ـــ 75
Manumission 6 56 ـــ59
Commandment 7 59 ـــ 60
Since the proposed arrangement could not be adopted in the text, it is unacceptable behavior in the curricula of the investigation; to منافاته commitment Scientific Secretariat, which requires maintaining the full text of the author, let it be this arrangement in the index.
Dr. message approach and scientific value:
Author method accurately summed up at the end of his answers when he said: «ونَقَلْنا ما حَضَرَنا من أقاويل الفقهاء، وأعلمتك مواضع الإجماع، وبيَّنت لك ما اختلفوا فيه، وما حدُّ كُلِّ فريق ودليل مذهبه، وما اختاره أصحابنا من ذَلِكَ عَلَى الأصول القويمة، والمذاهب المستقيمة، وزدت في سؤالك، وأوفيت الجواب والاستقصاء عَمَّا لم تسأل عنه مِمَّا هو تمام لِكُلِّ مسألة؛ لنجعل لك البقية لِمَا سألت عنه عَلَى التحصيل بالإجمال والتفصيل، والاختلاف والتمييز بـين ذَلِكَ عَلَى ما جاء من اختلاف الفقهاء في كُلِّ مسألة من الصحابة والتابعين وفقهاء الأمصار عَلَى أعصارهم، من موافق ومخالف، ومن وقع منهم الموافقة لأصحابنا في الفتيا ومن يخالفهم، وحيث ينفرد أصحابنا بالمذهب، وحلَّيت كُلَّ مسألة بِبَعْض ما يقع به الاحتجاج من القرآن وأخبار الرسول عليه السلام، ووجوه الأقيسة مِمَّا يقتضيه الاستدلال عَلَى أصول الفقه، وبيَّنت أسماء القائلين من المذاهب، دعاني إِلىَ ذَلِكَ ألاَّ أكتم عليك شَيْئـًا من الاختلاف، والتوقيف عَلَى مذهب أصحابنا وما صَحَّ به العمل عندهم»(19).
After we examine the answers we noticed the sincerity of this approach which نلخصه in the following notes:
Frequent citation of Quranic verses and hadith, not only ahaadeeth contained in spring pads Ben Habib, a source Ibaadis in the modern, but relied on various sources of Asahah Sunan and Almsanid, books and other various jurisprudential doctrines. If you do not find where his desire, it depends fundamentalist inference rules, and this feature does not hardly find in most books that era when the Moroccans. (See, for example: Book division earths assets to Abu Abbas Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Bakr).
Cited (After the Quran and Sunnah) Statements companions and senior followers scholars and imams, Ibadi and others, it companions, we find, for example,: Aisha, and Omar, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Jabir bin Abdullah… It is affiliated: Hasan al-Basri, Ibn Sirin, son MUSSAYAB,, Nakha'i and syphilis, and Imran Bin hippocampus, and Qatada and Sabri, and Isaac. It Ibadi imams: Abu Obeida Muslim ibn Abi gracious, and the son of slaves, and spring, and in favor of Paint, and Wael, and allergen father, and loved, Dmama, and returned, and the father of yellowish… It imams doctrines: Jabir bin Zaid, Malik bin Anas, Abu Hanifa, Shafi'i, and Ahmad.
And sometimes mentions of sources: Imam Abdul Wahab answers(P 34), And Muwatta Imam Malik(P.47), Money book to the son of peace (P 64), A book my father yellowish (P 79), A book supervision of Abu Said of Oman(P 82), And the restriction to the son of pond (P 94), A book of Abu Sufyan(P 94).
Mention the words of scholars and others mentioned side by side, without looking down on the right, or discredit to the opinion, discusses بعلمية and objective and calm, which is missing in many of the old books of fiqh, and even in some of the contemporary literature.
Show evidence of dissent, even almost convinced the reader strength, then inferred Sheikh on the opinion of the Ibadi other acceptable evidence win out, without spasm or intolerance, and the purpose of it says: «…Even know سقيمها of صحيحها, Fathters of corrupt them, and be relying on what he had his health guide them…»(20).
Not only to answer the question, but adds of his own doctrinal benefits, even if sometimes seemed far from the heart of the question.
وَهَذَا المنهج المقارِن ـــ باعتبار البيئة الزمانيَّة والمكانيَّة للشيخ ابن خلفون ـــ يعتبر سبقا في التراث الفقهيِّ الإِبَاضِيِّ المغربيِّ، وهو وإن لم يكن أَوَّل من كتب بهذا المنهج بـين علماء الأُمَّة، وَلَكِنَّهُ أَوَّل من أرسى قواعده بين إِبَاضِيَّة المغرب، إذ كُلُّ من ألَّف قبله من إِبَاضِيَّة المغرب في الفقه ـ فيما نعلم ـ كان يَهْتَمُّ بإيراد أحكام المذهب وأئمَّته، ولا يلتفت إِلىَ غيرهم(21). So what were not accepted by some mentalities then easily, has been referred to this by saying: «We are in this [Curriculum] Mspoqon is former, Mtbon non-inventors »(22), As if these words at his assertion that practice is an innovator alludes to what befell of staleness because of the adoption of this method objectivity.
لقد رسم ابن خلفون منهجا متميِّزا للتحقيق العلميِّ، في التراث الفقهيِّ لإباضيَّة المغرب في القرن السادس الهجريِّ، عند تناوله للقضايا الفِقْهِيَّة المختلف فيها، وتعدُّ أجوبته نموذجا رائعا في الفقه المقارن بـين المذاهب، وفي التحلِّي بأدب الخلاف، والحوار الهادئ والرصين، وهو المنهج الذي نما وتطوَّر عبر العصور، وبدت معالمه واضحة في العصر الحديث، بصفة خَاصَّة لدى القطب امحَمَّد بن يوسف اطفيَّش، من المغاربة، ولدى الشيخ نور الدين السالمي، من المشارقة.
In addition to the scientific method followed by Shaykh Ibn Khalafon, have been subjected to some of the issues that are still a matter of debate among scholars and legislators, most notably: The issue of marriage without the Crown, فكتابه is one of the most important sources of Ibadi on the subject, please Algerian legislature to take into account.
Finally, do wonder if there are of us serious scholars before our time, and establishes and innovate in the curriculum, as did son Khalafon? … Whatever seemed to us violating what اعتدناه, but we discuss.. And talk.. In a fraternal atmosphere, and in a scientific manner quiet sober?!.
1- Alossiana spring Abu Suleiman ibn Abd al-Salam (S e 6/12 m): Sir elders, Manuscript Library of Sheikh al-Haj Salih bin Omar Ali, Brown يزقن, Ghardaia, Algeria, 1/6364.
2- Abu Yaqub Yusuf bin Khalafon Almzzati (S e 6/12 m): Answers I'm Khalafon, investigation and suspension: Dr. Amr Khalifa developing. Open House for Printing and Publishing, Beirut, first edition, 1394 AH / 1974 AD, translation at the forefront of the investigator, PO Box 820, aboard the answers: ص23ـــ103.
3- Aldrgeni Abu Abbas Ahmed bin Saeed (670هـ/1271م): Layers sheikhs in Morocco, achieve: Ibrahim Talaa, Dar Al-Baath, Constantine, d. T.. 1/10؛ 2/495ـــ499.
4- Shammakhi Badr al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad bin Saad: Sir, lithographs, Constantine, pp. 445 447; edition of the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, Oman, 1407/1987, 2/106107.
5- Ali Yahya Muammar: Ibadi in parade history, Episode IV: Ibadi in Algeria, classed
Ahmad bin Omar Opkh, the Arab press, Ghardaia, Algeria, 1986, 2/213221.
6- Pago Mustafa: Abu Ya'qub Allowargelana, and thought compared fundamentalist Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, MA, Jurisprudence, University of Emir Abdelkader, Constantine, Algeria, 1412 AH / 1992 AD, (Mrkon)، ص80ـــ81.
7- Heritage Society (The Scientific Research Committee): Lexicon flags Ibaadis, of the first century to the present era, Department of Islamic Maghreb, second edition, West House, 1421 AH / 2000 AD. 2 c / r 487 488, translation No. 1059.

Author / Mustafa bin Mohammad Sharifi

(*) Mustafa bin Mohammad Sharifi, a professor at the Institute of Life, Sump.
(2) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/495.
(3) Aldrgeni: Layers, 1/10.
(4) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/498.
(5) Ali Muammar: Ibadi in parade history, the fourth episode, 2 c / r 214.
(6) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/495.
(7) Muammar: Ibid: P 213.
(8) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/498-499. Shammakhi: Sir, p 446.
(9) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/497-498. Shammakhi: Sir, p 446.
(10) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/495.
(11) Developing: Introduction answers I'm Khalafon, p.18.
(12) Aldrgeni: Layers, 2/499.
(13) Curtains: Answers within the total, Manuscript. Quoting: Developing: Previous reference, page 15.
(14) We have heard that this library has been destroyed in mysterious circumstances, and we hope that this news is not true!!.
(15) Developing: Previous reference, page 16.
(16) Developing: Previous reference, page 8.
(17) Muammar: Ibid: P 221. He did not refer to the date of their publication, nor to the magazine.
(18) Developing: Previous reference, page 16.
(19) Khalafon: Answers, pp. 95-96.
(20) Khalafon: Answers, p 96.
(21) Developing: Previous reference, page 8, 17.
(22) Khalafon: Answers, p 103.

Life article was published in the journal, Issue: 08, Issued in October 1425 / November 2004, pp.: 101.

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