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Education in Morocco East during the first Hijri three centuries ( 7 9 p.m.) Vision and sources

Education, this educational process, which since it surfaced and she knows big developments and broad interests by researchers, both of whom specialists like psychologists educational or field they professors of education at various stages or historians who follow the process from the roots first through periods history and its or journalists owners attention .

The human has been learned since that God taught all the names(2) And knowing what he did not know(3) Remained takes science of the surroundings, generation after generation continues to inherit God's earth and them which is good for inheritors.

The theme of education in Morocco East, is of importance of this attention to education in general, and highlights the importance when we first period of Islam in Morocco East, those first three centuries Hijra any seventh and eighth century AD. How was education?
All of these questions fall under the heading of a large «Education in Morocco East: Vision »Then comes the second big title is« Education in Morocco East : In both sources addresses address as we have said, that vision and those sources during the period of first Hijra three centuries.
It is well known that the time period of the first century to the third century from another (7ـــ9م) Includes three important periods in the history of the Islamic Maghreb, or to transfer phases : Fotouh stage which starts from the middle of the first century AH / seventh century and ending with the end of the century to start with the beginning of the second century AH / Eighth century governors phase, which ends the establishment Imamate Rustumiya in the 160 AH / 777 AD, and so begins the third phase covered by the Imamate to the last-mentioned third century AH / nineteenth century it fell in 296 AH / 909 AD(4).
First : Education in Morocco East : Vision :
1Education centers:
Morocco is mostly East Diar Zenata the words of Ibn Khaldun(5), And Zenata the barbarism Petrah nomadic tribe does not settle her decision, and thus were far from being interested in education or pay attention to him, especially in the first and second century of migration (7ـــ8م) Prior to founding entity Imamate Rustumiya in the 160 AH / 777 AD. It is here noted the scarcity of education centers in Morocco East as nothing more we believe some of the key cities that have a role in the political life during the period of Mila Find a city in the province of weatherproofing, and was the capital of the Islamic Maghreb light at the time of Abu al-Muhajir Dinar
(55 ـــ 62هـ/675م ـــ 681م) And for about three years, 5961 AH / 678 ​​680(6)And Tehrt City capital الرستميين from 160 to 230 AH / 777 808, and the city of Tlemcen, one of the core states and important cities in State Idrisid which had its inception in 172 AH / 788 AD and lasted until after a certain length of time Fatimid(7)And also can Male Argelan City (Ouargla) In this period, as defined culturally active striking, especially as they desert city he says Ibn Khaldun: It is the access gate to Mufaoz(8).
Perhaps one of the educational centers in Morocco, East those cities alone on the Bzla Yacoubi Ahmed bin clear (D. 284 AH / 898 AD) In its countries attributed to the Alawite people(9), It is not بمستبعد be those Alawites are all or mostly elders of science and education in Ahoazhm and including the city of Haz and their space, and was for Hassan bin Sulaiman, which ends lineage when Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib, the Mitidja and Ahoazha was for men born Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib said to them sons .
These educational centers in Morocco East, it seems to us through our vision first and let us know Gel sources of the period under study represents the most important centers, but not all, and noted that they distributed the Maghreb Middle east and west, Osta and south, how education was in it?
2 How was the education and what is the approach?
Questions present themselves urgently in this initial vision for the education process in our Morocco East, which is often neglected by historians in the past and استصعب researchers studied recently, and difficult process more whenever توغلنا in the early periods of Islam throughout Morocco, as is the case with our research.
Education was in Morocco East as any other in North Africa in this particular period, a purely religious education, it seems, or to transfer was educated stems from religion to religion ends, and we mean religion here : الإسلام دون غيره من الديانات الأخرى، إذ المرحلة مرحلة فتوح، وليس الفتح جنداً يقتحم الأراضي ويستولي على الممتلكات، وإنما هو فتح القلوب للإسلام، هكذا كانت الفتوحات الإسلامية الأولى، لذلك نجحت في مهمتها الدعوية ونجحت بالتالي في مهمة تعليم البربر سكان المغرب الأوسط والشمال الأفريقي كله، تعاليم الدين الجديد، ورغم أن عملية الفتح كانت طويلة نسبياً ، إذا ما قورنت بالأقاليم الأخرى المفتوحة، إلا أنها كانت عميقة رسخت الإسلام عقيدة للبربر دون سواها من العقائد والملل، ويهمنا هنا توضيح الرؤية بالنسبة لعملية الفتح بطرح هذه التساؤلات : كيف تمت عملية تعليم البربر الإسلام؟ كيف اقتنع البربر بالإسلام وتخلوا ـــ عن علم ـــ عن دياناتهم السابقة النصرانية واليهودية وغيرها من الديانات؟ هل تعلم البربر عقيدة الإسلام في بيوتهم؟ في الشوارع؟ في الساحات العامة؟ في مواطن قبائلهم؟ في المساجد هذه المؤسسة الجديدة التي رافقت الإسلام؟ في الكتاتيب هذه المؤسسة الجديدة الثانية التي تهتم بالصبيان دون الكبار؟ ما هو المنهج في عملية التعليم هذه؟ هل كان التلقين؟ نظام الحلقة؟ دروس الوعظ؟ نعتقد أنها كلها واردة حاضرة في هذا الوقت المبكر للإسلام في ربوع المغرب الأوسط.
ومع تقدم الأيام والسنين، وبروز المذاهب والفرق، سيتجلى نوع جديد من التعليم وهو حلقات الدعوة والدعاة السرية أو العلنية وهي في عمومها تعليم وإن كان هدفها الدعوة وكسب الأنصار والأتباع، إلا أن وسيلتها كانت التعليم والتعلُّم، فلا بد من شيخ يعلِّم ولا بد من تلاميذ صغاراً كانوا أم كباراً، يتعلمون مبادئ هذه الفرقة أو هذا المذهب، فعملية التعليم بكل عناصرها كانت حاضرة في هذه الحلقات الدعوية التعليمية.
Perhaps the beginning of the first set off with the dawn of the second century AH / Eighth birthday, with the advent of zero-Ibadi and advocates(10) And Mu'tazilis(11), Then continued with doctrines Maalikis and Tap(12) In the last quarter of the third century AH / ninth birthday, popped the call boards and Shiite revolution that will bear fruit emanating from the territory of tightness in Morocco East and bright and can accommodate even Maghreb dominate almost the entire Islamic Maghreb with the end of the third century AH(13).
If Tamguena in this vision preliminary, we note that Tehrt capital الرستميين, may be the most prominent and the most important centers of education in Morocco East during this era, not as the center of education and studies Ibadi only that, but because it was the center of learning the teachings of other sects Kamalikih and Tap(14), And perhaps Mu'tazilis and Shiites, as it was them Halguethm in their mosques and Rahabhm to as it was completely إباضية, and more than that, we find some of the elders opened their homes (Schools) And(Institutes) To spread the Arabic language and the Hadith(15) Away from the boards and preachers call semi-tight which is home to not only the owners and followers.
It was Tehrt Rustumiya in Morocco East Kalkiroan in Morocco minimum or Fez in Morocco, and perhaps our study ستجلي aside from this great role played by Tehrt in the education process and will be reflected to the reader over the dimension of the deep impact of civilization, which left him Tehrt generations through a process of teaching and learning.
إن هذه العملية المستمرة دون توقف يتراءى لنا أنها مرت بالدعوة الإسلامية عامة كبداية ثم تلقيناً للقرآن الكريم حفظاً لأداء الشعائر كالصلاة أو حفظاً من أجل حفظ كتاب الله وتلاوة كلامه، وذلك في المساجد بالنسبة للكبار وفي الكتاتيب التي ألحقت بالمساجد في وقت مبكر من الإسلام ببلاد المغرب الأوسط، بالنسبة للصغار، وهكذا وبتلقين كتاب الله، يتم من خلاله تلقين لسان العرب الفصيح نطقاً وتداولاً قبل أن يكون نحواً وصرفاً، فهذه العملية الأخيرة، يبدو لنا أنها لم تبدأ في المغرب الأوسط إلا مع بدايات القرن الثالث الهجري التاسع للميلاد، وفي مدينة تيهرت دون غيرها من المراكز التعليمية الأخرى، لأن تعلم اللغة العربية بقواعد النحو والصرف برز متأخراً في المشرق فضلاً عن المغرب واختصت به في البداية مدينتا البصرة والكوفة دون غيرهما من حواضر المشرق والمغرب الإسلاميين، وبعد فترة عم ذلك الاختصاص من التعليم الذي احتاج إليه العربي والبربري والأعجمي على حد سواء، ومن هنا كانت تيهرت إحدى مراكز تعليم اللغة العربية الفصيحة لما كثر اللحن في اللغة، بل إن طبيعة البلاد تقتضي وجود هذا التعليم جنباً إلى جنب مع كتاب الله وسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وهنا نلج مبحثاً آخر ونطرحه سؤالاً فنقول :
3 What is the material in school education in Morocco East? :
Previously referred to the nature of education in the Islamic Maghreb in general and we said that it was the nature of the purely religious, stems from religion and end up in debt, and the fact that the material the school in the education that we are going to draw features major and put his vision approximate, do not come out of this religious framework generally.
إنَّ أول مادة يتعلمها الكبير والصغير البالغ، هي العقيدة الإسلامية، فلا بد من النطق بالشهادتين ومعرفة حقيقة الله الواحد الأحد ونبوة محمد بن عبد الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وتعلم أداء الصلاة قرآناً وأذكاراً وحركات، كيف تم هذا التعليم؟ سؤال سبق أن طرحناه ولا بد له من جواب لتوضيح الرؤية التي نحن بصددها، ثم هل يعتبر هذا الدخول في الإسلام علماً وتعلماً؟ أسئلة ندخر الجواب عنها لما بعد هذه الرؤية والمصادر المتعلقة بالتعليم في المغرب الأوسط.
Article II, which imposes itself in this education, there must be material Quran we have received and memorization and recitation.
Article III, it seems to us, they are some of the sayings of the Prophet peace be upon him not it make sense to be absent from this religious education at all, and it appears that these conversations are given to pupils received and preserved complementary to teach the Koran, which is the word of God as it is known.
Article IV, which they must have been present in education in the East, Maghreb, but after the years progress, is the Arabic language fluent do I need Muslims as streptococcus and educational necessity, recited Fbarabh book of Allah and Arabic are the educational process ab.
Article V, which seems to me to be essential in education Maghreb East in particular and AQIM Islam in general, is a substance doctrine in the halal and haram, may and hateful things, right and wrong in Islam, it has operated these issues Muslims still since he joined the Prophet peace be upon him Comrade Top .
Perhaps the interest in biography Prophet peace be upon him and the lives of Caliphs and the Companions and their struggle in the way of Allah is Alirhasat First of history, and is added to those of later virtues of men doctrines and imams and the like of senior officers or highlighted by political events Kmaawih bin Abi Sufyan, Abdul .
This is the most important materials that discretion to us that they were traded in the education process first in the East, Maghreb with the advent of Islam to in the beginning and then stability and the establishment of the first independent Islamic state in ربوعه.
4Is education was organized? :
من النظرة الأولى، يبدو لنا التعليم ـــ في هذه الحقبة من الزمن ـــ بسيطاً بساطة المجتمع المغربي بعامة ومجتمع المغرب الأوسط بخاصة، إذ يشكل البتر وهم البدو، شطره الأكبر، وبساطة هذا التعليم، يمكن تبريرها أيضاً بوضعية العالم الإسلامي كله، إذا استثنينا منه كبريات الحواضر في الإسلام كمكة والمدينة والبصرة الكوفة وبغداد ودمشق والقيروان وقرطبة، فما عداها يظهر لنا أن التعليم فيها ابتدائي مبتدئ إن صحَّت العبارة، لم يرق بعدُ إلى اهتمام الحكام به ولا الإنفاق عليه، فالوقت جدُّ مبكر لهذا الإجراء، فالتعليم لم يكن منظماً ولا نظامياً، وإنما كانت تحتكم فيه رغبات الناس وميولهم بحسب اهتمامهم بالعلم وتلقيه، أو اهتمامهم بالعلم وتلقينه وإعطائه، فالأول طالب علم والثاني شيخ علم، ولا نعتقد أن زماناً خلا من الصنفين معاً في يوم من الأيام، ومن هنا وجدنا في مصادرنا التي بين أيدينا الكثير من طلاب العلم الذين انتقلوا من مواطنهم بحثاً عن العلم، كما وجدنا الكثير من المشايخ بل ومن الأئمة الذين جلسوا للعلم يعطونه في حلقاته بالمسجد أو حتى في بيوتهم.
لقد كان التعليم بالمغرب الأوسط في القرون الهجرية موضوع الدراسة، في بداياته الأولى، يضع الأسس لتعليم مستقل، فمن وجد في نفسه القدرة على التعليم تقدم وقصده طلاب العلم، ومن وجد في نفسه الرغبة في التعلُّم، تقدم نحو المشايخ للاستزادة من العلم، ويبدو لنا أن الرغبة كانت كبيرة في شباب تلك القرون لأخذ العلم، خاصة وأنه اصطبغ بالتنافس المذهبي والجدل الفقهي وحتى العقدي من خلال أصول كل مذهب من المذاهب الإسلامية التي كانت تتبارى في الساحة الإسلامية آنذاك.
Then you parents were taking their children to Koranic schools?
Question arises here strongly, and he must answer, may be found in our sources, we find references to it needs to offer the realization of thought and guess, and in both cases will give us our search lights serve Multi President.
Secondly : Education in Morocco East : Sources
The sources, who dealt with the history of Morocco independent East in the first horns very few are almost non-existent, but they are mildly sources are those that dealt with the history of Islamic Morocco generally like Fotouh Books classes, and general history books or sectarian history and geography books.
Although these sources dealing with the Islamic Maghreb in general, but we note the interest of the largest in Morocco Near without Amorbin the Middle East and Far. And therefore refer primarily to the presence of the state's pro-Islamic caliphate as a period of governors Mashreq (96هـ/184هـ) And Aghlabids period (104هـ/ 296هـ), Both of Kairouan was the capital of the two, was the interest in this region and the borders of the State Aghlabids salient feature of most of the sources of Islamic history, which focused on the Maghreb. It is noteworthy Yacoubi(16) أن جيوش العباسيين لم تتجاوز منطقة الزاب في شرقي الجزائر حالياً، وبالتالي ظهر لدينا أن المؤرخين هم أيضاً لم يتجاوزوا هذا الحد عند تناولهم لتاريخ المغرب وكأنهم جندٌ في الجيوش التي جاءت من المشرق، إلا أن الجغرافيين، ولما كانت صفتهم المغامرة، توغلوا في بلاد المغرب، وأفادونا بالكثير عن المغرب الأوسط ومُدُنه وأوضاعه وبعض قبائله والأُسَر التي انتقلت إليه أو التي حكمته وما إلى ذلك من الأخبار التي لا يستغني عنها باحث في التاريخ الإسلامي.
In addition to these geographical sources, we note that the history of Morocco East in the first horns, rescued sources layers and Ibadi what date focused Bdavlatha Rustumiya in Tehrt and some regions of Morocco East as a non will Oargelan the.
If we come to the details, the sources Fotouh as «African Fattouh book» Muhammad Waaqidi(17) (ت207هـ/822م) And Book «Fattouh Countries» Bladhira(18) (ت279هـ/ 892م) The book «Fattouh Africa and Morocco» Ibn Abdel Hakam(19) (ت257هـ/ 870م) All give us pictures of the teach Islam Berbers, how to receive him and received him a picture in its entirety is not clear, but that the researcher could have mind works out some of the conclusions that serve Multi education and education that we are going to history him Bmorna East.
It comes in the second place doctrinal classes wrote a book «African scientists and layers Tunisia» Arab Abu Ahmed bin Tamim(20) (ت333هـ/ 944م) The book «African scientists layers» Khcna Muhammad ibn al-Harith (21)
(D. 361 AH / 971 AD) And Book «Riad souls in layers Kairouan and African scientists to the owners of Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Abi Abdullah(22) (D. 484 AH / 1091 AD) Or book «landmarks faith in knowledge of the people of Kairouan» tanner, Abu Zaid Abdul-Rahman al-Ansari(23) (ت696هـ/ 1296م), This hand Maalikis, and the Ibadi hand there is the book «functioning of the imams and their news» Abu Zakaria Yahya bin Abu Bakr Allowargelana '(24) (ت471هـ/1078م) The book «Sir Alossiana» Spring Dad
Suleiman ibn Abd al-Salam(25) (S e 6/12 m) The book «layers elders in Morocco» Abu Abbas Ahmed bin Saeed Aldrgeni,(26) (D. about 670 AH / 1271 AD) The book «Sir» Abu Abbas Ahmed bin Saeed Shammakhi,(27) (D. 928 AH / 1521 AD) In addition to the book «Sir» Mzzati Abi Spring Suleiman bin succeed (28) (D. 471 AH / 1078 AD) And «Sir Nefoussa» Mkadin Albgtora(29)
(Live in 599 AH / 1201 AD).
These sources doctrinal much focused on science and education, scientists and subsequent episodes of science, systems and types of education and its terms of reference and its stages and ages of learners, etc. of this news.
It is also the sources in the history of education in Morocco East, wrote public and private education as «NEWS imams الرستميين the» to the son of the small(30) (BC neighborhood 3 H / 9 ) The book «Islam began and canons of religion» for peace(31) (S district 3 H / 9) And «history of Africa and Morocco for thinning of Cyrene(32)
(S 5 هـ/11م) In addition to Morocco in the Manifesto of Andalusia and Morocco News »to'm Adhari Marrakech(33)
(The AH AH 7/13 M) And 'lessons learned' Ibn Khaldun(34) (D. 808 AH / 1405 AD), As well as «end الأرب the in Art Literature» Nuera(35) Ahmed bin Abdul Wahab (D. 732 AH / 1332 AD).
These sources, especially including a book
I'm small, is considered the most important historical sources in direct our topic on education and education, and texts suggest topics of education though this education for upper stages, so to speak ... The other sources mentioned, we expect to carry something may discern from what matters the subject of study.
If we came to the geographical sources, Kelieqhobe(36) Ahmad ibn Abi Jacob (D. 284 AH / 898 AD) In his book 'countries', written after his tour in the Islamic Maghreb in general and in the central Maghreb him in particular, and in the late third century AH / nineteenth century and son Hawqal Abu Qasim النصيبي(37) (D. 368 AH / 978 AD) In his book 'image of the earth' and al-Maqdisi Shams al-Din Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Banna(38) D. 388 AH / 998 AD in his book «the best partitions in the knowledge of the regions, and Bakri Abu Obeid-Allah(39) (D. 487 AH / 1094 AD) In his book «Morocco to mention the country's African and Morocco» note that he gleaned material geography of Mohammed Ben Youssef famous Waraq d. 363 AH / 973 AD It is close to the period of our research, and are often interested in the events of Morocco East and news, and keep us Bakri, a lot of them.
Domestication can book «picnic المشتاق in breach of prospects Idrissi(40) D. (548AH / 1153 AD) And book «foresight in the wonders of the regions» Anonymous(41) Was alive in the sixth century AH / Second century.
This geographical sources in mildly, bearing signs of what could serve our theme, especially as it dealt with Morocco East and its regions and cities unlike history books, which did not exceed as mentioned Zab area in the east of Algiers (Morocco East).
We could add to these sources books of fiqh al-Maliki and Ibadi that draw in the Islamic Maghreb as a book Mohammed Sahnoun bin Saeed (256AH / 869 AD)(42) «Educated Literature» Book «message detailed terms and conditions of the educated teachers and learners to Abu al-Hasan Ali القابسي(43) D. 403 AH / 1061 AD, prior to this and that can return to the «Great Code Sahnoun bin Saeed Altnokhi, the(44)
(D. 240 AH / 854 AD) Who lived in the third century AH ninth birthday and strongly impact of his personality and his job as a judge in Kairouan Whatever the effect, in the educational life of the Islamic Maghreb in general.
The sources Ibaadis could return to the book «issues Nefoussa» Imam Abdul
Wahab bin Abd al-Rahman ibn Rustam(45)
(D. 208 AH / 823 AD) The book «Justice and fairness to Abu Yacoub Yousef bin Ibrahim Allowargelana(46) (ت510هـ/1174م) The book «good things Aqueduct» Abu Taher Ismail ibn Musa Djitali(47) (D. 750 AH / 1349 AD) And other sources of these jurisprudential.
In sum, the sources at hand, which constitute the main sources of the period under study any first Hijra three centuries (7ـــ9م), We see that they may cover important aspects of education in Morocco East, but the shortage will be visible and tangible, because the topic is very old in terms of the beginning of Islam in a Maghreb well as cares Morocco East in particular is Morocco less fortunate in the writings of historians.. Then that education as a subject did not highlight the concerns of researchers only in the last term for Morocco Islamic generally.

D. Ibrahim Bhaz


(*) Dr. Ibrahim bin Bakir Bhaz, professor at the Faculty of Education, Nizwa, New What.
(2) See Sura, verse 31: ?وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الاَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلآَئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَآءِ هَؤُلآءِ ان كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ?.
(3) See Sura leeches, verse 5.
(4) All three phases see'm Adhari: 'Statement', the first part, Abdul Hamid Saad Zaghloul: «History of the Arab Maghreb, facility knowledge, of Alexandria, Egypt, 1979.
(5) Ibn Khaldun, 'lessons', 6/120, Scientific Library, Beirut, i 1, 1413 AH / 1992 AD.
(6) Abdul Aziz Melali and Ibrahim Bhaz, : «Mila city in the Middle Ages, the country house of the services, Constantine, 1998, pp. 14 And Beyond.
(7) On Idrisid see : Mahmoud Ismail (Dr.): «Idrisid 172 375 e, new facts», Madbouli Press, Cairo, 1991.
(8) Ibn Khaldun : 'Lessons', 7/107. Book House Publications Lebanon, Beirut, i 3, 1968.
(9) Yacoubi Ahmed bin clear, «countries», Dar revival of Arab heritage, i 1, 1408/1988, pp. 108 109.
(10) Aldrgeni, «the layers elders in Morocco, the Open: Ibrahim Talaa, Dar Al-Baath, Constantine, 1975, 1/11.
(11) Judge Abdul-Jabbar and others, «preferred to retire and layers Mu'tazilis», achieving Fouad Rashid, the Tunisian Publishing, Tunisia, 1974, pp. 137.
(12) Abdul Aziz Majdoub : «Sectarian conflict by African Zirid to the establishment of the state, the Tunisian Publishing, Tunisia, 1971, pp. 21.
(13) Judge Abu Hanifa Mohammed bin Mohammed al-Nu'man, 'open invitation', the Open : Farhat Aldhrawi, Office of University Publications, Algeria, 1986, pp. 112, the same author, 'councils and Almcyrat », p 41.
(14) I'm small, «News Aloama الرستميين», beautiful Publications, Algeria, p 13, 32, 57, 92. See : Shammakhi Abu Abbas Ahmad: Book of Sir, Tunisia edition, 1995, pp. 143 And Beyond.
(15) I'm small, the same source, pp. 8284
(16) Yacoubi, «countries», p 103.
(17) Mohammed Waaqidi, «African Fattouh», press sheet, Tunisia, 16/ 1315.
(18) Albuladhira Ahmad bin Yahya, 'Fattouh countries', the Open: Abdullah foul, the publishing house of the university, 1957.
(19) Ibn Abd al-Hakam Abu Mohammed bin Abdullah, «African Fattouh and Andalusia, the Open : Anis foul, Lebanese Book House, Beirut, 1964.
(20) Abu Ahmed bin Tamim Arabs: «Book of African scientists and layers Tunisia» RN : Ali Alguenabi and another, Tunisia's Publishing House, Tunisia, 1968.
(21) Khushani Muhammad ibn al-Harith, Book of layers of African scientists, Lebanese Book House, Beirut, without T..
(22) Maliki Abou Bakr Abdullah: «Riad souls in layers Kairouan and African scientists, the Open : Bashir Bacouche, Dar Muslim West Beirut, 1983.
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Life article was published in the journal, Issue: 08, Issued in October 1425 / November 2004, pp.: 108.

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