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Jurisprudence of public money when Ibadi (2)

In this episode, we are heading east to the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula, where he stayed Ibadi first state Year: 132E, the same year in which they announced Abbasids statehood, and the demise of the Umayyad state.

The creation of this state pursuant to the principles of the Ibadi sect distinct in their view of the political and economic life, social, derived from the state Caliphs based on Shura, justice and the application of Islamic law.
While these Imamate did not last long, and Oidt in its infancy, but it is the first building block of the State of Imamate Ibadi by People for many centuries, and continued to ages recent, printed history of Oman during this era to its principles and values, and was able to maintain its sovereignty and independence. Despite that institutions do not work according to the constitutional provisions or laws are written, they nevertheless are working in accordance with the constitutional rules and customs of traditional quasi-divine, you can not Tjasoha or reduced(1).
In this episode سنسلط the light on the financial side for the first state إباضية in Amman, and research addresses the following elements:
1- The nature of the land and the rule of Oman.
2- Fiscal policy for leading the الجلندى bin Masood.
3- The most important house of money resources.
4- Do Booty revenues house money?
5- Expenditures.
6- Tenders granted by the house money.
1- The nature of the land and the rule of Oman:
Divides the money lands in scholars of Islam into three categories:
أ- Aslam land by the people, and called decimal lands.
With- Land forcibly opened, called the land Khrajah.
Jhlan عدون- Land in favor of the people, and called the territory of the Peace.
Abu Yusuf says the author of an abscess: «Every safest land by her family, which is from the land of the Arabs, or from the land of the Persians; they are for them, a land century, like the city that gave them her family, and is like Yemen… , And whatever the role of the House of the Persians by the Imam has appeared, and leaving it in the hands of its people; It is a land abscess »(2), And differs idiosyncratic rule to those lands by classification.
Based on this classification, which reported by Imam Abu Yusuf us to say that the Omani territory decimal land, because the people of Oman have entered Islam voluntarily, and answered a message the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him without a fight, and the conduct of armies and Aajav of horses. Decimal and the earth that leads people Zakat money estimated usually Balashr or ten parts, and in this regard lists of Oman Salmi, saying Abu Bakr: «The Abu Bakr orator glorified God and praised him and said the Prophet peace be upon him, said: «Socialized Ahl Oman You voluntarily Oslemtem, did not set foot in the Prophet Muhammad upon him Saankm the slippers nor hoof, not Jhmtamoh what Jhmh you and others from the Arabs»(3), Sentenced territory ruled the territory of the city and Yemen, where the safest people voluntarily, territorial remains the property of their respective owners, and collect Zakat money from the Imam or his deputy party.
2- Fiscal policy for leading the الجلندى bin Masood(4):
The imamate الجلندى the aged men has sold themselves seeking the pleasure of Allah, and the establishment of religion, طلقوا the world, and Zhdoa, and lived on subsistence, says Salmi described: «Minimum is not mentioned, nor collect money from their business, not the desires of their needs»(5).
If the state is built on the sacrifices do not imagine that you find resources, organization and money Mahsah, and collections registered, the beginning of the Imamate very similar to the succession of Abu Bakr in the nature of the financial terms of revenues were distributed in a timely manner, then gathered in the house, and countless records, men .
This is the philosophy that prevailed when the emergence of the state Ibadi in مشرقها and west; therefore we regard the financial did not classify the priorities and necessities, so that historians passed him without mentioning only passing references, nor admire if we did not find the house money organized, and statements of income and the abscess was also famous when .
With this modest organization Ibadi Imamate was able to achieve its goals, and maintain a balance, independence, and prove its existence and characteristics throughout the covenants.
And the fiscal policy of this state says Salmi: «Did not take charity without right, and did not put them inappropriately, There was Isthloha from people to non الإثخان in the land, protection and control efficiency and for the Muslim harem(6), It is a policy based on discipline and commitment to the right and Shara in the give-and-take, no different than announced by the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab in the first sermon, which explains the main lines of fiscal policy: «I do not find this money (Public money) Forfeits only during the three: Be taken in the right, and given the right, prevents from falsehood »(7).
3- Cofactors of this policy:
وممَّا ساعد العمانيين على تجسيد رغبتهم في الاستقلال عن السلطة المركزية المتمثلة في الخلافة الأموية ثم العباسية فيما بعد، ولم تتمكَّن هاتان الدولتان من السيطرة على هذا الإقليم الهام إلا لفترات قصيرة، وظلَّت الإمامة المُنْبَنِية على العقيدة الإباضية هي النظام السائد إلى العصور الأخيرة، وقد ساعد في هذا الاتجاه طبيعة عُمان الجغرافية، وموقعها الاستراتيجي على الخليج والبحر العربي، ساعدها على تنمية مواردها الاقتصادية، فاستطاعت الاعتماد على الموارد الاقتصادية المتأتيَّة عن طريق التجارة الخارجية، واستطاع العمانيون الوقوف في وجه أيِّ خطرٍ دون الخوف من أيِّ حصار اقتصادي محتمل، كما يحدث في الحجاز مثلاً(8).
The most important house of money resources:
The financial system is based on the collection and mobilize the resources necessary for the conduct of the affairs of state, spending them on various facilities, and satisfy the needs of the public under a policy of financial credits, based on the doctrine of the system and principles, and if we look at the historical facts Elvina that our young adopted in their funding on the main items of the following:
Meets all the conditions legitimacy- Donations. With- Zakat. Jhlan عدون- Tithing. D- Alsuaa. E- Tribute.
Meets all the conditions legitimacy- Donations:
رأينا في الحلقة الأولى من البحث أن مركز الدعوة للمذهب الإباضي في البصرة قد أقام من بين مؤسساته بيتًا للمال غرضه تمويل الدعاة ومساعدتهم لإقامة إمامة الظهور، ورأينا ذلك المدد المتواصل لدعم وتوطيد أركان الدولة الإباضية، القائمة في تيهرت، ونفس الشيء يُقال لإمامة الجلندى بن مسعود، فقد تلقًّى الدعم المادي من إخوانه العمانيين المشتهرين بالتجارة سواء الموجودين منهم في عُمان أو في البصرة أو في الهند، كما تُشير المصادر التاريخية(9), And I daresay that assistance was the largest and most important of its proximity to the call center in Basra and ease of communication and relationship of kinship which combines members of the tribe الأزدية Users Basra with their brothers in Amman, it was tribe Azd axis president to extend this state Palmdd of men and money(10).
With- Zakat:
Is obligatory financial, and the third pillar of Islam, has begun levied since the time of the Prophet peace be upon him, as sent peace be upon him Amr ibn al-Aas prince on charity, and Abu Zayd imam to pray, and continued it in the era of Caliphs, and then took over the rulers after independence . However, the historical sources did not explain what kinds of money collected, nor about how to organize and write it down in the house of money, nor how they are distributed, and the amounts collected, and this confusion Matrouh in general on all financial matters, as it was not given its historians adequate care Kaanayathm political affairs, : That most of the resources of Zakat they come from agricultural crops which is famous, and business presentations characterized by Oman as an important commercial exchange point, he says Conclave of the most important cities of Oman “Sohar”: «Is Oman rod, not on the Sea of ​​China today is a country for them, and Amer good people of good outings, with the left and traders, fruit and bounties prisoners of Zabid, Sana'a, markets and wonderful, nice town… They are in everything capacity, vestibule of China, and the Middle closet and Iraq, Mgooth the Yemen »(11). If this country prosperity and commercial activity Flantsour size Zakat resources flowing into the house of money from people who have embraced Islam, and Tmzhbwa the Ibadi doctrine, and defended him themselves and their money.
And enters the door Zakat what they were imposed from the ordinances of financial exports of Omani products, such as date palm and fruit, fish and livestock, as well as imposes on imports from India, Africa and Persia, and we have seen the commercial importance of state of Oman due to its strategic location, and the wisdom and experience of its people in the field.
Do not imagine that these revenues are included in fees on exports also went some(12), Muslim demands to bring the Zakat his religious duty sacred, do not impose upon Arbtan, فالزكاة a religious duty, and fees tax civilian, and the distinction between them that Zakat imposed on Muslims in all his money zakat When reached quorum, whatever the nature of agricultural or commercial or industrial Fees (Tithing), Imposes on the dhimmi money imported into the Islamic State.
The Omanis termed commercial fees charity sea, and its Tafrdoa, we do not find his counterpart in the financial workbooks, such as abscess book, and the money, nor in the Leaders jurisprudence, where the famous maritime trade by the people of southern Arabia and Oman, more specifically.
It draws attention in this regard Tora embarrass of Imam الجلندى bin Masood not to be taken to a charity sea, but his choice, the souls of the people; fear of lack of power in the effort to protect these traders.
Salmi has cited lucid description Ben Yoke biography this pious Imam met Imam Ghassan bin Abdullah: «Reached them with unbend it mentioned to refuse a charity sea only choice, Bonevs people Abzloh them, and the fear of their income in the way of Allah as not Ihamoh»(13).
Jhlan عدون- Tithing:
What imposes on the infidels in the money intended for trading if they move them from country to country in the Dar al-Islam, and so named because taken ten or plus to ten as half decade, jointly with the tribute in obligatory on dhimmis and custodians of the people of the war, and separates them that tribute placed on the (14). And the first to take a ten second Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab As pointed out by one of his governors that Muslims entered the Btgarthm, to the territory of the people of the war took ten of them, and he gave him permission to take the ten funds nationals of those countries reciprocity. Due to the volume of trade set out to Amman from behind the sea, both of the country's Islamic or non-Islamic, the most recent governors, sub-bureau in managing funds tithing, going according to regulations inspired by the spirit of Islamic law in order to ensure justice and to adjust and control of this revenue is important, and the amount equivalent to the amount of fees .
D- Alsuaa:
Singular net, a property and land by Gila her family or died, and their legacy(15)The purest Omar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him from the territory of the vast varieties of them: The territory of the killed in the war, and the land of the escape, and all the land was to fractions(16)And the exposure scholars Baltaesel the idiosyncratic her, and has become an important resource as well as other tributaries. وينطبق هذا المفهوم على الأموال التي تركها الفرس بعد جلاءهم من الأراضي العُمانية، فقد شهدت عُمان في بعض مراحله التاريخية وجودًا فارسيًّا، ولَمَّا منَّ الله على البشرية ببعثة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وانتشر الإسلام في أرجاء الجزيرة العربية، أرسل النبي الكريم رسله إلى ملوك عُمان يدعوهم إلى الدين الجديد فاستجابوا، فدخلوا في الإسلام طائعين، فطلبوا من الحامية الفارسية الدخول في الإسلام أو الخروج من عُمان، فأبوا قَبُول الإسلام، ممَّا حمَلَ العمانيين على قتالهم، وإخراجهم بالقوة والسِّنان، ولَمَّا أحسن الفرس بالدائرة تدور عليهم طلبوا الأمان، وأذعنوا للاستسلام ناجين بأنفسهم وأهليهم تاركين أموالهم غنيمة، فصارت الأموال العقارية والزراعية التي خلَّفوها ملكًا لبيت مال الدولة في عُمان(17).
The Suaa Oman among the first Alsuaa in Islam, which was due to the evacuation of the Persian garrison territory after their conversion to Islam, and Persians given a choice between Islam and out, and did not know the meaning of Muslims Alsuaa only in the era of the great conquests in Iraq and Syria during the reign of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab.
Considered Alsuaa of the most important resources of house money all historical periods, does not stand still, and revenues due to the Ministry of Awqaf or to the Ministry of Finance, has counted one of the writers of these funds, and arranged five varieties(18):
أ- Suburbs: Palm plantations, which is about orchards planted بالنخل, also called “Chapels”, And constitute the most important sections Alsuaa where Pete was money depends on this type heavily, as a basic food available in summer and winter.
With- Agricultural land: It lands planted vegetable Besnov and cereals, Bakullac and fruits, and sometimes something of Nakhl, and this shall be leased on an annual rent citizens enter into the state treasury.
T.- Residential land: A land where there are white building at the present time to the corruption of the soil, which is also leased to the citizens, and return the proceeds of the State.
W- Commercial land: Is land created by the shops and commercial buildings, as characterized by their activity and commercial traffic.
C- Industrial land: It is found in the areas of industrial activity and literal, and leased manufacturing business, trades and maintenance.
These revenues have a financial role, a tributary of the State Treasury, filling an important part of the needs of the state and its citizens as well as its role cultural educational and social.
And- Tribute:
Derived from the penalty and reward, which is abscess Almdjaol on the dhimmis, so named because they reward their insurance and infallibility their blood عيالهم and money, enabling them habitable Dar al-Islam(19).
And taken from the people of the book like the Jews and the Christians and other communities and boredom, except the Arab pagans who do not accept them except Islam or murder(20).
Due to the presence of some religious sects owners of non-pagans Arabs in Amman in some historical periods, the guardian is to take the tribute, according to what is prescribed in the Shariah. Has taken Imam الجلندى bin Masood in the second century of the Christians of the island of Socotra, and it seems that the amount of this income was minimal due to the lack of ذمية communities in Oman only slightly, with the exception of the Persians who evacuated immediately after the introduction of Islam, as we have seen.
4- Do Booty revenues house money?
Revenue from money in the House of Islam booty that Muslims Agnmha in a legitimate war against the infidels, Islam has passed eat the spoils after it was forbidden to the previous nations, Muslims have differed in the spoils of Badr, and then came down the Qur'an is recited in the rule booty after Matpth of the Muslims in their disagreement on the matter(21).
This is the rule of the people of kufr booty who fought Muslims, and Nasbohem the hostility, while Muslims the sanctity of their money is inviolable and sacred in Islam, and may not be unwound: «Every Muslim over a Muslim haram blood, wealth and display, and even in the fight prostitutes not violated their money, and this is what it unanimously Islamic nation with the exception Khawarij who Asthaloua to the blood of other Muslims, and allowed anyone captivity of their wives and their children, and their booty.
وفي شأن الدولة الإباضية الناشئة في عُمان فإنها أقامت دولتها على أسس الإسلام الممتدة من القرآن والسنة الصحيحة، وكان دستورها يقوم على الاحترام والتكافل والمساواة في الحقوق الإسلامية، وهذا ما أكَّده دعاة المذهب الإباضي منذ نشأته، وسطَّره الفقهاء في مدوَّناتهم، وسجَّله المؤرخون في تاريخ سِيرهم، إلا أن هناك من يلبس عليه الأمر، ويربط بين الإباضية والخوارج، ويرى أن الإباضية يستحلُّون دماء غيرهم، ويُبيحون غنيمة أموالهم، وهذه التهمة ما زال الإباضية يُنافحون ضدَّها، ويُثبتون بالحجة والدليل افتراقهم واختلافهم مع الخوارج اختلاف ما بين المشرق والمغرب.
Is noticeable, and calls to the wonder that comes a contemporary writer(22) Chronicled the state of Oman, and tracking stages, and look at the references and sources, and equitable right Ibaadis, and is calculated from the writers, academics who are committed to objective and impartial scientific research makes revenue sources house money: Booty, he says, which lists the institutions of the Imamat: «House of money, and fed sources is divided into three main sources of income:
أ- Duties on exports of Omani products.
With- Zakat: Which is one of the five basic pillars.
C - tax (Tithing) Levied on non-Muslims traders.
Then he adds: «Finally, there is the trophy that comes by the Imam of internal civil wars, especially wars against the tribes of the opposition, and the imam is solely responsible for these funds».
According to this speech, the funds Booty codified and regulated by the imam, and form part of the income of this young state, even if we compare this speech what he said of Oman, who speaks for the biography of this country and its financial system, and fairness in the taking and giving of rights, and their relationship with non-Alemtemzhpin doctrine Ibadi, : «We do Secretariat to Astamanana the of our people and others, and Novi Bahod, our people and dhimmis others, and Nger the from Astjarna of our people, and others, jamon we have them Kef retired from fighting himself, to say: «It denied the truth of God for them, and mustahabb blindness to the guidance, and the difference Muslims and Aandem Variqnah, and قاتلناه until Eve to God's command, it is not that تنزلهم status idolaters, there Nsthal سباهم, do not kill their offspring, do not spoil their money, and only cut inheritance from them»(23).
This is the relationship between Ibadi and others, a relationship between Islamic brotherhood and the principles of religion, not as some imagine بربطهم the rogue بالخوارج Almsthalin the blood and symptoms of Muslims.
5- Expenditures:
It is intended to overhead, which is all right shall be disbursed from the house money in the interests of the Muslims, and is divided into expenses Sunnah (Normal), Casual and expenses (Emergency)(24), Valairad constitutes income, alimony are output from the house money. فبقدر إحكام النفقة ووضعها في مواضعها يسود العدل والرخاء، غير أن المصادر التاريخية لا تسعفنا كثيرًا بالمعلومات عن كيفية الصرف وحجم النفقات، والسعاة والجباة وعن الدواوين، إذ إن اعتناء المؤرخين بهذا الشأن كان قليلاً، ويعود في جانب منها إلى طبيعة النفقات، إذ أن جزءًا منها مخصَّصٌ لأغراض محددة، مثل الزكاة، وهذا ما نلمسه في المصنفات المخصصة للشؤون المالية، فهي تعدد الإيرادات، وتمرُّ مرَّ الكرام على الإنفاق، ومع ذلك إذا تتبَّعنا النصوص التاريخية نلمس اعتناء أولي الأمر بشأن النفقات، واجتهادهم في جمعها وتوزيعها، واختيار الجباة والسعاة الأكفاء، وإيصالها إلى ذويها، والتورع في الأكل منها.
Salmi and Asafna the text betrays the interest Imam الجلندى the order of charity, and general expenses, he says: «Did not take charity without right, and did not put them inappropriately, but they took the right, after you complete the things that help them in the religion of God, and save the parish, and then they put in place, and Ksmoha on its people by virtue of the Koran»(25). In their choice of governors and messengers, Secretariat اشتراطهم and science adds: «Not paying ordered them, not sending in their business, do not use in Sedkathm… However, the people of confidence, knowledge and understanding, piety and التحرج »(26).
6- Tenders granted by the house money:
Bidding is what gives Imam of the house of money for the people of rights in a given time, has some scholars difference between him and livelihood, they said: Livelihood what comes out of the house money for the troops every month, and take what comes to him every year once or twice(27). The first of the systems house money, and established diwans, and the Department of the tender is the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab, since it was the first revenues from the spoils are divided and فيء while they come in.. As these revenues abounded thought the age of the organization, and make bids Sunnah patrol either monthly or yearly. In the development of records the names of eligible workers and soldiers, judges and other state employees, and was مقاديرها increase with miscellaneous income received by the house of money, and have developed in the era of the conquests, and the flow of the abscess then.
If we came to our boys, we find that Imam الجلندى bin Masood put livelihoods and by the ability of bids and emerging power house money; indicating his interest in the financial affairs, and the development of bureaucracy and records eligible. Historical texts indicate that the tenders were few with price rises in prices in that period. However, the eligible persuade so تورعا and austere, and إشفاقا the house of money the state emerging, and it comes with one that is credited and amnesty to the house of money, this civilized behavior did not Nsgelh in any nation, it expresses the close relationship that links between individuals and rulers in the weft and one.
Salmi says: «One of them was alive per month seven dirhams in expensive price, patient little desire sustenance in the afterlife and reward from God, We have heard that perhaps stayed with the DRAM Darhman man Vitoa so credited فيرده in the Muslim فيء(28).
بهذه التضحية والإيثار تُبنى المجتمعات، وتُشيد الحضارات، وبهذه الأخلاق السامية استطاع المسلمون الأوائل أن يقُودوا العالم، فالجندي والموظف والعامل والمواطن يرضى بالقليل من العطاء، ويحتسب أجره عند الله، ويُؤثر الآخرة على الدنيا، وإذا فَضَلَ له فضْلٌ لم يُنفقه على التحسينات والكماليات المباحة، وإنما يردُّه طوْعًا إلى بيت المال عِلْمًا منه أن ذلك الدرهم سوف يسُدُّ مسدًّا، ويكفي حاجة، ويقضي مأربًا.
This look and an overview of the financial system for the first state إباضية in Amman, historians have saved us the main lines to him, which truly reflects the financial system is derived from the assets of the law and the rules of doctrine Ibadhi in revenue and ways to spend and regulate.

Dr.: Mohammed bin Saleh Hamdi

University of Batna

1- Abu Yousef: James the son of Abraham: Abscess. In a book: In the economic heritage of Muslims. Presentation: Fadl Chalak, Dar modernity: Lebanon.
2- Abdullah bin Humaid Al Salmi: Notables masterpiece biography of the people of Oman. Jhlan عدون:1, Publisher: Zaher and Zuhair, presses gold: Oman.
3- Ahmed bin Saud Al Siyabi: House money assets in Amman and cultural impact in the era of state البوسعيد. Ø:1, Year:2005M, Oman Press.
4- D. Ahmed Sharabasi the: Islamic economic lexicon. Generation House, Year:1402هـ/1981م.
5- D. Nazih Hammad: Glossary of terms in the language of economic scholars. International Institute of Islamic Thought: United States of America, i:1, 1414 AH / 1994 AD.
6- D. Hussein Obaid Ghanim Ghubash: Oman Islamic democracy, Imamate traditions and modern political history (1500- 1970ملحق بسير *الشماخي). New House, i:1, Year:1997ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
7- Ibrahim Mohammed pole: Financial Systems in Islam. Egyptian General Authority for the book, i:4, Year:1989ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
8- D. Mohammed Nasser: Call when you approach Ibadi. Publishing: Heritage Society: Sump, Year:2005ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
1 – D. Hussein Obaid Ghanim Ghubash: Oman Islamic democracy Imamate traditions and modern political history. (1400هـ/1970م). New House: Lebanon. Ø:1, Year: 1998ملحق بسير *الشماخي. P:78.
2 – Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ibrahim: Abscess. In a book: In the economic heritage of Muslims. Presentation: Fadl Chalak. Modern Printing House: Lebanon. P:183.
3 – Abdullah bin Humaid Al Salmi: Notables masterpiece biography of the people of Oman. Publisher: Zaher and Zuhair. Golden presses: Oman. Jhlan عدون:1, P:63.
4 – الجلندى bin Masood: Al الجلندى of the kings of Oman at the advent of Islam, carry flag for Abu Obeida Muslim ibn Abi dignified, the first imam of the rule in Amman, بويع years: 132E, killing Year: 134E. (Salmi: Masterpiece).
5 – Salmi: Masterpiece. Former reference. Jhlan عدون:1, P:90.
6 – Salmi: Masterpiece. Former reference. P:89.
7 – Ibrahim Mohammed pole: Financial Systems in Islam: Egyptian General Book. Ø:4, Year: 1989ملحق بسير *الشماخي. P:21.
8 – Awad Khleifat: The emergence of the movement Ibadi. People's House Press: Jordan, Year:1978M, p:130.
9 – Ahmed bin Saud Al Siyabi: House money assets in Oman and its impact civilizational. Dar generations, i:1, Year:2005M, p:64.
10 – D. Mohammed Nasser: Call when you approach Ibadi. Publishing: Heritage Society: Sump, i:2, Year:2005ملحق بسير *الشماخي.
11 – Conclave: Mohammed Shafi: Best partitions in the knowledge of the regions, p 86. Siyabi: House money assets, Op.
12 – Hussein Obaid Ghanim: Oman. Op cit, pp.:80.
13 – Salmi: Masterpiece. Previous source, c:1, P:89.
14 – Nazih Hammad: Glossary, p:198.
15 – D. Sharabasi, Ahmad: Lexicon economy. Op cit, pp.:87.
16 – Abu Yousef: Abscess. Former reference. P:168.
17 – Siyabi Ahmed bin Saud: House money assets, op cit, p:70.
18 – The same source, p:86.
19 – Nazih Hammad: Glossary of terms in the language of economic scholars. International Institute of Islamic Thought: United States of America, i:1, Year:1993M, p:116.
20 – Canadian, Mohammed bin Ibrahim: Shara statement, c:69, P:80/ Ahmed Al Siyabi: Bayt al-Mal assets. P:58.
21 -. (They ask you about the Anfal Anfal Say Allah and the Messenger Obey God(Anfal, verse:8، (And do but Gnemtem of something, God five… (Anfal, verse:41، (Faqatheloa that non even تفيء to God's command(, The
22 – D. Hussein Obaid Ghanim Ghubash. Op cit, pp.:80.
23 – Salmi: Notables masterpiece. P:81.
24 – Nazih Hammad: Language scholars. P: 277.
25 – Salmi: Notables masterpiece. P:88.
26 – The same source, p:89.
27 – Nazih Hammad. Op cit, pp.:199.
28 – Salmi: Notables masterpiece. Jhlan عدون:1, P:91.

Article was published in the Journal of life, number: 12, 1429/2008, pp. 72-85.

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