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And facilitate the renewal of Jurisprudence

And facilitate the renewal of Jurisprudence *

Preparation: D. Khalfan Khalfan bin Sinan Alsaila **

 

Submitted:

Praise be to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messengers Muhammad and his family and companions.

Islamic law is valid for every time and place, wherein solutions for all issues plaguing the lives of human beings. Valtjadded exists in the issues and provisions since the era of the companions and followers, has worked hard in the issues of their time and facilitated the people in their judgments, and followed by the founders of the Islamic sects, not Ibadi scholars differs from others in devising provisions and renewal of jurisprudence in line with reality.

The Orbiter of Ibadi noticed jurisprudence that a renewed jurisprudence; since the scientists did not say a gap in the era of the industrious, and did not close the door of ijtihad. Well as find المسايرة to the reality of jurisprudence in their judgments, and make it easier for people in obtaining provisions.

In this study, we try to answer the following problems:

– ما هو موقف فقهاء الإباضية من منهج التجديد؟

– هل للاجتهاد الجماعي دور في تجديد الفقه وتيسيره؟

– هل للمنهج التيسيري دور في إثراء الحركة الفقهية؟

And we will discuss in this paper the following topics:

Identify concepts (Renewal facilitation)

Are Ibaadis?

Diligence when Ibadi.

Collective ijtihad.

Comparison between Islamic schools of jurisprudence.

Conclusion.

 

Identify concepts

Renewal

Renewal language:

Out of action (Renewed);: Become new, renewed thing Tjaddeda: Become new, says: Renewed فتجدد I find any dress and renewed Astgda: Sira, or to wear new فتجدد. The new antithesis of wear and tear and the creation([1]).

The renewal means linguistic sends in mind a vision which meets three meanings connected:

– The thing has been renovated in the first place exists and exists for the people era.

– This thing was totally destroyed during the days hitting the wear and tear and become out of date.

– That thing had been returned to such state it was in before you wear out and creates.

Renewal idiomatically:

Renewal knew several definitions choose them:

Renewal: Re-interpretation and drafting the language of jurisprudence era; actually linked assets and controls Sharia([2]).

Renewal: Re offering Islamic format suitable for appropriate age, and addresses the highlight of the new issues that had not previously raised with the judge it according to data directory ([3]).

The definitions indicate on the kinetics of Jurisprudence and keep pace of developments in the humanitarian community and promoted the social and psychological sciences, economic and medical in the light of Islamic principles and values ​​derived from the Quran and Sunnah.


Facilitation:

Facilitation language: Source pleased, said: Command if easy is pleased, did Abeefh, did not cause any hardship to the other, or the same, and in the download: ) And We have made the Qur'an Male Is of مدكر (([4]); Any Shlnah to remember and thought incorporates the appropriate judgment and sermons of the mind([5]).

In the modern: «Facilitated nor تعسروا the preached no تنفروا '([6])، It is of convenience. And convenience in the language: Soft and manageable, and said: Yasser John Flana, if Aineh. And facilitated country If أخصبت to the. And convenience soft and rich, as well as the left, and it says: ﴿وَإِنْ كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلــَى مَيْسَرَةٍ﴾([7]).

It is the meaning of facilitation in language: Configuration, and it says: ﴿فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى﴾([8]); Any Nhiih of promises to the good work([9]).

And facilitation authentic principle of Islamic law, and the top destination of the purposes of Islamic law; What of the ruling of provisions and only takes a facilitative nature. The legislation, which contemplates the Islamic sure of this fact certainly not mixed with suspicion or doubt.

The meditator in the Quran and Sunnah Agdama يفيضان so really.

Facilitation in the Quran and Sunnah:

Says God Almighty, commenting on the provisions of the fasting: ) God intends for you ease and does not want hardship for you (([10]). This text has been received immediately after the text of the license, and was Kasalh to verse: ) If any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number of days (([11]).

This came in the Mosque of Ibn Jaafar: “This license award is accepted that fast if travel and if satisfactory, and as much as on the fast schizophrenia is better” ([12]).

Spoke فقهاؤنا([13]) This verse when their words on the issue of (Which is better, fasting or a mushroom for the traveler and the patient)؟

And رجحوا the absence of constraints for the patient and the traveler, and this choice would see the hardship faced by whether or not, in the book came fatwas: “It is a choice between breakfast and fasting, but swinging breakfast when faced with human hardship, swinging fast when it is in the rest of the non-hardship”([14]).

And prove here are some what is stated in their works about this verse:

“فأباح breakfast for the patient and the traveler, and enjoined them eliminate breaks days after God intends for you ease into debt and does not want hardship for you to crack down upon you”([15]).

Another said: “If the fungus is pleased it is the best in his own right, though the fast Acer like easy for him then and shove it then spent Fasting in his best”([16])

And like it says) and Nasark the left (([17]).

The left has interpreted as: Sharia easy unpacked adversity commissioned by the United Association([18]). God has said: ﴿وَنُيَسِّرُكَ لِلْيُسْرَى﴾([19]); Did not say facilitate left you, with that original comment facilitation matters farcical to animate not harness selves to things, to refer to the meaning of saying: Make you believe in the left like you are the owner of its officers have a natural like you([20]).

And like it says: ) God does not burden a soul beyond its scope (([21]), Has been mentioned in the interpretation of the mandate that: Commitment, including the cost of any hardship situation: What nine human ability or what it easily affordable, which is without the capacity([22]); In this verse to indicate that God does not burden any human nine its very purpose as it does not assign بالمحال([23]).

In spite of that verse: ) God does not burden a soul beyond its scope (([24]), Apparent significance in the non-commissioned only within the limits of power and the ability, but that God Almighty had followed this sentence prayer addressed to His believing slaves shows what it stronger them from non-culpability of the error and forgetfulness, landed Alosar and shackles and lack of commissioning including unbearable, he says: ) Our Lord تؤاخذنا not if we forget or fall into our Lord we do not carry insisted as his campaign on those of us of our Lord and endured what no energy to us by and اعف us, forgive us and have mercy on us you Maulana Vanasrna, on the disbelievers (([25]).

Having mentioned this verse remind her counterparts from the verses that show that there is no mandate but within the situation and energy, and these verses:

Said U: ﴿وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ لا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إلاَّ وُسْعَهَا﴾([26]). This verse received on parents feeding their children, parents and couples spending them boys, all as is his energy and his ability on the face of widening, it is not caused damage to any of them.

And says: ﴿وَلا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ لا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إلاَّ وُسْعَهَا﴾([27]). Demand fulfillment in the weights and measures in the limits of human ability and screening of justice, and do not harm the and Alhabtan the pill and similar things easy, but I do not hide it indicates that among other provisions of the Sharia are going to this approach of Justice.

And despite the fact that this is contained in these particulars to which we referred commissioning including not shove, and convenience and ease is the spirit; because the purpose of the provisions is not hardship Alaanat, but it is compliance, and then get happiness in this world and the hereafter, There is no doubt that the legal provisions if required within the situation and possible energy without reaching the very significance At that critical phenomenon that upped, That is based on Sharia facilitation and not Altasir are Hanifah tolerant easy and thanks be to God([28]).

Conversations taken advantage of the tolerance of this debt and pleased:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah that the Prophet e said: «Sent Balhanafih the magnanimous» (Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad). And Alhanifip: Is slanted from wrong to right, and fired on the religion of Abraham, peace be upon him. And tolerant: Easy. The face of the modern connotation in that, if proved an embarrassment in Islam Sharia were not Hanifah tolerant, but that was forested ten, and this void to contradict him the news Prophet e فبطل what led him and proved that there is nothing wrong in Islam([29]).

Says Ben Achour: “And the wisdom of forgiveness in the law that God made this law, natural religion, and other things due to the instinct thing formed, they are situated in the easy acceptance of souls, It instinct Alinver of intensity and Alaanat”([30]).

Sheikhs narrated from Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her: «The Messenger of Allah e between two things but chose أيسرهما unless sin» (Narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad).

And also: What was narrated from Anas that the Prophet e said: «Facilitated nor تعسروا the preached no تنفروا 'Bukhari in his Sahih, Imam Bukhari was held Baba in his Saheeh entitled: “Religion is pleased”.

The words of the Prophet e: «The religion is easy, and will not hailed a debt only drop, Vsddoa and approached Cheer and seek help Baldoh and Rouha and something from Aldljh» (Bukhari in his Sahih, Bab El-Din is pleased).

Said Maaz bin Jabal and Abu Musa-Ash'ari for بعثهما to the Yemen «accessible nor Tbeefa and human beings not Tnfra» (Bukhari in his Sahih).

These conversations show the tolerance of Islam and that the religion of convenience and kindness and facilitation, and not a religion of hardship, Valbeef exiled him, and this also we notice in some issues as issues of eating and drinking, holidays, games and contests and thinning of self and others, which shows tolerance of religion and pleased.

Easing controls:

To be sure, all to facilitate no longer believing in the law of Islam; facilitation It if Taatbanah went him Sharia landmarks; Therefore, there are controls in order to be easing Control to facilitate agree with the spirit of the legislation, including:

The facilitation locked evidence of the book or the year or consensus or former jurisprudence scholars.

No trace of licenses leading to fabrication of Islamic Schools of Thought.

Ibadi emphasize follow the intent to spin or licenses Granting concessions, says Siyabi cases in asset classes: “May not follow the doctrines licenses, he takes all the doctrine of what is lightest الأهون, with falls of its issues Tshahya to eliminate corrupt purpose, it is haram does not solve; because it leads to engage in licenses, and indifference to the demolition of religions. Therefore, to prevent the bulk of our companions from Fatwa student license before they fall into, fear lax in matters of religion, and a request for escape Muslims, the world's Secretary of God on earth;, then he can not put its secretariat misplaced, however is مستحقها, who is also كالطبيب does not take medication only ”([31]).

It was preceded by Salmi explained by his Shafi in the rule of track where licenses between his opinion by saying: “Yes prevent the transition from doctrine to doctrine simply Altshahy, and fortunes urgent; because it leads to engage in licenses and non-Alambalat religion, so that our companions may Allaah have mercy prevented from Fatwa applicant before falling in, and only for fear of leniency in religion and request packets ”([32]).

Knowledge of the reality of the people and their conditions, governance issued to certain people is not right that applies to all members of society, each one has its own provisions that are commensurate with their status. In this says Shaatibi: “According to the power of wills and weaknesses, according to times and according to the business, not travel Rights passengers march day and night in the land safe and Rebekah safe and slow, and in the long winter and short days, such as traveling on the opposite of that in mushrooms and minors, as well as the patience to hunger and thirst varies depending on these conditions”([33]).

Ibadi

Ibadi Ibadi: Band has historical extension of the first century AH to this day, and are attributed to Abdullah bin Abad which is idiomatic only, and did not respond in their works only in the third century AH, and they call themselves (People call integrity Muslim community… )([34]).

And hopefully in Ibadi find sources that the real scene of إباضية is Jabir bin Zaid kadhdhaab Oman, where he elaborated the ideas of this band, until tomorrow distinct ideology, whether doctrinal or Haddithia or nodal, and be themselves political and religious blocs in a number of countries of the world (Amman - Tunisia, Libya, Algeria Zanzibar Ghana…)([35]).

And continued political wrangling and lumpy among themselves and between Mkhalvém for long periods of time, where and stigmatizing بالخوارج crammed in Zmrthm they are innocent of outsiders and their ideas, and this is what we find in the first Raalhm; since refused Abdullah bin Ibad views of outsiders (Alozariqh zero النجدات) Publicly, and fought Muhallab bin Abi Safra many times([36]).

Unfortunately some of the contemporary writers still confuses Ibaadis and outsiders, with many of the intellectuals is الإباضيين([37]) Demonstrated the fact Ibaadis and Onsvohm in their writings and Benoit falsity of the error committed by the book boredom and bees([38]), A book tile the Umayyad and Abbasid authorities.

When considering the context, we find that the Islamic sectarian Ibadi stood tolerant and moderate stance with the rest of the owners of other sects([39]), Why not Apadlon the same position?

And Mthagafoa heading the Muslim community and scientists to work on unity and impartiality of the passions, and الاتصاف rationality in sentencing and read the thought of the other conscious and careful reading.

* * *

Diligence when Ibadi

Jurisprudence([40]) Hajj Court should be the nation that keen on it all the careful, because it means the process for detecting the provisions of God in acts of worship, and to prove that the law applicable lasting and they do not stand in front of each new negative attitude, and they then law vivid developing refuses stalemate and stagnation([41]).

And Ibadhi heritage in general and Oman in particular has emerged in which books([42]) In the field idiosyncratic and domain fundamentalist beginning of the first century AH to this day, did not stop the wheel diligence when Ibadi in any era of the ages, did not say a gap in the era of the industrious, and did not close the door of ijtihad days, but نصوا that it remained open to his family, and does not have a . At that say Almzzati: “The campus of the world opinion industrious under and Kafr. As well as from a nut and has permitted the ignorant astray and Kafr. Halal opinion of each world in every time and place, and haram in every time and place of the ignorant”.

In the interpretation of the meaning: ) If ردوه to the Prophet and to the rulers of them, knowing who Istnbtonh them (([43]); Said Allowargelana: Fired them deduction until the Day of Resurrection and all the people of the time in محدثاتها provisions, door of ijtihad Matuevert open is diligent in terms of diligence([44]).

The school jurisprudential Ibadi founded at the hands of Jabir bin Zaid personal first doctrine Ibadi, in addition to his skill mufti exchange most of his sentencing legitimacy, and adjust his views to consult Companions of the Messenger of Allah e and followers prominent, and was the link core between the followers of his doctrine and those companions who played the main role in the formulation of .

And the overall approach Ibadi in devising Fatwa and extraction issues they take the book and the Sunnah and scholarly consensus and measurement, as they take interests sent, and approbation, and legumes companion if approved by the truth, and the sender of the companion, and sender Tabi if confidence, and take the modern people of the passions, and the people of innovation advocates for بدعتهم especially .

Hard and that Ibadi show references clearly agreed with the doctrines of the Sunnis in the underlying assets to develop opinions and extract the provisions of the chaos from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger e or hardworking consensus of the nation's scientists, what in the three assets (The book unanimity year) He is out of them, unless there is a branch; basic principle is what is known as the rule of others, and what was known branch rule otherwise([45]).

* * *

Collective ijtihad

Divided diligence in terms of the image that fall from hardworking into two:

Diligence singles:

A diligence that comes from the same industrious, Fifty of the incident or calamity on what balances diligence.

This approach is predominant in the jurisprudence of the companions and followers and imams doctrines, which is approved by the Prophet e to Mu'aadh when asked what to do if you view him justice, he said after the search for him in the Quran and Sunnah “Plied my opinion does not Allo”. He also indicated by the words of the Prophet e: «If you worked hard hitting ruling, he may troughs, and if worked hard فأخطأ the one the reward; (This talk not only open the door of ijtihad and permissible report, it is to be opened and tempt him and pay him a boost. It is surprising that the speakers talking about closing the door of ijtihad with the existence of this talk which bodes industrious wage multiplier, and bodes industrious fault that he also paid.

Could have been mentally and be a record for hard-working المصيب wage, and be industrious wrong button. It was also possible to be industrious fault Mafoa him without the burden and reward, and in this justice and virtue, but to be industrious fault غانما the مأجورا, this is great wisdom and compassion extensive.

This implicit sense that the mujtahid has the right to make mistakes, and that mistake brings his sin, nor punishment, nor deprive him of the right to remuneration for his diligence in which it made a mistake.

But recall that the error here regard to religion and its meanings, and provisions of Sharia law, and respect the rights of God and the rights of people. This is a tax of thought and scientific progress, not Fletkdm المجتهدون and researchers and المجددون and submit assured comfortable Mtheben the Lula and Glenn([46]).

This diligent individual is relying upon in many of our Islamic countries; as The Mufti diligent in emerging incident and issued his fatwa based on diligence.

Collective ijtihad:

This type is based on the principle of consultation between scholars, where they discuss the incident and issue a ruling. The verdict in the collective endeavor issued by a group of scholars and not everyone.

This was the diligence is the approach Caliphs, especially Abu Bakr and Umar is preferred; because it is closer to the right of ijtihad singles, be diligent individual is the basis of what he was doing industrious of hopes and collect and audit and scrutiny, and improves join diligence collective endeavor singles . Examples of collective endeavor: Islamic Research Academy in Cairo, and the Fiqh Council in Makkah, and the Islamic Fiqh Academy offshoot of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in Jeddah, and the world body seminars for of Zakat contemporary issues in Kuwait, and Islamic thought forums in Algeria.

* * *

Comparison between Islamic sects

Comparison between Islamic sects in the present age is inevitable, and the premise necessary for the scholar and Mufti renovated, and a researcher on the face of both, knowledge of the views of the rest of the Islamic sects make Faqih among several words, choose them as he pleases, and this in turn leads to facilitate the Sisters renovated, especially if you are comparing doctrines : Ibadi, Shaafa'is, Maliki, Hanbali, Zaidi, Ja'fari, Hanafi, virtual. And also remove hateful intolerance found with some hardworking and thinkers or scholars to their beliefs, as will realize what the other holds the doctrine of principles and ideas, values ​​and provisions identical to the method of the Quran or the Sunnah.

And also remove the blind imitation of the doctrine or al-Faqih and liberate thought of inertia and narrow-mindedness.

The doctrine Ibadhi not, as rumored that closed on itself, but is open to all Islamic sects; when we نستقرئ scientists wrote Omani find it devoid of the tendency sectarian, and did not pay attention to it, although there are some opinions that carry dye doctrine Ibadi, referred to the words of: (Our companions)However, you in turn find compared with the rest of the Islamic sects, where you find a word that he saw the audience, and renounce fanaticism is prevalent with them, do not get hardly look at a book from their books, but find rely on many of the books of non-Ibadi. Among other things, it adopted the former: Sahih Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Muwatta, Sunan Abu Dawood, and women, and Tirmidhi([47]). Salmi says about himself in this aspect:

ولا تناظـر بكتــاب اللـــه ولا كـلام الـمــصــطفـى الأواه

معناه لا تجعل له نظــيـرا ولو يكـون عالــمـًــا خبـيـرا([48])

Khalili commented on Salmi thought he said: “And Imam Salmi Almighty God's mercy is biased only to the directory, and it was written full of opinions scientists Islamic sects different, and was always keen on what unites reunion and يرأب rift, and was benefiting which was written Alkatbon of eminent scientists in various fields, it was often depends (Qubool hopes), As sate writing Qubool the hopes, and explain the predicate investigations Imam Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Baari, and it seems that the imam was Matnaa conquest more than other books of annotations year”.

The Khalili mark was sate wrote, quoting from the others, and this is evident for example in the book Jawaharlal interpretation; where the transfer from Abu Hayyan of his book (Ocean Sea), Alusi (Spirit of meanings), Ben Achour (Liberation and enlightenment), Pride Razi (Big interpretation), Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (Collector statement), Also quoted Muhammad Abduh, and Rashid Rida of his book (Al-Manar), And Sayyid Qutb and many others.

* * *

Examples of renewal and facilitation in Ibadhi jurisprudence

People according طبائعهم like facilitation and this love was in the past, and still among the people in the present era, it has been insist on the companions of the Prophet e to facilitate them with them located events and locations, and the peace it was easier for them in things for fear of embarrassing the nation.

This trend walked him Ancestors of facilitating the people, and this is what we find in the books of fiqh of scientists differences that vary between stress and the facility, so that the same question up scholarly where more than twenty words.

In the modern era, where emerged as issues on the scene were not previously known and there is no unrivaled in jurisprudence scholars veterans, called for the need to roll scientists helped seriously and demonstrate its judgment for the people; because the failure to clarify rule the embarrassment and discomfort, and interpretation of the judgment in which the realization of the principle of pay “Hardship brings facilitation” And”If narrowed widened”, And also work under the principle of convenience and tolerance who by Islamic law.

Here, we show some of the issues modern young people and in which scientists Ibadi rule shows the determination, and this is what demonstrates the diligence scientists doctrine Ibadi and not standing at the text, and also not standing at the discretion of them; but Aakanam that the issues change with time, place and people.

The I'm researcher League introduce some hybrid and other issues that I see that the provision which facilitate people and pay for the embarrassment and hardship for them, only here the views Ibadi without the other because compared to search long and beyond the limits required.

These modern issues that we offer vary according to the type of worship of purity and the treatment of crime and other.

– Photography [Photography]

The word photography These differ in the modern era than in the Prophet Virad age in the prophetic era where descend Koran embodied photography or stereo, which is a shadow of the image of an animal or a human being, either fictional modern photography - photography is not Murad originally from the intended word . Such as the verse: ) Is the one who shapes you in the wombs as He wills (([49]), Or intended to emulate God's creation, such as statues or all of the senior had a material impact, as a work of art, paintings, or embroidery on the printed picture and visibility, or holding the needle, so that it becomes her shadow, this absolutely haram.

He answered Sheikh Bayoudh a Moroccan scientists Ibadi when asked about the shooting, saying solar: Imaging solar permissible legal, beneficial and wholesome and necessary in many cases. Is not included at all in prohibition of the Prophet e for photography, and is only كصنع mirrors that memorable which is the present time of the Prophet e Used scattered did not finish it, and not more than photography which only use material to save the image after the demise of the person in front of the; Vdekm of mania and obsessive([50]).

-Children's toys:

The shapes that depict forms of children's toys on the stereoscopic image effigies of a man or a woman, or the forms of animals, dog, lion,…. , And these formations in nature bear the stamp of privacy which is stipulated in the modern apostle e: «The angels do not enter a house in which statues or photos» (Narrated by Imam spring in his Musnad). This privacy for these models based on it is attached without God Almighty, and demands to be Muslim attachment to God alone and direction to God alone and not to the other. As well as emulation of God's creation and creature has no right to match God's creation. And also like infidels as take pictures and statues is a method of infidels, and the Muslim must be distinct in his behavior and in his work and his actions([51]).

Thus, Islam is not permissible of these models, but what was Mmthna كلعب children and what else is haram([52]).

And I see that exclusive toys and الترخص it is justified, as tell us fashions of modern multiple formats of the Barbie doll taken by the adult and youth Accessories, nightclub, as well as what was done to these games of labels atheistic launched by the enemies of Islam and Qsdoa the lure children and youth.

– Prayer human performance and modern means of transportation:

Explained scholars in their works about prayer, it is obligatory on the taxpayer Muslim is not waived him in any way, either in the book or attended a true or سقيما; they travel decreases Quartet rak'ahs with the possibility of a combination, as well as in the event of illness peace ounce.

The Aban فقهاؤنا veterans Rights, a prayer on the back of the camel in the event of security or fear. But in this era developments and modern means of transport (كالسيارة - Train - ship - aircraft - spacecraft)What should he do in this Muslim means; Can he delay prayer until it is too time?

Najib first for the second question, which is to receive the kiss clause in prayer by the deviation shall not, except in cases of necessity fall where this condition is([53]):

أ- Prayer when docking the ranks of the fighting, and called fencing prayer, he says: ) You fear Faragala the or Rkpana (([54]). Ibn 'Umar said: Qibla and the future is مستقبليها. (Bukhari in his Sahih).

And follow her fearful in prayer is not fencing Kalkhaúv on himself or his property.

With- Prayer impeller or the patient if a deficit for receiving, for saying e: «If I command you to do something and they brought him as much as you can» (Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad).

C prayer shamrock for an animal or passenger car or plane; Amer bin Rabia said: I saw the Messenger of Allah e pray on his camel where I went by([55]).

This after Pena that the requirement kiss fall in the event of prayer and especially Voluntary If a person on the back of an animal or so, however, in the event of the modern means he has to ask about the direction of Qibla or using modern machinery Kalpouselh and the like, is not يوجدا investigated kiss and bless ounce.

On the answer to the first question: Enough for him Sheikh, when asked eggs: How pray understood prayer in a bus or a plane? : “I've realized prayer in a bus or a plane can not get off until after the time for peace as he could not restart it.

He also: “Prayer on the plane such as prayer on the lead ship in time as much as possible, may not be delayed for the time to come down and have a private how, but as much as possible, although the group is not on the row as bearers of ship owners([56]).

– Methods of slaughter in modern slaughterhouses.

He spoke majority of scholars([57]) Slaughtering according to sharee'ah correct for the animal, which is cut throat and esophagus, Alodjin([58]). They explained the terms Animal المذكى, also sacrificed terms and slaughter machine([59]). All of this stems from the very keen on the overall application as stated by the Prophet Mohammed e, and even thrives on Muslim halal, and away from everything that is compromised and haram. In the modern era where the intertwined interests of the Muslims with the other holders of other religions, there have been new ways of تذكية were not unheard of before, used by slaughterhouses modern; فأبقت telecom Food imported doubts in the minds of Muslims in terms of the solution and the privacy needed to clear statement Istgele certainty, and this is what made us : What is the ruling on imported meat?

The meat imported equivalents varies according to where they were imported from, imported from the country where the basic principle is Islamic Ornament until proven privacy in any way. The imported from non-Muslim countries, the basic principle is the inviolability until proven Halitha the testimony of two people of Justice and was told: Enough justice, one being slaughtered on Islamic law, is not enough to write on the cover.

The sacrifices of the people of the book are the owners of the Torah Jews, and Christians owners of the Gospel, they text of the Qur'an in the words of the Almighty: ) And those who were given food writers solution for you and your food solve them (([60]). The scientists agreed that to be food offerings; mean: That their sacrifices us if Zbhoha on the way they have so that they are legitimate halal food to us, according to their law, and this is what utilized to add food to them([61]).

Recently, using modern means of slaughterhouses weaken the resistance of the animal without torturing him, and accordingly:

Permissible in Islam to use methods developed non-lethal anesthesia before slaughter([62]).

The use of electrocution, strangulation or methods of the head with a hammer or throw pencil This means that led to the death of the animal is haram to eat([63]). But the use of what male does not prevent the animal from eating after slaughter if alive, remains stable life. Although it will die after a while if you leave without slaughter, even after using these tools that are meant to facilitate the process of slaughter([64]).

This is used by modern slaughterhouses of the ways slaughter like العقر that the ancient scholars spoke of him, and that the animal is infected unsustainable it, which Fouath fear, not the stunt man in control of it, and be his armed force in the body of blood Vissel him([65]). And also: What authorized by the owner of clarification when mentioned any taboos where he said: “Then excluded from المنخنقة the deteriorating, الموقوذة and and النطيحة and eat seven, he said: ), But what Zkeetm (; mean: Only what Zbhtm and the name of God it is old, it is the view of our companions [Ibadi]”([66]).

And is now the slaughter in slaughterhouses usually with sharp fast-cutting, has conveyed to us that the process of slaughtering track anesthesia or epilepsy process takes just few seconds ([67]).

The Ibadi stipulated in this slaughter process that does not separate the head from the body, he deliberately deprived carcass; because he killed and not تذكية ([68]). And Uagahm public jurists([69]) Except Hanbali([70]) Who said بإباحته the.

What we have mentioned applies to Canned meat, chicken and other than it is stipulated that a legitimate ذكاة.


-Where to spend the money earned from the Sacred (Bank interest rates and the like)؟

We have the whole ancient scholars of Islam in their works, and more recently through their synagogues jurisprudence on the prohibition of usury, and the enemy act of illegal behavior, according to which the wrath of Allah and His Messenger, the owner of this moral disposition.

The Quran addressed prohibition of usury in three places, tracing منهاجه education in the fight against some of the vices that took root in the Arab community taking on progress toward reform, and was the first of these positions is the verse: ) And come from the Lord than in the people's money is not over when God and come from Zakat want the face God they are the Alamadafon of the (([71]), Which pave the sermon which indicates that usury will not reward him when God.

The second position was a lesson and a lesson on the grounds that the prohibition on partial text of the Koran: ) O ye who believe Devour not usury, doubled and fear of God, that ye may prosper (([72]).

The third position was the Koran seal prohibition of usury categorically forbidden, he says: ) God يمحق the usury and educate the charity and Allah loves not the disbelievers, sinners (([73]). ﴿الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبا لا يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبا وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبا فَمَنْ جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَانْتَهَى فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ﴾([74]).

And the prohibition of usury is a building block of blocks of Islamic economic outlook depends on the base of that gain is based on the work agreed only. This means that action is unjustified primary for its owner to a reward from the owner of the project, which was spent working for him; But usury is pay cash capital which Asilvh capitalists commercial projects and other remunerated an annual percentage of the money lender, called this wage Name interest is haraam Islamic([75]).

And release the name of the interest on these funds fallacies wanted by the enemies of Islam, Muslim mentality distortion, and improve this work has.

But the question remains: What is the ruling if a person deposited money in a riba-based banks, and got the benefit of what makes them?

A lot of inquiries have heard from people other offers such benefits as a result of their dealings with these banks; Some of them wanted to puts in fuel his car and gas kitchen, and another saw left in the bank does not tarnish his hand Ptlkm money usury, and last saw them out of the bank and incinerated; it .

To answer these questions, we leave the field for scientists to answer answer cathartic release, but Azahawwa unveiling of this problem, it says in the book include contemporary fatwas: “As for what he asked his brother for the benefits of banking that gathered to him, فشأنها like all money earned from haram, may not be for those who earned that benefit from it in the food, drink or clothing or housing, or pay dues it to a Muslim or non-Muslim, fair or unfair, and that “Fuels” Rather this is a fortiori. If you have heard about some of the elders in the Gulf that authorized the use of benefits such as, in the toilet or the like of the things that lacks purity, a wonderful opinion not based on a sound jurisprudence; person in the end is the beneficiary of this money man's land in his own interest, it is not permissible .

But leaving these benefits to the banks is not permissible under any circumstances; because the bank if taken for himself in the strengthening of the Bank's interest-based and help him to proceed with his plan, it enters the subsidy on sin, and assisting in the no man's land is forbidden, as noted in Part I of our book “Halal and Haram in Islam”. ويزداد الإثم في ذلك بالنظر للبنوك الأجنبية في أوروبا وأمريكا، والتي يودع فيها كثير من أغنياء المسلمين أموالهم للأسف الشديد، فإن ترك هذه الفوائد لها فيه خطر كبير؛ فهذه البنوك تتبرع بهذه الأموال –عادة ـ للجمعيات الخيرية، وهى في الأعم الغالب جمعيات كنسية تبشيرية، وكثيرًا ما تكون هذا الجمعيات ممن يعمل في بلاد المسلمين، ومعنى هذا أن أموال المسلمين تؤخذ لتنصير المسلمين، وفتنتهم عن دينهم، وسلخهم عن هويتهم.

The matter of the project in this regard, is the payment of these benefits and the like all the money is haram in destinations goodness, such as the poor and needy, orphans and the wayfarer, and jihad for the sake of God, and dissemination of the call to Islam, and the building of mosques and Islamic centers, and the preparation of preachers, and printed books, Islamic and non- ” ([76]).

The Amplified in response to said: This money belongs to the borrowers, as well as from the said: It is not fit to be a charity; because it is malignant, and charity can only be done from the good ([77]).

The fatwa mark Khalili, Grand Mufti of the Sultanate ([78]) To get the benefits of banking from the bank, it is not permissible for him to take her for himself, but takes it to distribute to the poor and needy; because this money ignorance Rabbo, and all Majhl Rabbo فيوزع on the poor and needy.

The fatwa Imam Bayoudh when asked about the benefits of banking saying: “The owner of this treatment it insubordinate perpetrator of a large usury stipulated honestly do not accept the interpretation, he should repent and ask forgiveness for past sins, and he has to charity all what he took from the Lord above the capital to the poor and needy, and repented has remained a thing of this usury on the bank it : “All the money the ignorance of his Lord Vsepelh poor and needy”, Vlaokhzh and charity it all, I mean the surplus to the poor and needy, and not leave it to the bank it is not and what is his prep”([79]).

The bottom line: The Muslim is enjoined that departs in all its transactions for citizen similarities and land, and take precautions to religion in order not located in the outlawed, the afflicted such benefits usury is better to not leave it to dispose of the bank بتأليب enemies of Islam against Islam and Muslims, but takes it into our position stated by scientists previously “They are the poor and needy and Islamic charities and other charitable and relief”.

It remains to be taking these benefits banking and dispensing charity in its bank, does not have any reward from the wages of charity, but two more rewarded in two ways:

1 That self-control from the Holy money and use it for himself in any way, and this is his reward when God.

2 It was the best broker in the delivery of this money for the poor and Islamic associations that take advantage of it, which will be rewarded for this, God willing([80]).

– And insurance provisions

Insurance is defined as: A committed believer whereby lead to the insured, or to the beneficiary, who spoke on insurance in favor of a sum of money, or salary, or any Awad other financial in the event of accident or check risk set out in the contract, and that peer-premium or any payment other financial performed by the insured ([81]).

It is this definition derive that insurance be between two:

Foundation (SD) They have the right to manage the company and reap the profits and afford to lose.

Beneficiaries: They are holding the insurance policy of the company, and they do not have no income in the company or in management, and they get compensation when you get the risk and may not get. This is called insurance commercial insurance, where the company secured the compensation for the damage caused in the things contained in the agreement or contract of insurance.

He went many of the scholars of Islam is forbidden, as it is contrary to the provisions of the legitimacy of what comprises it tricked and Lord and foolishness, and also not to Tora companies to save money in riba-based banks to get interest, add to that injustice achieved in dealing; Thousands of people are registered and benefit the few, ([82]).

Islam among his followers a decent life, as prescribed by solidarity and cooperation among its members, the individual seeking the interest of the group, and the group is seeking to benefit of the individual, he says: ) And virtue, righteousness and piety (([83]);, Where they proceeded to what the fortifying of the calamities that community located on the individual, as well as save money and savings for future problems that may occur, and receive compensation when damage occurs and this type is called cooperative insurance.

And despite the fact that this is the rule in Islamic insurance, but some scientists present in the recent passport went to the insurance contract relying on that kind of cooperation and solidarity between the people and those we mention the following:

Mustafa Zarqa: Who answered a question about insurance, saying: “The opinion legitimate subject of insurance in general against the dangers is contested long since more than thirty years between the scientists of the times, but I think I'm in it is also known, is that insurance is permissible religiously branches of the three, has become obligatory in some cases, to preserve the lives and some property, .

Have shown in my books and my research in the Fiqh Council that the distinction between commercial insurance and insurance cooperative is a myth, and that this discrimination placebo is a result of lack of awareness of the true nature of insurance and reality and upbringing historical, and استلزمه expansion of what appeared advantages, and became required by millions of people, Vaanajt to manage or different departments . But the nature of the whole insurance even by companies is the collaborative nature does not change”([84]).

The author of the book Principles of insurance for expatriates rule saying: “Muslim has the right to contract with various insurance companies for life insurance or funds from the risk of fire, or drowning, or theft, or the like, which is a necessary contract is not annulled only with the consent of the parties”([85]).

The author of the book Islam and topical issues says: “Every insurance contract does not include usury, whether self-insurance or money is correct, and catch money from both sides. The life insurance contains the condition of usury do not mind that it is correct and the invalidity of the condition only; because invalidity condition does not require the invalidity of unconditional ([86]).

Some scholars have licensed with the Jabra to humans, where governments are imposing and make it be necessary, and that what is common to us (In Oman) Of mandatory car insurance and health insurance against accidents, has been among the ruling on that mark when asked about the eggs, saying insurance: “Many types of insurance countless different provisions passport or strictly, does not enable the fatwa in which only each بانفراده type. The award types car insurance, which had been an all kinds of governments today on other means of public and private transport for the same vehicle or its occupants”([87]).

It is with what the sanctity of commercial insurance but it was excluded obligation of governments and Jabra ones like (Car Insurance…), Was followed by Grand Mufti of the Sultanate([88]), Where such answered.

Conclusion: The current insurance of all kinds does not solve may not, for Email tricked and Lord, ignorance and injustice to the many do not take advantage of it only rarely, and attached Alambihon of that type of insurance cooperation and solidarity among the people, and that the legitimate rule says: “Origin of things permissibility”, The opinion is not approved by the Shariah; because cooperation can only be unintentionally worldly profit, but be seeking the face of God, do not have insurance in the former sense of this cooperation, which called for Islam. He says: ﴿وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ﴾([89]).

The legal rule that they based it not include the issue of contracts; because acts and legitimate rule says: “Origin in acts comply with the provisions of Sharia”. I see that the necessary insurance and reparation governments do not mind to use it and do.

– Intellectual Property Rights:

The human right to own property in this life, whatever the ownership and diversity; There acquisitions physical land or property or a car and so on, but there is no to those who have a talent for scientific enriched in authoring the right to retain this wealth and prosecuted; since history does not mention only some Oattiyat caliphs scientists . The truth is that scientists Amman until recently did not exist with them Copyright word, but that most of the books Tnagulwha among themselves through the scribes; since the copyist proud of this work and mentioned in the last book a flan or copier line version Sheikhi.. So that the same word hardly find in their works, because they see that right flag is rumored to all, and mute the science may not be the talk of the Prophet ^: «Mute note the enormous of God بلجام of fire on the Day of Resurrection»([90]).

Scientists have split into two:

Department finds that it is not permissible to print or copy any of the articles property except with the permission of the owners or their respective owners.

Department finds that it does not have rights; because it is كتمانا the science and stone on published.

The Khalili chapter in this issue and answered: “May not be the monopoly of science; the use of it is a legitimate right, there is no basis to say: (The copyright or Reserved) That is, if the author of the book are not damaged or publisher([91]). In the case of damage to the author or the publisher has said: “If it is opened for printing or register leads to damage to some of the institutions that have for the advancement of science and published, so that fear if you do not adhere to this system to lead the case to the cumbersome and its inability to fulfill its tasks scientific there is no objection from the observance of these rules and abide by it, which is what ”([92]).

ومهما يكن من رأي للعلماء فإن الحكومات قد راعت دور النشر والإنتاج الفكري بمختلف أنواعها، وأصدرت في ذلك الأنظمة التي تحمي حقوق الملكية الفكرية للآخرين، وقامت في نفس المنوال منظمات مهمتها متابعة القرصنة الفكرية وتقديمها للعدالة القضائية، وحماية الفكر بكل أنواعه؛ لهذا فإنني أرى أن العمل الذهني الذي يبذله المفكر بكافة أنواعه وأشكاله لابد أن يقاس بالجهد البدني الذي يبذله العامل في عمله، وأيضا لابد من حماية هذا الإنتاج الفكري من العبث والاستغلال وإلا أدى الأمر إلى تقاعس الناس عن العلم وطلبه، وأيضا اِنتحال الآخر وفكره.

-Auto Accidents

Car of grace graces devised by serving human needs, and has by Omcnh that wants to reach, one of Almqsodat in verse: ﴿وَالْخَيْلَ وَالْبِغَالَ وَالْحَمِيرَ لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةً وَيَخْلُقُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾([93]). Which creates in the future, what you do not know now, as a means of modern transport, locomotives and cars, and planes.

The driver of this vehicle has to comply with all the controls legitimacy of leadership, and also the Islamic morals and rules governing the driving.

I have left out many people abide by the rules regulating traffic brought about by modern laws, and they see that their commitment is not legally binding; although scholars have made contrary to walk and drive systems sinner, and what he did bear a result of مخالفاته and Tamdath.

– The rule of women driving cars:

Women like a man legally permissible([94]) Drive a car, have a duty to comply with and commitment to the legitimacy and morality Traffic Systems.

The bucking Abdul Aziz bin Baz this say فأفتى the inadmissibility of women driving cars([95]), Agreed, I'm in the same Uthaymeen fatwa([96]).

The extent of the driver's responsibility for what is happening in his car:

Car machine in the hands of the pilot, who directed; basic principle is that the driver is responsible for everything that happens as a result he was driving his car, and the difference between what the car hit the front or rear part thereof, or the front or rear tires([97]).

Omani fatwa that the driver ensures that if a transgressor, and does not guarantee if you are not a transgressor; was being led by the car according to the traffic regulations and accident had happened to him can not guard him, like an animal suddenly jumped in front of the car, this is something divine can not guard him, there is no guarantee. But ensures that if it is possible Ctzaz it has done([98]).

The driver between recklessness and moderation: ـ

Car a blessing or a curse, and the driver can be either moderate or reckless leadership, both of which have provisions. We have explained above, whether the driver was moderate in his leadership is the impetuous, and Trz all what happens to him, it does not guarantee it.

The offending traffic systems due to excessive speed, he is a sinner religiously, and guarantor of all that it causes accidents and collisions, exposing the souls of others at risk, have been counting the overspeed Mufti of Oman where he said suicide: “Then it was suicide also speeds up the rights to his car Asraa consequent not be able to control them, and not in control of its progress if there is an incident; because the car is exposed to a lot of what is happening; may explode framework of frameworks, has run into an animal of the animals cut the road, has been hit by any . The man was speeding so he can not be in control of his car if an accident occurs it is of course of those who commit suicide nor indifferent بإهلاك themselves, بإهلاك others.

The speed with which beyond the limits of moderation is one of the suicide. It is admired him so much that is not considered one of many such incidents that are harvested souls reaped and let the houses in ruins. How many families consumed whole due to arrogance pimp cars and non-indifference of what they do, how much of a young man lost his life in the prime of his youth, and in the old flower. How much of a widowed girl in Gdharh youth. How many or Zqlt in Vlzp her liver, but perhaps lost mother multi-boys do not and one boy and according to these incidents. All of this calls to mind and put an end to this disregard for human life and indifference to the value of life”([99]).

The opinion of the Islamic Fiqh Academy in car accidents: ـ

Islamic Fiqh Council decided at its session Brunei - Darussalam, 1 To 7 Muharram 1414 AH 21 – 27 June 1993 on the following car accidents:

1 / A - The compliance with those systems that do not contravene the provisions of Islamic Sharia duty religiously; because of obedience to the ruler for organized actions based on directory Sent interests, and that should include regulations on legal provisions that have not been applied in this area.

B - what is required by stakeholders also make regulations الزاجرة the types, including fiscal consolidation for those who violate those instructions regulating the passage to deter displays the security of people at risk in the streets and markets of the owners of vehicles and other means of transport, taking the provisions of the calculation of assessments.

2 / Accidents resulting from the conduct of vehicles shall apply the provisions of the Criminal prescribed in Islamic law, albeit often a mistake. The driver is responsible for the damage caused to third parties, whether in the body or money if the elements of the error and damage, not exempt from this responsibility, except in the following cases:

A - If the accident was a result of force majeure can not be paid and could not guard them, which every viewer is beyond human intervention.

B - If damaged due to an act affecting a strong influence in bringing about the result.

C - If the accident was due to an error or infringement of others فيتحمل non-responsibility.

3 / What caused the beasts of traffic accidents on the roads to ensure their masters damage caused by do if they were remiss tuned in, and in that chapter to eliminate.

4 / If you subscribe driver and injured in causing the damage was on each and every one of them liable for the damage from the other end of the same or money.

5 / A - taking into account what will come of detail, the basic principle is that the direct underwriter if it is not a transgressor, it guarantees only if the transgressor or excessive.

B - If you met directly with the offending responsibility was to direct without causing only if it is causing a transgressor and direct multi.

C - If you met different reasons each and every one of them influential in damage, for each and every one of the instigators of responsibility, according to the proportion of its effect on the damage, and if Astoya or did not know the proportion of the impact of each and every one of them Valtbah them both([100]).

After all this, I believe that driving is evidence of morality driver For everyone adhere to the ethics of traffic, and the preservation of their lives and the lives of others, and is not endangered, with the imposition of the death strict by the rulers of those playboys of the leaders of the vehicles, and also the work of rings awareness shows drivers the importance of .

* * *
Conclusion

– Ibadi sect attributed to Abdullah bin Abad, The incorporation ideological or intellectual has been at the hands of the great Tabi Jabir bin Zaid Omani kadhdhaab (ت93 هـ), The latter founded the school jurisprudence Ibaadis, and this is one of the first schools idiosyncratic presence on the ground.

– The into account respondents conditions and easing them helps them to be guided to the path of righteousness, because Faqih كالطبيب subtle that handles his patients according عللهم and the illnesses.

– Renewal correct overcome obstacles in the way of diligence and creativity.

– Jurisprudence of reality determined by the required diligence, which is the renewal and development of reality according to the legitimacy of controls and fixed assets.

– Renewal in the present era is an urgent need to meet the needs of people in their dealings and their public and private interests.

– Comparative Jurisprudence kind of Islamic Sciences, based on authentic scientific research, the branches and issues industrious, to arrive at the end of the order to the opinion of Rajah the works, with respect opinion المرجوح, away from fanaticism and blind imitation.

– Unity among Muslims demand religious, they leave neurological sectarian, and scientists unite in idiosyncratic rule to serve the Islamic nation.

– The collective diligence system a necessity because of age Specialization and because of the types of complex issues that require consideration, conversant with all the faces of the matter.

– Individual diligence has resulted in his best role, but the collective diligence did not find its way in many Islamic countries; this many of the issues do not find her trendy answer the treatment of all destinations, so I suggest:

Create doctrinal synagogues and thought in all Islamic countries, including forensic scientists and specialists, scientists (Medicine, engineering, economics, psychology, sociology, genetics, genomics…..) Meet at the emergence of social or medical issues… And Anaakecunha each in their respective fields and issue a ruling which carries the character of integration.


*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

**Preacher in charge of overseeing on hortatory mandate cadres Seeb, Oman.

[1]) I'm perspective, San Arabs, part 3, p 111.

[2]) Ali Abu onions, diligence and its role in the regeneration, p 172.

[3]) Khalili Ahmad, diligence and its impact on innovation, p 107.

[4]) Sura Moon: 17.

[5]) Tfayyesh Mohammed, facilitate interpretation, vol 12, p 590.

[6]) Bukhari in his Sahih, the door was Prophet Atjulhm the بالموعظة and Science, vol 1, p 38, No. 69.

[7]) Sura: 280.

[8]) Sura night: 7.

[9]) I'm perspective, San Arabs, substance pleased, vol 15, p 447.

[10]) Sura: 185.

[11]) Sura: 184.

[12]) Ibn Jaafar, inclusive, c 3, p 232.

[13]) See: Interpretation verse Tfayyesh, facilitate interpretation, vol 1, p 262 - p 265. On the issue mentioned consideration: Abu Muslim, avenge essence, i / I 1421- 2001 Library Muscat Oman C 5 R 184 - R 191. And Shammakhi, note i / 1404 E / 1984 Ministry of Heritage Muscat, Oman, vol 3, p 176. Albsewe Mosque of Abu al-Hasan achieve Abu Hassan Mohamed, M / I 1404- 1984 And Oman's Ministry of Heritage c 2, p 223.

[14]) Khalili Ahmad, fatwas, i / I 1421- 2001M, Library generations Roy, p 319.

[15]) Albsewe, Abu Al-Hassan Mosque, c 2, p 223.

[16]) Abu Muslim, avenge essence, vol 5, p 187.

[17]) Sura Top: 8.

[18]) Tfayyesh, facilitate interpretation, vol 15, p 69 - p 104.

[19]) Sura Top: 8.

[20]) ملحق بسير *الشماخي. N, vol 15, p 104.

[21]) Sura: 286.

[22]) Tfayyesh, facilitate interpretation, c 1, p 474.

[23]) ملحق بسير *الشماخي. N, the same part, p 473.

[24]) Sura: 286.

[25]) Sura: 286.

[26]) Sura: 233.

[27]) Al cattle: 152.

[28]) Son Hamid, raising embarrassment, p 70.

[29]) الباحسين, lifting embarrassment, i / 2, 1416, the International Publishing House, Saudi Arabia, p 67.

[30]) Ben Achour, the purposes of the law, p 63

[31]) Siyabi, asset classes, p 386.

[32]) Salmi, explain the sun sorties, c 2, p 298.

[33]) Shaatibi, approvals, C 1, p 314.

[34]) Aldjabera Farhat, the cultural dimension, p 41.

[35]) Muammar al-Ali, a moderate Islamist Ibadi doctrine, p 19 12.

[36]) Developing Amr, studies on Ibadi, p 45

[37]) See, for example, the following books: Suhail Jaber, Ibaadis in the Arabian Gulf, i 2/ 1418E- 1998M, probity library Muscat. Majdoub Abdul Aziz, sectarian conflict by African, (Ø The loan), Tunisian Publishing Tunisia. Awad Khleifat, origination movement Ibadi, i / 1978 AD, the people of Oman as House authors wrote when Ibadi Onsvohm the.

[38]) See: Ibn Hazm Ali bin Ahmed bin Said, chapter in boredom and passions and bees, i / 1986, Knowledge House, Beirut, where crammed Ibadi Kharijites clique.

[39]) Ghabash Hussein, Amman democracy, p 66.

[40]) Will not touch on the definition of diligence; because scientists in most of their works jurisprudence and fundamentalism أوسعوه the definition of a statement, For more information, see: Book symposium diligence in the Sultanate of Oman in December 1998, diligence and innovation articles submitted to the International Conference of Islamic unity / i / 2003. Bajo: Mustafa Saleh, a diligent approach when Ibaadis, i 1/2005, promising generation library Muscat, pp. 68 and Beyond. Most of the books contain his assets.

[41]) Canadian Ibrahim, Alajt the

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