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Renewal and rationing in contemporary Islamic banks see methodology

Renewal and rationing in contemporary Islamic banks see methodology *

Preparation: A. D. Qutb Mustafa Sano **

 

Study: The importance of the study

Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds, and prayers and peace permanent twin master the first two and the others, and the Imam of the Messengers, and an example of the pious, and the family of his divine good, and his companions Algr Miami, the Almighty and belief in the Day of Judgment, and yet,

These pages Kassar meant prepared on condition of advancement of civilization, and they are the worries contemporary Islamic thought, it they renew is religion and the world, which is today a necessary condition and provided essential that witnesses civilizational aspires to the nation, but at night the day sanctuary Alaz him to restore the nation recover Cultural and intellectual leadership, scientific leadership, and mission that make them God's mercy to the worlds.

إنّ تجديد الأمة في فكرها واجتماعها وسياستها واقتصادها يعدّ مبدأ إسلاميّا خالدا لا ينازع فيه أحد، ولا يشك فيه عاقل، كما أنّ تجديد الأمة في عقيدتها، وفقهها، وتربيتها يعدّ هو الآخر أساسًا ضروريّا لا يماري فيه امرؤ، ولا يجادل فيه لبيب؛ وذلك انطلاقا من كون التجديد المنشود في الحسّ الإسلاميّ ذلك الغذاء الذي يعيد الحيويّة والفاعليّة والديناميكيّة والواقعيّة إلى الفكر الإسلاميّ، ولكونه المستصفى الذي يغربل الأفكار ويصفّي الأنظار، ويزيل الشوائب ويمحي الزوائد في الفكر والتصور والسلوك والممارسة.

Proceeding from this very important and high status occupied by the renewal in the Islamic mind, the need much to pay fervent and sincere issues and accountability by rooting and investigation, editing and detail. One of the most important issues related to the issue of innovative means and ways to achieve in the ground. And Bajalh consideration and reflection in many means of multiple and diverse innovation, we find that there is an important means of those means should تأصيلها, edit, and say where the detail, it is those means which are called today in the world of people rationing.

In response to the gracious invitation Aziza from the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs of the Sultanate of Oman حماها God and Adam on its people security and safety, stability and well-being of نسجنا these humble leaflet on the issue of rationing, Bhspana way of the most important means of innovation in Islamic jurisprudence, in form and substance. عنينا also highlight how to employ this method for renewal in a vital area of ​​contemporary life, it is the emerging field of Islamic banks promising and ever-growing and spreading.

The انتظمت leaflet cognitive input, and three head of the Investigation Conclusion. The entrance of knowledge, it has been newly brief about the importance and necessity of renewal in the current era. The first topic addressed term rationing and its relationship to the renewal and end it in the present era. As for the second part, it has blocked for a brief history of the emergence of the banks and the possibility of hiring rationing for renewal. And eating third topic Baltaesel the pillars of analysis employ rationing in the field of contemporary Islamic banking. And embraced the conclusion of the most important findings of the study.

The official God to grant the symposium with success, and reward those who made it about us and Islam and Muslims, the best reward, if we want reform, but what we, and Toviguena only God Almighty.

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Entrance cognitive:

In the importance and necessity of renewal in the current era

It's no doubt that its current Islamic reality is today facing a surge resounding accumulated intellectual challenges, and the successive political developments. And also faces a growing contemporary reality uptick in social changes in a row, and successive economic fluctuations; but that has become reality today is suffering acute crises in thought, and worried about unrest in perception, and abnormalities in painful ways of dealing with the example and the changing world.

ومن نافلة القول أنّه ما كان لهذا الواقع الغريب على عموم الأمة ليشهد ـ في العاجل القريب ـ تغيّرا منشودا ولا تبدّلا مأمولا ما لم تكن ثمة قناعة راسخة بواجب إعادة النظر الحصيف في الموروث الفكريّ المتراكم، وإعمال العقل الرشيد في ذلك الإرث الثقافيّ العظيم، وتحكيم الوعي الرزين في ذلك الحمل الاجتماعيّ الغزير؛ وذلك بغية التمييز بين الثابت والمتغير من الأفكار والأنظار، وبين المطلق والنسبي من الأحكام والاجتهادات، وبين الدينيّ والثقافيّ من الممارسات والتطبيقات؛ بل ما كان لهذا الواقع الاستثنائيّ المخيّم على الساحة الإسلاميّة ليزول في الأيَّام القادمات ما لم يغد هنالك إيمان راسخ بجسامة المسؤوليّة الفكريّة الرصينة التي يجب أن ينهض بها أولئك الغيارى من أهل الفكر والنظر من كل المذاهب والاتجاهات الإسلاميّة سعيًا إلى لمّ الشمل، وجمع الكلمة، وتضييق دائرة المختلف الفكريّ، وتعظيم المتفق المصيريّ بين الشعوب الإسلاميّة في جميع أنحاء المعمورة.

Hence, the restoration of the nation's leadership and intellectual leadership scientific stop stop mainly on the belief cutter fact that innovation in thought and consideration and work a religious duty and the need for modern, should not be a Muslim faithful to his religion and his nation to operate public or private questioning the extent of legitimacy, and necessity, and its lifetime. The fact that it is at all investigators of the scholars, thought and consideration and gratitude principle of Islamic immortal, is also a milestone Islamic firmly stated by Shara religion, and make do of the genus hypotheses enough that sinning every nation if they Ohmloh or failed him in the era of Egypt.

إنّه ليس من ريب في أنّ تمكين الأمة اليوم من الفعل الحضاريّ المأمول والمشاركة الإيجابية المرجوّة في تقرير الشأن العالميّ الراهن، إن في السياسة أو في الاقتصاد أو في الاجتماع أو في الفكر؛ يتوقف كل ذلك توقفا رئيسا على صيرورة التجديد في الفكر والنظر والعمل منطلقا أجلّ وأساسا متينا لا يحيد عنه علماء الأمة ـ قيد أنملة ـ في تعاملهم مع المثال والواقع، كما لا يتنازل عنه مفكّرو الأمّة عند نظرهم في مختلف القضايا القديمة والمستجدة إيمانا منهم بأنّ صلاحيّة الشرع الكريم لكل زمان ومكان تتوقف على تجديد النظر في نصوصه، ومقاصده، وما نسج من أفهام واجتهادات حول تلك النصوص والمقاصد في ضوء ما يستجد في حياة الناس من قضايا ومسائل.

Based on this, the renewal sense year is the revival of a systematic and liberation objective of ideas and attention that eligible obsolescence and wear and tear, and anchored by the accumulation of negative Vngdo ideas devoid attendance and zero impact, which requires commitment to review the profound aimed at resolving what Ran out of ideas, and to eliminate the accumulation of them .

واعتبارًا بأنّ التراكمات التي تداهم الأفكار والأنظار تغشى منطلقاتها حينا، وتلج مضامينها طورًا، وتحجب مقاصدها عن الظهور أحيانا كثيرة، لذلك، فإنّ تجديد الأفكار والأنظار يتطلب إعادة الحيويّة والقوة إلى منطلقاتها الفكريّة، وتصفية مضامينها ومحتوياتها مِمَّا خالطها من السلبيات والمثبطات، وإزالة الغبار عن مقاصدها ومراميها، وتحقيق هذا كلّه يتوقف على منهجيّة علميّة موضوعيّة واعية وجريئة ذات مرتكزات علميّة هادئة، وآفاق منهجيّة رصينة تبرأ من المداهنات الفكريّة، وتبتعد عن المجاملات النظريّة، وترفض الرضوخ والخضوع لتأثيرات التقليد والتبعيّة، وتأبى إلا أن تتعامل مع الأفكار والأنظار تعاملا موضوعيّا هادفا إلى النهوض بها نهوضا رشيدًا، وتمكينها من التفاعل الإيجابيّ والمشاركة الواعدة والتأثير المرجوّ، والتمكين المنشود.

لئن كانت للتجديد هذه الأهميّة القصوى، وتلك المكانة العليا في الحسّ الإسلاميّ المسؤول، فإنّه من الحريّ تقريره أنّ التجديد المنشود للفكر الإسلاميّ المعاصر شامل لسائر مجالات الحياة، بدءًا بمجال العقيدة، وتعريجا على مجال الفقه، ومروراً بمجال التربية والسلوك، وتوقفا عند مجال الفكر، ووقوفا عند مجال السياسة، ونزولا عند مجال الاجتماع، وانتهاء بمجال الاقتصاد؛ مِمَّا يعني أنّ ثمة تجديدا في العقيدة، وتجديدا في الفقه، وتجديدا في التربية والسلوك، بل إنّ هنالك حاجة ماسة إلى تجديد في الفكر، وتجديد في الاقتصاد، وتجديد في السياسة، وتجديد في الاجتماع؛ ذلك لأنّ تحقيق الشهود الحضاريّ المرتقب لعموم الأمة يتوقف على تحقيق تجديد رشيد في المجالات المشار إليها آنفا، اعتبارًا بأنّ الحضارة في أرقى معانيها تنتظم الفكر، والعقيدة، والثقافة، والسياسة، والاقتصاد، والتربية، والاجتماع، وتعدّّ هذه القضايا برمتها روافد الحضارة وعناصرها ومكوناتها.

From this, we see that any talk of a systematic scientific objective is responsible for the renewal should be based on this totalitarian conscious vision of regenerative issue, as it should turn blessed التفاتا to describe those aids to achieve that desired renewal in the above-mentioned areas. On that collapses renewal those areas in a scientific manner and conscious, then the right of the nation to recover cultural, and regain its leading position and a leader in this world Ha'ir.

ولئن كان للتجديد المأمول مجالات واسعة، فإنّه من الحريّ بالتقرير بأنّ ثمة وسائل متعددة لتحقيق التجديد المنشود في كلّ مجال من تلك المجالات، وتشهد تلك الوسائل تجددا وتغيرا وتبدلا بتجدد الأزمنة وتغير الأمكنة وتبدل الأحوال والأوضاع، بل ما كانت لتلك الوسائل لتعرف ركودا أو جمودا أو نكوصا، بل إنّ عليها ـ الوسائل ـ أن تكون هي الأخرى محلّ تجديد وتحديث كلما تغيرت الظروف، وتبدّلت الأوضاع، وتطورت الأحوال. And then, we نفزع to report to say that as multiple areas of innovation, and other liquid is multiple multiple fields, as well as the means to attest to the renewal always Tjaddeda and shift and change as it is a reflection of the reality of the ever-changing humanitarian mutation and evolution.

Based on this, the Islamic jurisprudence is the fertile ground of the areas of innovation desired in the current era, so Bhspana accumulations of knowledge formed in the light of those circumstances, intellectual, social, political and economic development that prevailed on the eve of taking those flags mercy of God اجتهاداتهم about those religious texts relating to the provisions tagged . وإنّما كان هذا الفقه ميدانا رحبا للتجديد المأمول، ذلك لأنّ شطرا كبيرا من تلك الاجتهادات التي انتظمها لم يخل ـ بأي حال من الأحوال ـ من التأثر المباشر وغير المباشر بالسقوف المعرفيّة والأوضاع الفكريّة والأحوال الاجتماعيّة والظروف السياسيّة التي كانت قائمة قرونئذٍ؛ الأمر الذي يعني أنّ أيّ تغير أو تبدل أو تطور في تلك السقوف والأوضاع والأحوال والظروف، يجب أن يقابله تغير وتبدل وتحول في تلك الاجتهادات، بحيث تغدو ثمة اجتهادات جديدة قادرة على توجيه الواقعات المستجدة، وتسديد الأوضاع المستحدثة في الملّة، كما يمسي هنالك اجتهادات تتناسب مع التغيرات والتطورات التي طرأت على الأوضاع والأحوال.

على أنّه من الجدير تقريره في هذا المقام أنّه ليس من محظور ـ نقلا وعقلا ـ ألا يكون لتلك الاجتهادات رحم مباشر بالاجتهادات السابقة؛ إذ ليس من الواجب في حسّ الشرع أن يكون لكل اجتهاد جديد أصل قديم، أو مثال سابق؛ ذلك لأنّ طائفة غير منكورة من الاجتهادات القديمة ذاتها ليست لها أصول قديمة، أو مثيلات سابقة، فقد كانت تلك الاجتهادات غداة نشأتها اجتهادات جديدة لا تنتمي إلى أصول قديمة أو مثيلات سابقة، ولذلك، فإنّه يكفي في الاجتهادات المتجددة أن تكون اجتهادات قادرة على النهوض بالأمة، وتوجيه التطورات المتلاحقة، ومجابهة التحديات المتصاعدة، فضلا عن تسديد الأحوال المتبدلة بتعاليم الشرع الحنيف.

وبناء على هذا، فإنّ التجديد المنشود اليوم في الفقه الإسلاميّ يعني في أبسط معانيه ومراميه الارتقاء العلميّ المنهجيّ المدروس بهذا الفقه ارتقاء يمكّنه من المواكبة الرشيدة لمتطلبات الحاضر، والمجابهة السديدة لتحديات المستقبل، وذلك من خلال اعتصام حكيم بكليات الشرع الكبرى، وأصوله العامة، واستنارة رشيدة بالمقاصد الكليّة، والتفات مبارك إلى مآلات الأفعال في ضوء التغيرات والتطورات الحثيثة التي تغشى حياة الأفراد والمجتمعات في العصر الراهن.

This upgrade requires As mentioned the need to review other topics Heritage idiosyncratic, and مباحثه multiple, in order to be studied holistic interdependent and coherent and integrated, in order to liquidate many of his themes, and مباحثه of topics and detective situational that is no longer the reality of contemporary need, and in order to vaccinate his themes and مباحثه topics .

Butter say: The renewal in jurisprudence organized renewal of good governance, and the realization of the mind sober, and careful thought Resin inter good of those interpretations that جادت by Qraúh former mercy of God in order to develop what could be developed, and the amendment should be amended, and dispense with what must be indispensable; premised : Does not deny the provisions Climate change times and places and circumstances, customs and traditions and customs!

In addition, the renewal in the organized as well as the renewal of jurisprudence in the formulation of visions and attention and new interpretations to those texts which they worked hard ancients, the effect that the first two assumptions that those imams despite its status and durability are not texts (Sacred and infallible), They are made to understand the sacred text graceful hard firm (Revelation), It is also will not longer Avhama final of the text, and therefore it can not prevent the development of new explaining about the text based on total assets Shara and public purposes and Malate acts. Generations in both the hurricane and the regions are equal in our religion to understand the texts of Islam as long as the cutting of the understanding of mechanisms and tools, in light of cognitive سقوفهم, and intellectual conditions, and political conditions, and their social and economic.

It confirms that the matter is that jurisprudence that نعدها today the former first two interpretations not formed in one particular era, but formed over many centuries; Had the development of new jurisprudence concerning that wherein painstakingly former is prohibited because there was art known today as Islamic jurisprudence!!

ومن ثمّ، فإنّ التجديد المنشود في الفقه لا ينبغي له أن يقف عند عتبة الترجيح بين الاجتهادات السابقة، ولا ينبغي له أن ينحصر في تقديم الرؤى والاجتهادات فيما يستجد في الساحة من مستجدات وتطورات؛ بل يجب أن يشمل التجديد تكوين اجتهادات جديدة رشيقة إزاء العديد من القضايا والمسائل سواء أكانت تلك القضايا والمسائل قديمة أم جديدة، وسواء كان للسابقين اجتهادات في تلك القضايا أم لم تكن لهم اجتهادات إزاءها، ولتكن عدّة التجديد الانطلاق من الأصول الشرعيّة الكليّة، والمقاصد السنيّة العامّة، والموازنة بين المنافع والمفاسد، ومراعاة مآلات الأفعال.

وفضلا عن هذا، فإنّ التجديد في الفقه ينبغي عليه أن ينتظم ـ كذلك ـ تجديدا في وسيلة تقريبه وتيسيره وتسهيله على المتعلمين والمتفقهين، وذلك من خلال إعادة صياغته في لغة عصريّة تتناسب مع العصر، وإعادة تبويبه تبويبا حديثا يستفيد من فن التبويب المستحدث في الملّة في العصر الراهن، ويعدّ هذا التجديد تجديدا في الشكل والمظهر؛ فليس من المقبول اليوم الإصرار على تقديم التراث الفقهي وغيره من التراث الإسلامي الزاخر في العصر الحاضر في ثوبه القديم المتسم بالتعقيد والتلغيز والتعجيز في معظم الأحيان؛ بل ليس من المنطق في شيء الإصرار على تجريد الفقه الإسلاميّ من أدلة الأقوال، بل لا بدّ من ربط كل رأي فقهيّ قديم أو جديد بدليله، ولا بدّ من بيان درجات تلك الأدلة من حيث القوة والضعف، ومن حيث القبول والردّ، ولا بدّ ـ فوق ذلك كله ـ من بلورة مرتكزات علميّة منهجيّة يلاذ عند الهمّ بالترجيح بين الآراء الفقهيّة المختلفة في العصر الراهن.

Based on the above, this study is a modest attempt to calm intending contribute even Bnkir the extension say in an important means of innovation in Islamic jurisprudence, in form and substance, and you know that means today in the corridors of researchers codifying Islamic Jurisprudence. Us to come, I will shed light on this concept and the importance of means, and we recognize the pillars employed for renewal in the field of contemporary Islamic banks.

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The first topic:

In the regeneration and rationing: Term relationship

First paragraph: In the term rationing in Contemporary Studies:

I've mentioned before to say that the renewal desired in Contemporary Islamic Thought purports pledged issues this thought, مباحثه, and themes, and issues the review of scientific persistent and systematic development continued in order to restore vitality, strength and dynamism to it, and to enable him to achieve his purposes, and meet the requirements of the times and meet the challenges of the future. As I have already explained that the renewal sense year is the revival of a systematic and liberation objective of ideas and attention that eligible obsolescence and wear and tear, and anchored by the accumulation of negative Vngdo after ideas devoid attendance and zero impact, which requires commitment to review the profound aimed at resolving what Ran out of ideas, and to eliminate the accumulation of .

As that accumulations that raid ideas and attention to cover the its premises at times, and تلج contents sometimes, and obscure purposes appearing often; Therefore, the renewal of ideas and attention required to revitalize and strength to its premises intellectual, and the liquidation of its content and its contents, which Khaltha of negatives and disincentives, and remove dust from the purposes and goals.

وتحقيق هذا كلّه يتوقف على الاستعانة بجملة حسنة من الوسائل العلميّة والآليات الموضوعيّة الواعية المنبثقة عن مرتكزات علميّة هادئة رصينة، تبرأ من المداهنات الفكريّة، وتبتعد عن المجاملات النظريّة، وترفض الرضوخ والخضوع لتأثيرات التقليد والتبعيّة، وتأبى إِلاَّ أن تتعامل مع الأفكار والأنظار تعاملا موضوعيّا هادفا إلى النهوض بها نهوضا رشيدًا، يمكّنها من التفاعل الإيجابيّ والمشاركة الواعدة والتأثير المرجوّ، والتمكين المنشود.

Given the ways in contemporary scientific that can achieve this renewal desired in the current era, we find rationing of the most important means of contemporary which is available on the ingredients and the foundations that we have mentioned above; and as in the fact that rationing scientific methodology rational dealing with interpretations and ideas and attention discourse systematically objectively, taking into .

And Taesela to this dimension in normative matter, so us to get to know the reality of this term, Flagueth the renewal and modernization of Islamic thought in general and in private Islamic jurisprudence.

Given studies in modern literature headed by Me talking about rationing, we find there are serious attempts to formulate an idea about to be term rationing Jurisprudence. One of the first such attempts what ended Dr. Alkbai in his book entitled the application of Islamic law in the Sudan between the truth and the excitement that a “..Formulation of Islamic jurisprudence in legal materials along the lines of modern laws of criminal and civil, etc., and obliging the judge work out, and went beyond that to the other ..”([1]).

And went Sheikh Al-Qaradawi in his book is marked by: “Entrance to the study of Islamic law” To determine to be codified doctrine by saying: “..The provisions are formulated in the form of legal materials numbered rank along the lines of modern laws of civil and criminal.. So as to be easy reference checked, can easily adhere to the judges, due to the lawyers, and handles on the basis of citizens ..”([2]).

The Sheikh Altewagna, Vord close to the definition of the definitions Sheikh Alkbai and al-Qaradawi, as he said in his book marked Jurisprudence and Legislation input and history by saying: “…Formulate opinions and jurisprudential words in phrases succinct and clear in the form of rules and numbered materials, takes each برقاب some, so that makes it easier for the judge referenced, and approved the issuance of its provisions ..” ([3]).

Me virtue Dr and Zoheily gift required to be codified doctrine in his efforts to codify Islamic jurisprudence as a “..The drafting of the provisions of the transactions and other contracts and smoothed his theories, the University of the framework in the form of legal materials, easy to refer to them ..” ([4]).

As Dr. Attar, has cited a vision for an accurate perception bran rationing and a center, where he identified in his book that rationing doctrinal consensus, meaning: “..Make it a law, and this requires the formulation in the form of abstract general rules governing the conduct of persons in the community, and compel people to work as a whole by law ..”([5]).

Soon this perception, stated in a research entitled “Islamic law” From the Department of Studies and Research in Amman, reads: “..Collection provisions of the questions in each section, and formulated in a easy materials sequential, so that limited government in each issue one opinion, chosen by the legislature of the consensus multiple contained in the matter, being the elimination of this view in all courts and among the other litigants ..” ([6]).

There are multiple definitions and perceptions meant by the term legalization of Islamic jurisprudence, can not afford to place listed.

And carefully consider Ordnah the definitions and perceptions meant by the term legalization of Islamic jurisprudence, especially those first four definitions (Qaradawi, Alkbai, and Altewagna, Zoheily); Found definitions focused clearly focused on looking at rationing Bhspana and means of renewal in the doctrine of form, not in substance, as agreed these definitions on the fact that rationing targeted process to rework the terms and doctrine in the form of legal materials, also stipulates that .

In addition, the definitions of a statement meant the most important purpose of the regulation, which is to facilitate the return to judge the jurisprudence in soft.

It is notable that the first three definitions (Qaradawi and Alkbai of Altewagna) Included to indicate that the desired rationing of Islamic jurisprudence includes all sections of Jurisprudence and themes of transactions, Mnakhat, and penalties, and others; which means that it should not be confined in the section of the Principles of kebab transactions. Was alone on the definition of virtue, Dr. Wahba Baltnasis on the fact that rationing drafting the provisions of the transactions, and the case that issues that could يغشاها rationing should not restrict in any way in terms of transactions or personal or penalties, or worship; but that rationing could يلج all . But should faint rationing all areas of innovation that we have mentioned before, include the field of religion, education, and sociology, politics, economy, culture and other. Valdhabt governing to rationing غشيان these areas is that they are subjects discretionary general issues permeated by the scourge; Every field in favor of renewal, it can be employed in which rationing and means of renewal in that area as long as the four pillars that we have mentioned above are available which.

ومهما يكن من شيء، فإنّه يمكن الخلوص إلى تقرير القول بأنّ التقنين يعدّ ـ وفق هذه التعريفات الأربعة الأولى ـ وسيلة من وسائل التجديد في الفقه الإسلاميّ من حيث الشكل لا من حيث المضمون؛ ولئن تجلى تنصيص التعريفات الأربعة الأولى على هذا البعد في مسألة التقنين، فإنّه من الإنصاف المبادرة إلى القول بأنّ التعريفين الأخيرين ـ أعني التعريف الذي انتهى الدكتور العطار، والتعريف الذي أورده قسم الأبحاث بعمّان ـ اعتبرا التقنين وسيلة من وسائل التجديد في الفقه لا من حيث الشكل فحسب، ولكن من حيث المضمون أيضا. He expressed these two definitions for this dimension through Tansasma on being an important duty of Availability in the process of codification, which is under the obligation to rule codified, and to prevent everyone from the breach; which means that the regulation purports to eventually reconsider the meanings woven about the issues disputed it, and weighting the meaning of . Which means that the idiosyncratic opinion when what codifies, it becomes a law requiring it, may not be a breach, or otherwise work; longer even offending people out on the law, which makes it liable to punishment by Royal.

This limitation makes the process of rationing is an important means of means of renewal desired in Islamic jurisprudence does not in terms of form only, but in terms of content authenticity, as evening comes rationing and means of weighting in matters disputed therein; Any opinion chooses rated legislator, this opinion .

فعلى سبيل المثال، من المعلوم أنّ ثمة خلافا بين فقهاء المذاهب الإسلاميّة حول مشروعيّة نكاح المتعة، وبيع العينة، وسواه من المسائل الفقهيّة المختلف فيها؛ فإذا اختار حاكم من الحكام في مجتمع من المجتمعات استنادا إلى مصلحة زمنيّة ذلك الرأي الفقهيّ الذي يعتبر نكاح المتعة حراما، فإنّ هذا الرأي يغدو بعدُ قانونًا ملزمًا لا يجوز لأحد من الرعيّة في ذلك المجتمع مخالفته والعمل بخلافه، ومن خالفه حقّ للمشرّع ـ الحاكم ـ معاقبته العقاب الذي يراه ويقرّره، ولن يشفع للمخالف كون المسألة مسألة مختلفا فيها قبلُ؛ ذلك لأنّ حكم الحاكم ـ كما هو معلوم عند عامّة أهل العلم بالفقه والأصول والمقاصد ـ يرفع الخلاف في المسائل الظنيّة. The ruling has been sentenced or his representative about this issue discretionary presumptive haraam, the prohibition becomes then is the legal opinion and the law to be followed in this matter.

So, if rationing in Islamic jurisprudence is today the way of the most important means of renewal in this doctrine, as it purports to in the light of the above opinions and rework jurisprudence legal drafting easy to digest, and easy to understand, and beautiful shape, elegant appearance. It also purports to choose the opinion of the doctrine contained in discretionary matters, and compel the people that view chosen so as to prevent violation and work otherwise.

Second paragraph: In the term legalization of Islamic jurisprudence from the perspective of this study

تأسيسا على أوردناه من نقد هادف للتصورات الشائعة عن المسألة التقنينيّة في الدراسات الحديثة، فإنّنا نرى أن يعاد تحديد المراد بمصطلح تقنين الفقه بأنّه عبارة عن إعادة صياغة علميّة منهجيّة لأبواب الفقه الإسلاميّ في شكل مواد قانونيّة سهلة الهضم ويسيرة الفهم، على أن يتمّ في تلك الصياغة الجديدة اختيار رأي واحدٍ من الآراء الواردة في المسائل الاجتهاديّة العامّة التي تعمّ بها البلوى، وذلك استنادا إلى رعاية مصلحة زمنيّة يعتبرها الحاكم عند الاختيار، وحفاظا في الوقت نفسه على مقصد انتظام أمر الأمة إزاء تلك المسائل الاجتهاديّة العامّة.

إنّ هذا التصور المتواضع عن مصطلح التقنين يقوم على النظر إلى التقنين بوصفه وسيلة يمكن الاستعانة به في إعادة صياغة المادة الفقهيّة في شكل مواد قانونيّة مرتّبة ومرقّمة بطريقة عصريّة توفّر للناظر في هذه المادة الجهد والوقت، وتكفيه مؤنة العناء والتعب في التنقيب والتعرف على الآراء، ويعدّ هذا البعد في المسألة التقنينيّة بعدا شكليّا آليّا لا يتطلب القيام به جهدا فكريّا ذا بال، بل يحتاج إلى جهد تنظيميّ وترتيبيّ مترابط.

The other dimension to this conception of the term rationing, it is based on the consideration to the question of rationing as an important means of renewal Fayalmadh jurisprudence at the level of content and content, as it is intended to eliminate pluralism in the disputed issues. In other words,: The codification of this dimension longer process shootout between the different views, and perhaps exceed the innovative process inherited from the jurisprudence, and enjoys nothing new opinion which differed by the former. Hence, the normative issue in this case becomes a means of mitigating Glua doctrinal differences, and intellectual pluralism per issue.

إنّه ليس من ريب في أنّ هذا البعد في المسألة التقنينيّة يعدّ بعدا علميّا ذا خطورة وأثر كبيرين على التفكير المذهبيّ، والانتماء الطائفي إلى المذاهب المختلفة؛ إذ إنّه يفضي إلى التخلص التدريجيّ المنظّم من التعددية الشائعة داخل المذهب الواحد، والتعدّدية القائمة بين المذاهب، مِمَّا يفضي في النهاية إلى اختفاء المذهبيّة بصورة تامّة إذا كان التقنين شاملا، أو بصورة جزئيّة إذا تمركز التقنين حول بعض القضايا.

As the importance of intellectual and methodological amount for this scientific dimension of rationing, we see that the desired rationing of Islamic jurisprudence of this dimension, should be available by the four things to become a means of innovation in Islamic jurisprudence, and these four things are:

The first command: ضرورة كون التقنين منصبا في المسائل الموسوم بالمسائل الاجتهاديّة، وهي المسائل الظنيّة التي تتعدد فيها الآراء في كل عصر ومصر، مِمَّا يعني أنّه إذا لم تكن المسألة اجتهاديّة ـ ظنيّة ـ بأن كانت من المسائل المتفق عليها بين الفقهاء، فإنّ التقنين يعدّ ـ حينئذ ـ وسيلة من وسائل التجديد في الفقه من حيث الشكل لا من حيث المضمون؛ إذ إنّ التقنين في تلك الحالة لا يتجاوز إعادة صياغة تلك الأحكام في شكل مواد قانونيّة مرتّبة ومرقّمة.

The second thing: ضرورة كون المسألة التي يراد تقنينها من جنس المسائل العامّة التي تعمّ بها البلوى، مِمَّا يعني أنّه لا يجوز إقحام التقنين بوصفه وسيلة تجديد في المضمون في المسائل غير العامّة، والمسائل العامّة التي لا تعمّ بها البلوى؛ إذ إنّ تقنين تلك المسائل يعدّ خرقا للقاعدة الفقهيّة الشهيرة التي تقرّر بأنّه لا إنكار في مسائل الاجتهاد، وتقنين هذه المسائل يعدّ شكلا من أشكال الإنكار؛ لأنّه يترتب عليه الإلزام برأي دون سواه؛ وإن يكن ثمة تقنين في هذه المسائل، فإنّه لا يعدو ذلك التقنين أن يكون وسيلة تجديد للفقه من حيث الشكل لا من حيث المضمون.

The third: The issue should be that the public be codified genus of general issues that lead them to pluralism prejudice بمقصد of maintaining uniformity is the nation, and a popular rejection of disagreement and conflict leading to the destruction of nations and فنائها. This means that the great end of a rationing process of recruitment and a means of renewal in jurisprudence in terms of content, maintenance for regularity destination is the nation. Based on this, it was not for rationing goes into the all public issues if they are permeated by the scourge if it is not conducive to pluralism prejudice بمقصد of maintaining uniformity is the nation. But it is essential for the desired rationing be limited to general discretionary issues that lead to make way for pluralism to conflicts and disputes.

This fourth: Necessity of the fact that taking into account the interest based on the choice of opinion, which is intended codified and becoming a legal duty to abide by it, and if the original decision when the majority of scholars jurisprudence and assets is to prevent denial in matters of diligence, whether those issues public or private, that originally fundamentalist idiosyncratic forthcoming restricted not to be the governor . If you chose the ruling opinion of the views contained in the issue discretionary build on the auspices of considerable interest, the choice raises the dispute in this matter. Therefore, it behooves the ruler to be chosen taking into account the interest basis; since the rule of the ruling as it is commonly known entrusted under the auspices of interest. Accordingly, the opinion of his choice to become a law must be available in that opinion brought considerable benefit, or ward off evil, considering. This means that the governor should not exceed the take interest into account when choosing an opinion from the views of rationing and mandatory.

These are the four basic things that must be met in the process of rationing becomes a means of renewal in Jurisprudence in form and substance. And this is reflected to us to be the term rationing jurisprudence Bhspana and means of renewal in Jurisprudence in form and substance. As we reflected the fact that rationing to be a valid way to renewal in thought, politics, and sociology, economics and others in form and substance.

The third paragraph: In the dialectical relationship between innovation and regulation:

In light of the Ordnah of perception and criticism for both terms, and based on what we finished it from the perception modest about to be term rationing and before renewal in the current era; we نفزع to report to say that the relationship between innovation and rationing relationship destination means, and the relationship is very due; Valtjdid is a popular destination steady . The rationing, shall be deemed a cause of the reasons that should be used to achieve renewal.

The renewal religious duty and demand legitimately is not right for a man who believes in Almighty God and His Messenger Karim denied or questioned, but sin the whole nation that Ohmloh or failed him; has stated in the will of many religious texts function on the necessity of the nation, and perhaps the hadeeth of Abu Dawood, one of the most .

The rationing, it was still a bone of contention and differences between researchers, and still knowledgeable, past and present differ in legitimacy, and hypothesis; since he sees a fraction of the number contemporaries is not prescribed, and others see its legitimacy.

Based on this, it can be concluded to say that the renewal imposed in every age and Egypt, and means of multiple and renewable, and should not be counted in a way without the other, but should look for more aids to achieve renewal destruction in thought and belief, education, politics, and sociology, and economics .

* * *
The second topic:

Islamic banks in the genesis of rationing and the possibility of hiring for renewal

While manifested to us to be the term rationing in recent studies, and while we finished the report say that rationing is the day of the most important means of innovation in Islamic jurisprudence in terms of form and content, we believe that we stand on the possibility of employment of this method in the section of the jurisprudence of transactions, a door . It behooves us that نعرج a little on the definition of these banks as a prelude to demonstrate how to employ rationing for renewal in her career and mission.

First paragraph: In the genesis of conventional banks and Islamic banks([7])

Of old-new in the world of thought financial, those established institutions that deal with the achievement arrived McCain among employers money and employers, to protect the funds from being lost and businesses of extortion, and organized the means and ways and areas that should be integrated where money and business, and join the ideas and efforts. These institutions have seen through the ages and ages, attention, attention and care from the presence of thinkers and decision-makers, and these institutions are known in the world of people in banks or banks or banks.

The origin of the word bank (Broken Alra) Is derived from a purely distracted Exchange, exchange means: Monetary sale cash. The bank (The talents enabled and Council): Meant to the place where the exchange.

This has become a name called today on what is known bank in European languages, this term (Bank) Derived in originally from Alkelmhalaatalih, “Banco” "Banco" means this word in the Italian table or table. Due call it a special place this name to be engaged in acts of exchange in مبارديا wore different types of currencies in which they deal on the table with a glass facade, and they were if you stop someone from performing its obligations before others sentenced to destroy public Glass his table publicly indulging in تحقيره, “bancaratta”. Including the origin of the word is derived bankruptcy in other European languages ​​such as English, calling bankruptcy “bankruptcy”.

Tell us dated the history of the emergence of banks (= Banks = banks) That the Bank of Venice, founded in 1157, is the oldest bank in the sense modern banking. وقد كان هذا المصرف في بادئ الأمر جمعيّة ذات امتيازات خاصّة ألّفها دائنو الدولة؛ إذ كانت حكومة الجمهوريّة مثقلة بالديون بسبب الحروب المتعددة التي خاضت غمارها، وسمح إذ ذاك بنقل الحقوق التي كانت لهؤلاء الدائنين من شخص لآخر، واشترط أن تكون المدفوعات الخاصة بالبضائع والصكوك بالعملة الحسابيّة الخاصّة بالبنك، وأن يدفع المدينون ديونهم في البنك، فيتلقاها الدائنون بهذه الطريقة، وبهذا أصبحت تسوية المعاملات مجرد نقل مبالغ في دفاتر البنك من حساب إلى آخر.

Thus rolled the emergence of other banks in France, England, the Netherlands, and Spain (= Andalusia);, Where he founded in the city of Barcelona bank deposits in 1401 .. He also founded in the city of Venice later in the sixteenth century months under the name of Bank “School of Pizza Rialto”, And established on منواله in the seventh century AD Bank of Amsterdam in 1609. The this paradigm Bank, which Ahtzt by most European banks since that time to the present day.

Of course, while it is this brief overview of the historical development of the banks, it is reporting freedoms that preceded the establishment of banking banks. Has been known all human civilizations multiple patterns and a variety of forms of today's tagged business banking;, but that a number of the Gospels pointed out some of these actions, in the Gospel of Matthew (Sanitation 21/12) Reads: “.. Jesus entered the temple of God, and took out all who were buying and selling in the temple, and the heart of the moneychangers tables, and chairs that sold doves, and said to them,: Written my house called the House of Prayer, and you جعلتموه the den of thieves”..اهـ. The Gospel of Luke (Sanitation 19/23) The text of which reads as: “..Why did not you put my silver on the table moneychangers, I figured when I came Ostofiha with Lord ..” اهـ.

This is indicated by a number of archaeological excavations that the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia before the thirty-four centuries BC knew the colors of the banking activity which Bacherthm the sacred temples of the Red Kalmabd. As well as known civilization Alabablahalta of the built on the ruins of the Sumerian civilization forms of banking activity. As well as the Greek civilization known multi-colors, which is known today as banking or business activities. The Romans continued the Greeks to take advantage of those activities and development, and dissemination in all deferrals, art has reached the banking aspects of Roman civilization in before that تطالها the hands ruin and extinction..

As for the Islamic civilization, they did not differ from previous civilizations in the practice of the early Muslims forms of banking business, particularly with regard to the acceptance of deposits, investment, and the practice of some investment business Kalmdharbh and others; were these activities and other applicable before the mission and beyond.. On the whole, we can conclude to say that the bank saw thought through the centuries and civilizations successive developments, and still pregnant more days of development, progress and stability and expansion of this thought. While we want to نؤرخ first bank I have known Islamic countries in the modern sense, the National Bank of Egypt is the oldest commercial banks in the Islamic world, where its foundation back to about 1898, was the capital when it was founded estimated 500.000 £.

واعتبارًا بالتمازج القارّ الثابت بين المال والفكر والعقيدة، واعتدادًا بتلك الأهميّة القصوى التي تناط بالبعد العقديّ في مجال ترشيد النشاط الماليّ من حيث رسم الخطى والقواعد والأسس التي ينبغي أن يتم في ضوئها صيرورة المال أداة للإعمار والتعمير، وخادما لصاحبه والمجتمع حوله؛ لذلك ليست ثمة غرابة في أن يكون للشريعة الغرّاء حضور أيّ حضور في المجال الماليّ إن كسبا واكتسابا، أو إنفاقا واستهلاكا وإنتاجا، بل لم يكن من عجب في شيء أن تتسم أحكام الشرع المتعلقة بالمال بالمرونة والسعة والانفتاح تمكينا للعقل من ابتكار ما يقدر على ابتكاره من وسائل وأساليب وسبل تمكّنه من اكتساب المال، واستهلاكه واستثماره!

ومن تلك الوسائل القديمة التي اهتدت إليها العقول في غابر الأزمان وسالف الأوان، المصارف التي تعدّ في واقعها من جنس الوسائل التي يتوصل بها إلى تحقيق أكبر قدر من النماء والإنماء والتثمير والتوفير للمال، كما يتوصل بها إلى تحقيق أقصى حماية وأعلى صيانة للمال من أن يقع اعتسافا في أيدي زمرة العابثين والمبذرين والمسرفين والجناة؛ فضلا عن أنّها تعدّ عند العقلاء ذلك الملاذ الآمن لتنظيم حركة الأموال في المجتمعات، والحفاظ عليها من الضياع والانقراض.

Hence, it is not acceptable in something that affects differences and intellectual affiliations sectarian these important institutions in the lives of individuals and communities, but we must maintain its neutrality and its mission, and we must work Gadalmakhls to improve their performance and organs, and the development of tools to achieve the hopes attached thereto and of preserving !

While tomorrow hunker down today Islam as a prominent feature and present force and act in every area of ​​life, but while at night Description “Islamic” لكل تصرف وعمل غاية تتنافس الأفراد والجماعات والمنظمات في الاستئثار به دون غيرهم؛ فإنّ المجال المصرفيّ لم يسلم من هذا السباق المحموم المتصاعد على كافة الأصعدة؛ إذ جادت الأيَّام في القرن الميلادي المنصرم بظهور دعوات ونداءات إلى تأسيس ما بات يعرف اليوم بالمصارف التجاريّة الإسلاميّة أملا في أن تسير تلك المصارف في أنشطتها وأعمالها وخدماتها وفق الأسس والقواعد العامّة التي أقرّتها الشريعة الإسلاميّة في مجال تداول المال ورواجه ونمائه وإثباته ووضوحه!

أما بالنسبة لتاريخ ظهور المصارف الموسومة اليوم بالمصارف الإسلاميّة، فإنّ المؤرّخة لنشأة هذا الصنف من المصارف يعيدون تاريخ ظهورها إلى بنوك الادخار التي أسّسها الدكتور أحمد النجار في ميت غمر عام 1963م، وكانت لها فروع في المنصورة، وبلقاس، وشربين..بيْد أنّ هذه البنوك لم يكتب لها نجاح لأسباب عدّة، من أهمّها عدم تهيئة الظروف والأوضاع الاجتماعيّة والسياسيّة تهيئة كافية، فضلا عن غلبة روح المواجهة مع المصارف التقليديّة مِمَّا عجّلت بفشلها، فالقضاء عليها.

We have stayed the idea of ​​establishing new banks on the same basis replace lectures, conferences and seminars in the corridors of universities and institutes in many parts of the world; Even if the founder of the Islamic Conference in 1969, renewed call for the need to establish an Islamic bank global mean the development of domestic and foreign trade of the OIC Member States. فتلبية to that call has been established the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah in 1975, a decision of the Organization of the Islamic Conference at the time, and then spread after the idea of ​​commercial banks, Islamic in a number of Islamic countries; فأنشئ in the Emirates of Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, and established commercial banks (Islamic) In a number of Muslim countries such as Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and other. The experience of these banks moved recently to a number of Western countries such as the United States, Britain. The estimated number of these banks in the world today more than 300 Bank, with an estimated investment of more than 500 Billion dollars in more than 30 Country in the world!

And a decade ago, a new pattern of these banks, he knew that style Islamic windows in conventional banks. It is intended these windows for traditional banks to provide, among other good business and banking activities and services in accordance with the Islamic vision for those activities, works and services, in addition to submitting its work and activities of the original and basic services. And more like these windows goods and new goods they bring big shops for new customers.

In other words,: These windows are similar to the case of some department stores that offer their customers various goods and commodities they need, and strives to bring goods demanded by its customers, as it does not bother often limiting itself to meet the needs of a special class all of its customers, but it .

This has been the new style in the idea of ​​Islamic banking tagged Balmusrfah of unprecedented popular with conventional banks in Islamic countries; since those major banks such as: City Bank, HSB and other customers opened this window called Islamic windows. And walked on Snnhm some commercial banks in a number of Islamic countries such as Egypt's Al Ahly Bank, Saudi Arabia's National Bank, Bank of the island, and many others.

This is a very brief overview of the emergence of Islamic banks and windows, also grew fraction of the number of financial institutions, as Takaful insurance institutions, and institutions, endowments, and other.

Second paragraph: In the possibility of hiring rationing to streamline the process of contemporary Islamic banks:

I've mentioned before to say that rationing purports in beyond formal phenotypic rework opinions and jurisprudence in the form of legal materials arranged and numbered, and purports in beyond scientific objective selection view of opinions discretionary and the process of that opinion legally duty commitment and obligation in a society, so in order to protect society .

As explained before rationing that objective Bhspana and means of scientific and media innovation in Islamic jurisprudence, it should be available by the four things, and the most important:

أن يكون موضوع التقنين منصبا على تلك المسائل الموسومة بالمسائل الاجتهاديّة العامّة التي تعمّ بها البلوى، وأن يترتب على التعدّديّة في تلك المسائل العامّة إخلال بمقصد الحفاظ على انتظام أمر الأمة، مِمَّا يعني أنّه إذا لم تكن المسألة المراد تقنينها عامّة، أو كان الاختلاف فيها غير مخلّ بالمقصد الآنف ذكره، فإنّه لن يكون ثمة حاجة علميّة أو موضوعيّة إلى إقحام التقنين وتوظيفه في تلك المسائل التزاما وإعمالا للقاعدة الأصوليّة الفقهيّة القارّة: No denial in matters of diligence, and then اعتدادا that the difference becomes the case as well as the source of the richness and diversity and the evolution of thought, there is no harm at all.

Based on these Altkdmtin, initiate a report to say that the issues discretionary which vary around Islamic banks contemporary multiple and varied; Some issues discretionary general nature does not entail difference where prejudice بمقصد regularity is the nation in respect of financial, as is the case in different in a number of formulas . And differences in the extent of obligation to fulfill the promise of a religion and spend in a safety deposit contracts of Murabaha. And differences in the legality ensure speculative capital speculation, and others.

And that some of them discretionary matters of a general nature consequent difference prejudice بمقصد of the regularity of the nation is in financial affairs, Kachtlavhm in the legitimacy of Islamic deposit money in banks usurious Pure, or in riba-based banks is Pure. And differences in the legality of accepting bank interest of the funds deposited in riba-based financial institutions inside and outside the Islamic Diar. And differences in the legality of the acquisition of houses and housing through bank financing usurious. And differences in the legality of the opening of Islamic windows in conventional banks usury Pure. And differences in the extent of applicability of usury is forbidden on loans productivity. And differences in the extent of the prohibition of usury in the house of war. And differences in the extent of applicability of usury is forbidden to some photos of the benefits banking Kal_husomat and discounts obtained from checks and other etc... ([8]).

The differences in the Islamic banking researchers about these issues referred to Nkhalha the difference in discretionary general issues resulting difference where a clear breach بمقصد regularity of the nation is in financial affairs, as the resulting difference in breach of destination overall goal to save money. As this difference is doomed to lead to be in the community denominations Athamilon at each other; فطائفة not see prohibited in the abuse of Islamic banks such transactions and Albeaat, and a range of other sees abuse violation gross ordered Shara in respect of financial and discourse bold riba forbidden who has vowed to God drug users .

Hence, the renewal in the door of Islamic banking achieved employing rationing in these issues to choose those views is required by the parish in a society based on the care of the interest of time estimated by the guardian Hakim, What Gannan chosen, and the parish shall work as explained above .

وبطبيعة الحال، لا يحقّ لطائفة أية طائفة أن تعتبر ما يختاره الحاكم من رأي من تلك الآراء المختلف فيها خروجا على شرع الله، أو تهاونا في شأن الربا والبيوع المنهي عنها؛ ذلك لأنّ هذه المسائل تندرج ضمن المسائل المختلف فيها، ولا يصحّ لأحد ـ عند محقّقي المتفقهة والأصوليّة ـ الإنكار على المخالفين فيها، بل إنّ للحاكم باتفاق عامّة النظار والمحقّقين من أهل العلم بالفقه والأصول والمقاصد أن يرفع الخلاف فيها باختياره أحد الآراء استنادا إلى رعاية المصلحة الزمنية المعتبرة.

The other discretionary issues that do not result difference where prejudice بمقصد of the regularity of the nation is in financial affairs, as we have said and بمقصد not save money, it does not need to hire the rationing;, but should open the way for renewable interpretations in light of what occurs to the arena of .

على أنّه من الحريّ بالتقرير يمكن الانتقال بالمسألة التقنينيّة من الدائرة القطريّة في المسائل الماليّة بحيث يغدو ثمة تقنين للمسائل الماليّة في المصارف الإسلاميّة بغض النظر عن مواقعها في الأقطار، ويتمّ تقنين الآراء وفق أسس منهجيّة معتبرة، ثُمَّ إلزام كافة المصارف الإسلاميّة بتلك الآراء المقنّنة تحقيقا لحلم الوحدة الإسلاميّة في المجال الاقتصاديّ في المرحلة الراهنة، وتضييقا لدائرة الفجوة والجفوة بين المصلّيين في المسألة الماليّة، وتخفيفا لحالة الرهق الفكريّ، والتناقض الذهني الذي يعيش فيه الإنسان المسلم العاديّ إزاء مختلف المسائل الماليّة وخاصّة المتصلة بالمصارف الإسلاميّة.

Thus, the need for touch today to employ rationing to eliminate many of these common differences between Islamic banks as a result of the different scholars in jurisprudence relating to contracts and transactions carried out by banks in various Muslim countries.

The Islamic banks should strive to eliminate those differences, especially those differences that come on the idea of ​​banking all Baltqweid and destruction, and must have a constant quest for rapprochement between practices and applications scattered for Baaat and the contracts and financial transactions.

وبطبيعة الحال، لا بدّ من الإشادة في هذا المقام بما يقوم به عدد غير قليل من المؤسسات الرائدة التي أنشئت من أجل تحقيق تقارب وتوحيد في تطبيقات المصارف للبياعات والعقود من المنظور الإسلاميّ؛ وتأتي على تلك المؤسّسات، هيئة المحاسبة والمراجعة للمؤسّسات الماليّة الإسلاميّة بالبحرين، حيث إنّ ثمة جهودا مباركة بذلتها ولا تزال تبذلها هذه الهيئة من أجل التقريب بين المؤسّسات الماليّة التجاريّة، غير أنّها لقلّة إمكاناتها، لا تزال جهودها في مجال صياغة المعايير الشرعيّة والحسابيّة محدودة التأثير، ولا تحظى معاييرها بأي مستوى من الإلزام على مستوى المصارف في العالم الإسلاميّ؛ ذلك لأنّها ليست هيئة حكوميّة ملزمة، ولا تمثّل ـ بأي حال من الأحوال ـ جميع المصارف الإسلاميّة، وبالتالي، فإنّ المعايير التي أصدرتها لا تعدّ ملزمة على المصارف الإسلاميّة التجاريّة، فضلا عن أنّها لا تملك أدنى سلطة لإلزام أيّ مصرف إسلاميّ بالعمل بتلك المعايير.

Another body is engaged in rationing of central banks in the Islamic world, known as the Council of banking services in Malaysia. Has been active this Council recently, he was able in a short period to achieve a leap in bringing together central banks in the Islamic world in order to unify their applications for contracts and Albeaat and financial transactions carried out by these banks; nor is this different from the Council for the Accounting and Auditing in terms of limited effect, and binding .

Whatever the thing, the need touches to regulate the contemporary Islamic banks to ease the disparity and the contrast between them in terms of their attitudes toward many contracts, Albeaat and financial transactions carried out by.

To legalize Rashid to these banks, we believe that it should start crystallizing the pillars of scientific methodology from which to choose those views and jurisprudence codify, Valelzam, and this is what he will address the latter topic next.

* * *
The third topic:

The pillars of employment regulation in the field of contemporary Islamic banking

لئن تجلى لنا أهميّة توظيف التقنين في مجال المصارف الإسلاميّة، ولئن أوضحنا بعضا من تلك المسائل التي يمكن للتقنين أن يلجها، قضاء على آفة الاختلاف المخل بمقصد انتظام أمر الأمة في المسائل العامّة التي تعمّ بها البلوى، ولئن قرّرنا قبلُ بأنّ التقنين وسيلة عصريّة هامّة من وسائل التجديد في الفقه، والعقيدة، والتربية والسلوك، والفكر، والسياسة، والاجتماع، والاقتصاد، وسواه؛ لذلك، فإنّه حريّ أن نسلّط مزيدا من الضوء على المرتكزات التي ينبغي الاعتداد بها عند إرادة تقنين رأي من الآراء والاجتهادات الفقهيّة المتصلة بالشأن الماليّ عموما، وبالمصرفية الإسلاميّة خصوصا.

And initiate a report to say that we Nrom Bmrtkzac employ rationing in this study those principles methodology and premises intellectual which must be taken into account when choosing the opinion of the consensus discretionary contained in the issue of discretionary matters of finance and business, and the process of that view, the chosen law requiring it in the current era, and are summarized :

The first principle: Arbitration own purposes Shara in transactions in doctrinal views.

The second principle: The balance between the benefits and evil consequences on jurisprudential views.

The third principle: Bmalat-esteem acts at work than doctrinal consensus opinion.

And behooves us to highlight each and every one of these three principles are as follows:


The first principle: Arbitration own purposes Shara door transactions in doctrinal views:

Nrom purposes Shara private transactions door those meanings stones and noble goals that have been observed Shara al-Hakim in the folds of related texts issue financial Tnzira and the application([9]). So that it is not without legislation or principle related to the financial affairs of note that the meanings and purposes.. “([10]).. In other words, if those meanings and goals are the secrets legislation([11]). العامّة الكامنة في المسألة الماليّة، ويجدها الناظر مبثوثة في كلّ المبادئ والتشريعات المتعلقة بالشأن الماليّ، بل إنّ كافّة الأسس والمبادئ والأحكام الشرعيّة الماليّة صيغ جميعها من أجل تحقيق تلك المعاني والغايات، مِمَّا يجعل الاعتداد بها في المسألة التأصيليّة شأنا مركزيّا لا يمكن لامرئ الاستهانة به، بله الاستغناء عنه مادام ذلك الناظر قاصدا الوصول إلى مراد الشرع الحكيم من تلك المبادئ والتشريعات الماليّة المختلفة.

The meditator prudent inter revelation contained in the texts financial issue (Door transactions) Finds texts include originality report clearly the meaning of Khaleda and objectives of the noble and great mysteries, do not change with the times and places and situations and conditions, and is the largest of those meanings and goals and secrets to keep a number of meanings, a conservation, Altthmar, and boom, trading, and evidence, and Justice.

Based on this, it can be concluded to say that the purposes Shara in the financial issue is the:

Vogue money destination, and is intended to need money circulation among the most possible number of people generally right.

The purpose of clarity of money, and is intended to keep the money for the damage and exposure to discounts as much as possible.

And save money destination, and is intended to consider the save in both exchanged with other nations and survival of the nation, however.

And intent to prove the money, which is determined by the owners generally do not risk it does not dispute.

And destination of Justice in the money, is to be receiving generally is unjust, is either to get the work acquires, either with the owner or mosquitoes donation, either legacy([12]).

These meanings are objective reasons that bounces to every principle or legislation connected with money; it is not free as noted above principle or legislation in the financial affairs to be meaningful to the combination of these meanings or unique. فالمبادئ الشرعيّة القارّة في المسألة الإنتاجية عناصر وتكاليف وعوائد يروم جميعها تحقيق مقصد حفظ المال، ومقصد تقريره، ومقصد رواجه، ومقصد تداوله، كما أنّ الأحكام الشرعيّة الماليّة من عقود ومعاملات وتصرفات يراد منها جميعها تحقيق المقاصد المشار إليها آنفا، إذ ليس ثمة عقد شرعيّ معتبر لا يتحقق من خلاله تحقيق هذه المقاصد، كما أنّه ليس هناك تصرف ماليّ مشروع يعتدّ به لا يفضي إلى تحقيق هذه المقاصد، بل إنّ هذه المقاصد العليّة تعدّ الغايات السَّنيّة التي من أجلها شرّعت الزكوات والأوقاف والصدقات وسواها.

وتأسيسا على هذا، فإنّه يجب عرض جميع الاجتهادات والأنظار والأفكار التي تنسج حول مختلف المسائل الماليّة على هذه المقاصد بحيث يعتدّ منها ما لا يتعارض معها، ويرفض منها ما كان متعارضا مع أيّ من هذه المقاصد، اعتبارًا بأنّ هذه المقاصد تعدّ في حقيقتها ثوابت لا يمكن تغييرها أو تحويرها أو تبديلها، وأما الاجتهادات والأنظار والأفكار، فإنّها وسائل يراد لها تحقيق الثوابت، فإذا عجزت عن ذلك وجب صرف النظر عنها والبحث عن سواها.

The appeal to the purposes of the weighting and selection would mitigate the Glua of random applications of the principles and legal provisions relating to money. It would also mitigate conflicts and disagreements about many theoretical principles and legal provisions for financial transactions.

The elite say: The choice of the opinion of the consensus discretionary contained on the issue of financial matters, whether that matter new or old, should be done by looking at the relationship that view these destinations closer and dimension, so the likelihood of opinion, which is intended codified sure of being opinion leads work by .

The application of this principle, we multiply this example, which it is known in the worlds of Almtfgahh and fundamentalism that there Unlike Gara among the scholars ancient and modern about the legality of selling the sample; where he goes public to say no legitimacy, and sees gentlemen Shaafa'is permissible, and each team its evidence, and arguments. As a result of this dispute jurisprudence, Islamic banks in Southeast Asia practiced this sale, and تتفنن apply multiple formats, while the cast this sale rejection in other Islamic banks in the Middle East, as it prepared from the sales is forbidden.

وبناء على هذا، فإذا رغب ولي أمر للمسلمين في دولة من الدول تقنين أحد هذين الرأيين الواردين في هذه المسألة وصيرورته قانونا ملزما في المصارف الإسلاميّة، فإنّ على السادة المقنّين تحكيم مقاصد الشرع الخاصّة بباب المعاملات في هذا البيع، بحيث إذا وجدوا أنّ القول بالمنع أكثر تحقيقا لتلك المقاصد، وجب ـ عندئذ ـ تقنين الرأي القائل بالمنع، وأما إذا وجدوا أنّ القول بالجواز هو الأكثر تحقيقا للمقاصد، حقّ عليه تقنين الرأي القائل بالجواز، وهكذا دواليكم.

The basis of the weighting between these two views, Vtguenin opinion Almrjaj, due to the fact that that view is likely adhesive purposes opinion, and best able to achieve secrets and desired meanings prescribed from Tjoisah or prohibited such treatment. Based on this, if we look at the sample sale and its contemporary Olvenah applications preclude achieving the three objectives of Shara for transactions door; mean: Development money destination, destination vogue money, money trading destination. This is the current selling its applications does not lead to achievement of these objectives, and would be inconsistent with, and therefore, the first to say prevention and lion can not because it is the opinion of the public, but because it is in line with the observance of the purposes Shara private transactions door. It is said such a thing in applications sales marked the sale of securitization banking, the meditation in applications such treatment in Islamic banks contemporary finds meditator they are no longer in fact achieve the purposes Shara own door transactions, but they do not differ in the money from the sale of the sample in terms of the lack of verification . ولذلك، فإذا أريد تقنين هذه المسألة، وجب اللواذ بالرأي القائل بالمنع وذلك لافتقار الرأي القائل بالجواز إلى تحقيق مقاصد الشرع الخاصّة بباب المعاملات، ولا يضير القول بالمنع أن يكون رأيا مخالفا لرأي الجمهور، فالعبرة للمقاصد أولا وآخرًا؛ إذ حيث المقاصد، فثمة شرع الله تعالى، لأنّ المقاصد ـ كما هو معلوم ـ تعدّ الأسرار والحكم التي أودعها الله في تشريعاتها، فإذا غابت عن تشريع، فإنّه لا يصح نسبة ذلك التشريع إلى الشرع!!

Proceeding from this, it should be displayed every doctrine contained in financial matters discretionary public purposes Shara own door transactions, before choosing the opinion of the rationing, what led them to achieve these purposes, they should be weighted, Vtgueninh, and becoming a legally binding duty to act in the . The reviews that do not spend to achieve those objectives, it is not properly selected, and rationed, regardless of being the views of the public or submerged.

And guided by this principle, it should be today renewed consideration of the inter contracts and financial transactions engaged in Islamic banks, in viewing all of the purposes Shara own door transactions, what was of those contracts and transactions conducive to the achievement of the purposes Shara got used it, and must be rationed, and bucking them .

As of the reporting freedoms that resorting to the purposes as a standard weighting must become today's intellectual haven weighting among other jurisprudence whether those interpretations in financial affairs, or in social affairs, or in political affairs.

The second principle: The balance between the benefits and evil consequences on jurisprudential views:

While we consider the purposes of the standard invoked him to see the first choice of opinion between the views and interpretations when rationing, there is a principle last should Alloaz to do when he wants a new opinion rationing began in emerging financial issue does not affect the opinion of one of the ancients for their novelty and grandmother. This principle is based on the principle of balance between the benefits and evil consequences of the reaction solution or forbidden, so that if the swing benefits, analysis, opinion was, then codifies that view after. The if swing evils, the opinion would be forbidden, then codifies it after.

This principle is different from the previous principle in that it principle Alaz the opinion to find out is worth a choice and weighting. But this, it Alaz to know Shara opinion in a novel is not a financial issue for two senior opinion or analysis of the prohibition, which requires diligence and thinking in determining the appropriate rule for that matter developed in the light of the impact that the consequent benefits Rahjh or The negative Rahjh of.

In other words,: If you say that conduct analysis the emerging lead to financial benefits brought preponderant, it must then report to say the analysis, then that opinion after rationing. But if it was that it is haraam consequent ward off evils Rahjh, it must then report that it is haraam then that opinion after rationing.

Based on this, the opinion of the rationing began solution or forbidden in financial matters emerging pause depends on the effect you have on the chosen solution opinion or forbidden.

To illustrate this, the issue of Tskik instruments Leasing, participation, speculation, and Murabaha, LV and others; It is well known that التصكيك is one of the issues introduced in denominations did not address scholars ancient prohibiting or analysis, and therefore, say analyzed or prohibition should be linked to the implications on both . If say, bringing benefits Rahjh the analysis shall adopt the analysis, Vtgueninh. If that it is haraam Daria The negative Rahjh of must adopt say haraam, Vtgueninh the.

The significance of this principle in the process of codification would remove the confusion and disorder for rationing, so that the legalization of those views which has the budget between the benefits and cons, Ftergeht on one another.

As of the reporting freedoms that this budget does not conflict with the planned public assets in Shara latest originally Kkon in transactions permitted, and originally in the contracts necessary, the original in terms of health. But must be considered in every Newbie or a novelty in the light of the balance of benefits and harm from that interest considered in Islam means to bring all the benefit, and ward off all the evil, and as long as the interests of the goals intended for the provisions of the Sharia, the mind and build on them is a guarantee of access to Murad God .

Butter say: To be of rationing desired movement to build on this principle when carefree codified opinion, and it has become a law requiring financial banks contemporary Islamic, Valsdor this principle conducive to the realization of the purposes Shara door transactions, is also conducive to achieving Murad al-Shara in business developments in money and. And God bless Imam Shaatibi who pointed out the importance of this dimension in dealing with the developments, where he reads: “..أنّ المجتهد لا يحكم على فعل من الأفعال الصادرة عن المكلّفين بالإقدام أو بالإحجام إِلاَّ بعد نظره إلى ما يؤول إليه ذلك الفعل؛ مشروعا لمصلحة فيه تستجلب، أو لمفسدة تدرأ، ولكن له مآل على خلاف ما قصد فيه، وقد يكون غير مشروع لمفسدة تنشأ عنه، أو مصلحة تندفع به، ولكن له مآل على خلاف ذلك، فإذا أطلق القول في الأول بالمشروعيّة، فربمّا أدّى استجلاب المصلحة فيه إلى مفسدة تساوي المصلحة أو تزيد عليها، فيكون هذا مانعا من إطلاق القول بالمشروعيّة، وكذلك إذا أطلق القول في الثاني بعدم المشروعيّة..” ([13]).

The elite say: Do not be resorting to this principle to adjust the view, which is intended codified, Velzam the public and private that view.

The third principle: Bmalat-esteem acts when rationing opinion of jurisprudential views:

If the balance between the benefits and cons mainly Alaz to find out opinion better reporting and certification for financial question updated in the pale, there is a principle should be resorted to when the carefree codified opinion of opinions jurisprudential mainstream, this is known as the principle Bmalat acts, and is intended to be taken into account المآلات that result . If the المآلات is conducive to damaging بمقصد of the purposes of the Shara The misapplication or download to rule in reality, or to the fact that reality is not ready to accept the ruling, the rationing to pay attention to this principle before the adoption of the opinion and its application. And this may be that the health of opinion does not mean fit for the legalization of, Valttbaiq and download, but you have to look construed to that view when the application.

Based on this, the legalization of any new or old opinion he must be made after considering the Malath, so that it is considering the last leg of their discretionary theoretical aimed at achieve debt Gayoomah, and the payment of financial and other life the true teachings of Islam.

The invoked Bmalat acts when choosing opinion of the Old or new rationing is a sure guarantee for the proper application of those in the world of opinion Downloads; rated as the opinion finds its way to falling in a flexible and easy to. كما يعدّ الاعتداد بالمآلات وسيلة فاعلة للقضاء المبرم على الازدواجيّة المموقوتة، والتباين المنبوذ بين النظر والتطبيق في كثير من الأحيان، إذ إنّه من الملاحظ اليوم أنّ ثمة جملة حسنة من الاجتهادات الماليّة التي تؤصلت بعيدا عن الاعتداد بالمآلات تعاني تشوّها في التطبيق، وقلقا في التنـزيل، واضطرابا في الرؤية كما هو الحال في حال كثير من المصارف والمؤسّسات الماليّة الموسومة بالمصارف والمؤسّسات الماليّة الإسلاميّة، حيث إنّها لم تحقق هذه المصارف ـ على الرغم من مرور عقود أربعة على ظهورها ـ أهمّ هدف من نشأتها، وهو المتمثل في مكافحة الفقر بين الشعوب الإسلاميّة، ومحاربة الربا بجميع أشكاله وصوره وتطبيقاته. The reason for all of this to the concentration of most of the activities of these banks about contracts and transactions increase the acrimony and the gap between rich and poor, as it expands in debts at the expense of partnerships!!

Accordingly, the director of wandering day escalating and systematic the objective Almfeza contradiction between theory and application, lies in the need to codify those views jurisprudential capable of reconnection between the example and the reality on the one hand, and to achieve the desired goals and objectives of Islamic banks on the other hand. And God bless Imam Shaatibi who once drew attention to those critical importance of this matter, he said in Muaqath What had already conveyed part of it, which is saying: “..النظر في مآلات الأفعال معتبر مقصود شرعًا، كانت الأفعال موافقةً أو مخالفة، وذلك أن المجتهد لا يحكم على فعل من الأفعال الصادرة عن المكلَّفين بالإقدام أو بالإحجام إِلاَّ بعد نظره إلى ما يؤول إليه ذلك الفعل؛ مشروعاً لمصلحة فيه تستجلب، أو لمفسدة تدرأ، ولكن له مآل على خلاف ما قصد فيه، وقد يكون غير مشروع لمفسدة تنشأ عنه، أو مصلحة تندفع به، ولكن له مآل على خلاف ذلك، فإذا أطلق القول في الأول بالمشروعيَّة فربَّما أدَّى استجلاب المصلحة فيه إلى مفسدة تساوي المصلحة أو تزيد عليها، فيكون هذا مانعاً من إطلاق القول بالمشروعيَّة. As well as if the second was to say no legitimacy may led to Astdvaa of corrupting evil equal to or above, it is not true legitimacy.. (فالنظر in Malate acts) The supplier of hard-working difficult, but that he was tortured taste, Mahmoud الغب, (Consequences), A neighbor on the purposes of the law”([14]).

The anti-fast processors and applications distorted interpretations of financial lies in its presentation on this principle, whether those interpretations old or new, whether in the area of ​​contracts and Albeaat transactions, or were in the area الزكوات and endowments, gifts and others, what was the jurisprudence applicable and unloading in reality . Unless it is a viable and investigation to obsolescence or Zerviha of the never permissible, and perhaps for some of them to work while. Which means that the availability of the applicability and verified in the financial jurisprudence would not be ignored or bypassed when rationing, as it means that there is no need in the real sense of Islamic sober to the jurisprudential Mali jurisprudence can not be applied in the world of people, the nor endures fact, not stand him time. فالنظر and complementary application to consider substantive Islamic Rasheed!!

وعلى العموم، هذه هي أهم المرتكزات التي ينبغي الاستناد إليها عند توظيف التقنين في مجال المصرفيّة الإسلاميّة المعاصرة؛ وينضاف إليها ما سبق الإشارة إليه من أنّ المسألة التقنينيّة لا ينبغي إقحامها في كل المسائل والقضايا، وإنّما ينبغي توظيفها في تلك المسائل الاجتهاديّة العامّة التي تعمّ بها البلوى، ويترتب على تعدّدية الآراء فيها إخلال بمقصد انتظام أمر الأمة؛ مِمَّا يعني أنّه إذا لم تكن المسألة المراد تقنينها من جنس المسائل العامّة، أو كانت التعدّدية فيها غير مخلّ بالمقصد المشار إليه آنفا، فإنّه لا حاجة إلى التقنين، بل يجب أن يفسح المجال للتعدديّة؛ إذ إنّها تغدو ـ بعدُ ـ مصدر ثراء وتنوع وقوة وتطور.

* * *

Conclusion: The most important results of the study

The study found, among other good results, and improves us summarized in the following points:

First: Must not exceed talking about the legality of renewal, Valtjdid a religious duty and the need for fashionable; therefore denied or questioned is a departure from the Avenue, and a flagrant assault on the Islamic principle tall that it identifies the validity of Islam every time and place. Indeed, the recovery of the nation's cultural knowledge and leadership and scientific leadership, all those dependent on renewed thinking approaches, and mechanisms of interaction with the world around them. It is impossible to be of Charge civilized nation again unless renewed consideration of the cultural heritage and intellectual heritage, and carry them to enable them to social escort conscious, rational and confrontation, graceful and enlightenment.

Secondly: إنّ التجديد المنشود في الفكر الإسلاميّ لا ينحصر في دائرة الفقه، فحسب، ولكنّه يتنظم العقيدة، والتربية، بل إنّه يتنظم جميع مجالات الحياة الإنسانيّة، فثمة تجديد في الفقه، وتجديد في العقيدة، وتجديد في التربية، وتجديد في الفكر، وتجديد في السياسة، وتجديد في الاجتماع، وتجديد في الاقتصاد، وتجديد في الثقافة، وذلك اعتبارًا بأنّ هذه المجالات كلها يطالها البلى، ويداهمها التقادم مِمَّا يعجزها على المواكبة والتأثير. Accordingly, the renewal is a tributary of of which Alaz the resort to re-vitality, dynamism and activity to these areas to enable them to achieve their goals and mission.

Thirdly: The renewal of Islamic jurisprudence should not be a reenactment in shape, but must be a renewal in content, and in the curriculum, and should be used in all possible ways and means in order to achieve a comprehensive renewal of Islamic jurisprudence in form and substance and approach the subject.

IV: The codification of Islamic jurisprudence is intended to rework provisions and jurisprudence in the form of legal materials arranged and numbered, also means choosing opinion reviews ijtihaad, and it has become a law court going for it, and invoke it litigated in a society in the era of the Ages. Based on this, the rationing is today one of the most important means of innovation in Islamic jurisprudence, in form and substance, it is in terms of form should be employed in order to re-formulate opinions and jurisprudence in the form of legal materials arranged and numbered. In terms of content, it can be harnessed through the selection of the opinion of doctrinal views and becoming a legally binding commitment and duty in a society in the era of the Ages.

V.: The relationship between the renewal بالتقنين relationship destination means, Valtjdid destination steady and firm, and the rationing Phusilh important means of achieving this objective, therefore, not surprising that Asag dispute the legality of rationing, not Asag lowest odds in the premise of innovation and necessity in every age and Egypt.

Sixthly: إنّ المصارف الإسلاميّة تمثل اليوم واجهة مهمة دالة على شموليّة الإسلام وقدرته على توجيه حياة الإنسان في جميع شعابها، وقد أسّست هذه المصارف في النصف الثاني من القرن المنصرم وذلك من أجل إبراز أسس النظام الماليّ في الإسلام، ومكافحة الربا، وسائر المعاملات التي تخرج المال عن وظيفته الأساسيّة، بيْد أنّ هذه المصارف لما تحقق كثيرا من الآمال التي علّقتها عليها الأمّة، إذ لا تزال جوانب من المعاملات الربويّة حاضرة بالقوة والفعل في كثير من هذه المصارف. Also, these banks did not turn out after the banks service narrowing the gap and acrimony between rich and poor, as it continues to compete with their counterparts in the expansion of the contracts and transactions based on debt, the transaction list to participate, they complain about a shortage of these banks, which is a concern for those who have struggled .

Seventh: إنّه من الممكن توظيف التقنين للتجديد في العديد من المسائل الاجتهاديّة التي اختلفت فيها الأنظار الفقهيّة قديما وحديثا، ويتوقف ذلك التوظيف على كون تلك المسائل الاجتهاديّة مسائل عامّة تعم بها البلوى، ويؤدّي الاختلاف فيها إلى إخلال بمقصد انتظام أمر الأمة في الشأن الماليّ، كما هو الحال في اختلاف الفقهاء في مدى مشروعيّة إيداع الأموال في المصارف الربويّة في حالة عدم وجود مصارف إسلاميّة، واختلافهم في مدى مشروعيّة الاستفادة من الفوائد المتحصلة من الأموال المودعة في المصارف الربويّة خارج الديار الإسلاميّة، وغيرها من المسائل المختلف فيها اليوم. The issues discretionary other does not entail difference where prejudice بمقصد regularity is the nation in regard financial Kachtlavhm on the legality of the obligation to fulfill the promise of religion and the judiciary, and the differences in rebates and discounts earned from banknotes and others, it does not need to employ rationing in these matters, and must .

VIII: إنّ المصارف الإسلاميّة تحتاج اليوم إلى تقنين العديد من الاجتهادات الفقهيّة التي تطبّقها خروجا من الخلافات المريرة حول بعض العقود والبياعات الهامّة، وَمِـمَّا يؤسف له أنّ هذه المصارف لا تتوافر ـ حتى هذه اللحظة ـ على دعم سلطانيّ يجعل تقنين أعمالها ممكنا على المستوى العالميّ؛ مِمَّا يعني أنّ التقنين الممكن لهذه المصارف لا يتجاوز اليوم دائرة القطر الواحد، والمأمول أن يغدو تقنين قابل للتطبيق في جميع أنحاء العالم الإسلاميّ. It is worth paying tribute and remembrance in this regard is played by the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic institutions of serious attempts to achieve this rationing through the issuance of standards of legitimacy and accounting, as well as should be commended for including the Board of Banking attempts commendable in bringing together central banks in the Islamic world and beyond.

Finally: The A pillars should be invoked when carefree codification of Islamic banks at the global level, namely those in a number of pillars of the scientific and methodological principles, which are summarized in the principle of resorting to special purposes Shara transactions door to choose which opinion to be codified. The second principle, is to weigh the benefits and cons of opinion in determining which meant codified, in the issues and emerging issues. The third principle, is the self Bmalat carefree when codified acts of consensus opinion whether it's an old or new opinion, inclined view is the standard that should be taken into account total when rationing opinions and interpretations.

In this keep Rahalna when the end of the study, asking the Holy Moly to bless us abundantly mercy, and Ichaelona with great care, and increases our jurisprudence in religion and pursuant to his book and the Sunnah of His Prophet, if we want reform, but what we, and Toviguena only God Almighty.

Most important references of the study

1. Application of Islamic law in the Sudan between truth and excitement, Almkashva the Taha Alkbai, (Cairo, Zahra Arab Media, a second edition in 1986).

2. Efforts to codify Islamic jurisprudence, and gift Zoheily, (Beirut, founder of the message, the first edition in 1987).

3. Entrance to the study of law and the application of Islamic law, Tawfiq Abdel Nasser Al-Attar, (Cairo, Dar virtue.).

4. Inclusive of the assets of usury, Egyptian companion Younis, (Damascus, Dar pen, Beirut, Casablanca maize, the first edition of 1991).

5. Islamic law from the Department of Studies and Research in Amman without the date and publishing house).

6. Jurisprudence and Legislation input and history, professional bin Omar Altewagna, (Oman, the first edition of 1996).

7. Rules of provisions in the interests of the creatures, scientists Sultan Izz al-Din Ibn Abdul Aziz peaceful, adjust and correct Abdel Latif Hassan Abdel Rahman (Beirut, Dar scientific books, the first edition of 1999).

8. Introduction to the Islamic Sharia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, (Beirut, founder of the message, the second edition).

9. The purposes of Islamic law, Sheikh Mohammed Tahar Ben Achour, investigation and study Mohamed Tahar Almisawi (..Insights for scientific production, first edition, 1998).

10. Purposes Sharia and Mkarmea, Allal El Fassi, (Beirut, Dar West, the fifth edition in 1993).

11. Approvals in sharia assets, Ibrahim ibn Musa Shaatibi of achieving Mohammed Iskandarani, Adnan Darwish, (Beirut, the Arab Book House, the first edition of 2002).


* Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

** أستاذ الفقه وأصوله والماليّة الإسلاميّة بالجامعة الإسلاميّة العالميّة، بماليزيا

[1]) Look: Application of Islamic law in the Sudan between truth and excitement, Almkashva the Taha Alkbai, (Cairo, Zahra Arab Media, a second edition in 1986) P. 13.

[2]) Look: Introduction to the Islamic Sharia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, (Beirut, founder of the message, the second edition) ص259 بتصرف واختصار..

[3]) Look: Jurisprudence and Legislation input and history, professional bin Omar Altewagna, (Oman, the first edition of 1996) ص55 باختصار.

[4]) Look: Efforts to codify Islamic jurisprudence, and gift Zoheily, (Beirut, founder of the message, the first edition in 1987) ص26 باختصار.

[5]) Look: Entrance to the study of law and the application of Islamic law, Tawfiq Abdel Nasser Al-Attar, (القاهرة، دار الفضيلة..ص45 باختصار.

[6]) Look: Islamic law from the Department of Studies and Research in Amman without the date and publishing house) ص51 باختصار.

[7]) For more information about the genesis and development banks, reviewing the development of the banking business in accordance with the Islamic law of Dr. Sami Hamoud.

[8]) For further information about these differences, review the whole of the assets of usury, Younis companion Egyptian, (Damascus, Dar pen, Beirut, Casablanca maize, the first edition of 1991).

[9]) Held Imam Ezz Bin Abdulsalam God's mercy chapter to a statement the interests of the transactions and dispositions, and highlighted in this chapter on a number of important issues can be tapped to get to know more of the purposes of Shara in finance and business, review the chapter said in a statement the interests of the transactions and dispositions of the book: Rules of provisions in the interests of the creatures, scientists Sultan Izz al-Din Ibn Abdul Aziz peaceful, adjust and correct Abdel Latif Hassan Abdel Rahman (Beirut, Dar scientific books, the first edition of 1999) 2, p 45 and beyond..

[10]) Imam has been known Tahar Ben Achour general purposes of the law, saying that it is a “.. Meanings and governance notable street in all the conditions of the legislation or most of them, so that no competent observable universe in a special type of Sharia, enters in the descriptions of the law and purpose of the public and the meanings that is not without legislation to notice, and enters this also meanings of the judgment is not noticeable in other types of …”. The purposes of Islamic law, Sheikh Mohammed Tahar Ben Achour, investigation and study Mohamed Tahar Almisawi (..Insights for scientific production, first edition, 1998) P 171. Given this perception for the purposes of public Shara can say that there is a general purposes embarked on transactional matters, and that there is a general purposes proceeded in matters Almnakhat, and penal matters, and others. And called some contemporary scholars such purposes as the purposes of the private as they belong to open the door to the legislation, on the whole, do not مشاحة in terminology; These objectives generally; because they are not specialized subset of molecules issues related to money or penalties or Almnakhat, the purposes of the private as well; it . فليتأمل!

[11]) The Imam has ever known Allal El Fassi purposes of the law, saying: End of secrets that put the street when all of its provisions.. (Beirut, Dar West, the fifth edition in 1993), Pp. 7 and beyond..

[12]) This is the bottom-up to Ben Achour in his speech for the purposes Shara in funds in general, and there are investigations wonderful for these purposes five, but it remains a perception years for the purposes of Shara of funds, whether held them to funds or the spine, which requires further scientific study of conductive . Look: Purposes of the law p 338 357 In short.

[13]) Look: Approvals, op cit, c 4, p 552 553 In short, the disposal.

[14]) Look: Ibid c 4, p 552.

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