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Doctrinal innovation in contemporary Omani Ifta read in a fatwa issued by Sheikh Ahmad Al-Khalili

Doctrinal innovation in contemporary Omani Ifta

Read in a fatwa issued by Sheikh Ahmad Al-Khalili *

Preparation: Hamoud bin Yahya bin Masoud al-Thani

Introduction:

Nhmedk God and we use you, and pray and to recognize the messenger Muhammad and his family and his companions.

After;

These analytical reading subject of renewed Jurisprudence in contemporary Omani Ifta through Fataawa Shaykh mark Khalili, may God protect him included at the entrance, and four axes as follows:

First: Definition graciously Sheikh said some of his educational and correctional.

II: Diligence and renewal movement when His Eminence.

Third: Moral values ​​to jurisprudence difference when His Eminence.

IV: Issuing approach when His Eminence.

Then put a conclusion to this work the most important findings from the.

I ask Him to bless this work and accept it rest in peace.

* * *

Entrance

قبل أن يسري الحديث في متعلقات ومحاور هذا الموضوع رأيت أن أقف قليلاً مع مفردات عنوانه فأعرف بـ (التجديد والفقه والفتوى) تعريفاً إجمالياً.

ـ Innovation in Language: Ibn Manzoor said: تجدد الشيء: صار جديداً، وأجده وجدده واستجده؛ أي: صيره جديداً، والجدة مصدر الجديد. وقال أبو علي وغيره: جد الثوب والشيء يَجِدّ بالكسر: صار جديداً، وهو نقيض الخَلق، وعليه وجه قول سيبويه: ملحفة جديدة([1]).

والتجديد في الاصطلاح إذا ما قرن بالفقه فإن معناه: إدخال الجدة عليه أو تصييره جديدا. ولا يكون كذلك إِلاَّ بـ (تنزيل المطلق ـ الوحي ـ على الواقع ومحاكمته به)([2]).

Principles in Language: هو العلم بالشيء والفهم له، واشتقاقه من الشق والفتح. The sense of business acumen and Wiz([3]).

In terminology: Is the understanding in the religion he says: ﴿لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ﴾ أي ليكونوا علماء به، ودعا النبي e لابن عباس ـ رضي الله عنهما ـ «اللهم فقهه في الدين، وفقهه في التأويل»؛ أي: فهمه تأويله ومعناه. The special custom made with the knowledge of Sharia honor God, and personalized with the knowledge of branches including([4]).

Fatwa in language: Designation words, is following in the command: أبانه له. It is said: Is following in issue Evth if answered([5]).

In terminology: الفتيا والفُتوى والفَتوى: What opined Faqih and conquest in the advisory opinion to the people of Civil([6]).

Way the Quran and Sunnah in the statement of the legal provisions:

Of the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah on its owner the best recognition of prayer and I commend two ways in a statement provisions:

First: Statement without a referendum question which is the most in the Qur'an.

Second: A statement after the referendum question format “Dad”, Which is the most widely used in the book of God, as in the verse: ﴿يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا﴾([7]). And says: ﴿يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الأهِلَّةِ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ﴾([8]).

وصيغة “يستفتونك” Like: Verse: ﴿يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلاَلَةِ…﴾([9]).

وقد ينزل الجواب بغير هاتين الصيغتين مثل ما أخرجه الترمذي أن رجلاً سأل النبي e فقال: “إني إذا أصبت اللحم انتشرت للنساء وأخذتني شهوتي، فَحرَّمتُ عليَّ اللحم؛ فأنزل الله تعالى: ) O ye who believe, do not deprive the good things that God has permitted you do not transgress…﴾([10]).

In reasons disembark benefit frequent this in the Qur'an.

In the Sunnah have an answer to a question or starting without question be one in which the education of the ignorant or customize for a year or an absolute restriction… Etc. types prophetic statement of the book Aziz.

An example of what was an answer to a question:

Tariq bin Saeed asked the Prophet e forbade wine that done it, he said: But DIY for the drug, he said: «It is not a drug but a disease» ([11]).

And the Prophet e fatwas dealing with various aspects of life.

Fatwa continued after the peace and blessings be upon him to this day…

The Library has left us Islamic treasures in this aspect of the various Islamic sects Scientists have arranged for the most part on the doors of Jurisprudence.

It is these books in the Ibadi sect([12]):

1 Entries for Abi Ghanem humans bin Ghanem concrete (S 2 e).

2 Mosque of Muhammad ibn Abi Ja'far (S 3 e).

3 Whole useful to Abu Sa'eed (S 4 e).

4 Fairy Mosque of Abu Mohammed bin Apostle (S 4 e).

5 Abu Al-Hassan Mosque Albsewe (S 4 e).

6 Abu Bakr workbook Canadian (S 5 e).

7 Shara statement Mohammed bin Ibrahim Al-Kindi (BC 6 H).

8 Jewels effects Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Obeidan (S 11 E).

9 Collector gems to F Ben Ali Alsaúga the (S 12 e).

10 To the door of the effects of Muhanna bin Khalfan Al Busaidi (S 12 e).

11 مكنون cupboards to Musa bin Isa human (S 13).

One of these books in the Hanafi: . Greater and Lesser fatwas issued, and Albzazih, Altehrah and zinnia, الحامدية and Indian fatwas, Mahdia and other.

In the Shafi'i school: . Fatwas of Ibn goodness and nuclear Subki, Sheikh Zakaria and Ibn Hajar al and other.

In Hanbali: . Fatwas of Ibn Taymiyyah famous issued in 35 Volumes, collected Sheikh Abdul Rahman al-Najdi, printed at the expense of the Saudi state.

Wrote fatwas in the modern era:

In this era known as fatwas of Shaykh Muhammad Aleesh Sheikh Maliki , which, as described by Sheikh Qaradawi is a traditional school , with its advantages , it does not care much about the problems of his time, does not recognize what occurred in the community of the change, and was a contemporary of Sheikh Mohammed Abdo is the bitterest foes in the direction of this([13]).

ومنها فتاوى العلامة المجدد محمد رشيد رضا، والتي كان ينشرها في مجلته الإسلامية الغراء (Al-Manar). وقد جاءت فتاواه استجابة لقراء المجلَّة، فشملت مشكلات العديد من أقطار الأمة الإسلامية.

Including fatwas of Sheikh Said bin Khalfan al-Khalili (S 14 e) (Pave the rules of faith).

Including the fatwas of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yusuf Tfayyesh (S 14 e) (Anguish revealed),

Including answers Sheikh Saleh bin Ali Al Harthy (S 14 e).

Including fatwas mark Salmi (S 14 E) Named (Imam Salmi answers) In seven volumes.

And including fatwas Sheikh Abu Zaid Al Riyami (S 14 e) (Problem Solving).

Including the fatwas of Shaykh eggs (S 15 e).

The including fatwas Eminence Sheikh which are the subject of my talk, which has appeared to now five volumes.

These treasures jurisprudence scholars Islamic sects throughout its long history to emphasize the important fact is that Islamic jurisprudence may develop per incident judgment, and it may Sayre nation in all stages strength and weakness and vulnerability بأوضاعها positively and negatively, and images intact best photography, Valvgah not only understanding of a human of the revelation of divine .

And it is no doubt that Muslim scholars vary in the strength of their knowledge and their understanding of the texts in the application of the text injury on the ground or air this reality , according to the dictates of texts. And interpretations of these scholars, but is a living example of this disparity assures us, and increases our certainty that they were legitimate observe the purposes and interests of people varying according to the time and place.

Hence it can be said also that these and other treasures from the books of fiqh is a practical guide on the characteristics of Islamic jurisprudence, and characterized by comprehensiveness and balance , and combine flexibility and stability , in addition to its originality and independence.

 

* * *
The first axis: Features of the life of Shaykh al-Khalili

Lineage:

Is Sheikh brand industrious Abu Suleiman Badr al-Din Ahmad bin Hamad bin Sulaiman bin Nasser bin safely Khalili Kharousi. And children of Khros of Azad Oman them imams are notorious for justice , and scholars knew piety and credit.

كان والد الشيخ لبيبًا عاقلاً حكيمًا من سكان الخضراء بولاية بهلاء، رحل إلى زنجبار عام 1341هـ، وتزوج بها، وعاش عيشة جهاد وكفاح في طلب الرزق.

وأما جده الشيخ: Suleiman bin Nasser; pious he is one of the judges who are not afraid in God to anybody as long, and it was a reference to the people of Bahla([14]).

It turns of Sheikh ratios that descended from parents knew the science and notorious for the glory, of whom: Imam Khalil bin Hazan Kharousi بويع of imam year 445 AH , said him Imam Salmi in Masterpiece: But he led them any biography of the beautiful people of Oman, and pay them the mighty, and the country has secured declare his righteousness, and rested in the shade slaves, and condemned his kingdoms, and it Ovdt delegations to the emergence and spread of Justice credited([15]).

This is the descendant of Imam Salt bin Malik Kharousi بويع of the imam Year 237 E , who liberated the island of Socotra from Christians after it reneged on the Covenant, was written for the captain Mohammed bin clan that wonderful era , which represents the integrity of Islam and idealism in dealing with enemies([16]).

Birth

Born Shaykh Ahmad land of Zanzibar at eight in the morning of the twelfth day of the month of Rajab in 1361, corresponding to his twenty-seventh of July in 1942 فسماه the father of that name which is in his mother's womb ([17]).

Morals and qualities:

RPR Eminence , may God protect him high moral character enabled him to become the imam of advocacy and role models who walk at this time, (It is a world Zahid Rabbani in the world, not only interested in matters of Islam and the interest of Muslims, his house is open to all and the need for every student who has a problem… Treats others with an open heart pulsing through faith and obedience Rahman)([18]).

Dr Nasir al-Din al-Assad in a letter written by him following his visit to Amman in 1412/1991: «It was my brother His forgiveness greatest impact in all of this thanks to the living God of the merits of intellectual and psychological, we know it and admit it to him, between managed in science, and acted in the arts say, with humility, bridles, and taste, and المؤانسة kind, Alambasith commendable companion ([19]).

Says Dr. Mustafa Abdel-Qader al - Najjar police magazine: سماحة الشيخ أحمد بن حمد الخليلي ظاهرة عمانية حضارية تجمع بين التراث والمعاصرة، حبا الله بها عمان، فأصبح يعبر عن همومها السلفية من جهة وحياتها اليومية من جهة أخرى، فيشرح ويفصل ويحكي ويحاضر، ويخطب ويكتب في كل مجال يتهيأ له وتصل إليه يده فأعطى لوطنه أبجدية الروح في هذا الزمن الحائر، فلا ينكر أحد سعة اطلاعه، وشدة تواضعه، وفتح قلبه لكل سائل صغيرًا كان أو كبيرًا مثقفًا أو أميًا، يتبادل معهم الفكر والفقه بكل تفاصيله ولا يمل لهم مجلسًا، ولا يشعر بضيق أو يرفض لهم سؤالاً([20]).

Collector say: The Eminence may God protect him mug Alli in every aspect of morality , it brings to Lin printing and good Muasher intensity in the right and stiffness in Ahakagah is favoritism , graciously including him, and hopes that with God, and treatment , optimistic promise not see it , but serious (Progress has been prized in a lot of features and the peak in the creation and treatment, and the summit in good emulate the Prophet e)([21]).

Scientific inception:

May God protect him grew up in that environment green, and began to learn to read and write and recite the Quran at the hands of his parents, at the age of nine he finished Sheikh Quran and then relied on himself in reading and reading. It was with that frequented the elders in Zanzibar confused about it, and maybe on some of them read something from science. It's that: That he was going to another locality close to his home to learn at the hands of Sheikh Issa bin Saeed Ismaili recites him teach the boys, and it keeps him by heart. The book has also studied the pillars of Islam, both in jurisprudence. It is an urgent Arab and express as clearly and illiterate son of the owner of the acts with them and explain to burn aboard Dewdrops with an explanation of Ibn Hisham, and then board the gold nuggets with his explanation of Ibn Hisham; Sheikh has studied these books and is about ten years. He then studied at the hands of Sheikh Khalfan bin Muslims Harrasi Johralnzam, but what it accomplished to the circumstances prevented him from so. Go to Sheikh Hamoud bin Said al Kharousi recites it Musnad spring God's mercy and did save it, then read on Sheikh Ahmed bin Zahran Al Riyami, book the core of the system extensively for the second time. Then learn inheritance by Sheikh Saeed Bin Mohammed Al Kindi.

When introduced to Zanzibar Sheikh Abu Ishaq Sheikh Tfayyesh took advantage of the opportunity while he studied on his hands all over the joy of lights and lights, both of Sheikh Salmi God's mercy . The Sheikh Abu Ishaq God's mercy keen to stay next to Sheikh al-Khalili to help him in the application of science and Nahil fountains of knowledge , but it lasted only about three months, and then traveled to Egypt , here expressed Sheikh Abu Ishaq regret not to check security, which came in the : «… How I wish I could go there to be by your side in order to help you to achieve the aspirations of the Excellencies of up to gain insight of useful knowledge for the benefit and the benefit and inform and enlighten, but to the extent that his judgment in force, is not very necessary to access »([22]).

His reform efforts and the most important characteristics:

Not that I exaggerated: The spirit of reform began when Sheikh from an early age and mingled with his own blood and flesh, it was still his motto in life), but if I want to fix what could compromise but God (([23]).

فالبداية was his hometown of Zanzibar where we monitor the news that in 1376 his was an orator in front of the President of the Assembly and the Arab community Zanzibar Sheikh Abdullah Bin Suleiman Al-Harthy asking him to establish schools in the countryside and open the door where education. Has received a welcome call this impact, however, struggling with political parties at the time the case between them and the application.

It also draws Sheikh such invitation to Sheikh Ahmed bin Hamadoun The mufti of إباضية Zanzibar; than what his eminence in this matter: (It was sometimes convinces us approval, but with deep regret of what Mount مشائخنا of inertia was quickly closed the door, which is almost open, and I apologize more than once what I'm trying to)([24]).

After what Eminence returned to Amman in 1384 AH, and went down in Bahla home fathers and forefathers continued his efforts to reform society with all whom God of power and wisdom and competence; (Amman where she was waiting for his ilk also waiting for the earth barren Ghaith from the sky)([25]).

He began teaching in Bahla and worked as a teacher , and the difficulties faced by his eminence as he himself says, ' ignorance on the one hand , and do not accept people also because of ignorance ; Hamas was not there for this whole thing was a strange thing for them » ([26])

It was moving to towns and villages teacher and mentor , willing to pay for the sake of God every effort and time. It is dealt with by Sheikh prey at the time the phenomenon of atheism and communist tide obnoxious, where likened refuted and overturned their call, He revealed مساوئهم the and Aban Zllahm the. And all this with the definition of Islam and a symbol of progress and prosperity and the religion of justice and equality.

After we go Shaykh , may God protect him to Muscat in 1385 he taught at the mosque Spring Creek together with Sheikh Al - Murr , and he was the highest level of teaching students , and continued on to the year 1393 AH / 1973M , where he was appointed Director of Islamic Affairs , and two years later appointed by His Majesty the Sultan mufti years to Amman([27])

ومع كون منصب الإفتاء يحتاج إلى التفرغ إلا أن سماحة الشيخ ـ حفظه الله ـ واصل الطريق في مهمة الإصلاح الداخلي بعمان حتى تمكن من انتشالها من براثن الجهل وظلمات الحيرة، فقد طالب بإنشاء المعاهد الإسلامية بربوع عمان لتعليم أبنائها أمور دينهم فكان كلامه محل تقدير وقبول من المسؤولين، ففتحت معاهد في مناطق كثيرة ومنها معهد العلوم الشرعية؛ والشيخ يعتني بهذه المعاهد من أجل تطويرها وتحديث مناهجها، كما أنه يهتم ـ حفظه الله ـ بطلابها لا سيما المعاهد القريبة منه، فيزور الطلاب ويجلس معهم ويحاضر فيهم، ويتابع سير العملية التعليمية. And strenuous efforts that in order to join the students at the Institute of forensic science until it was this thanks to God then Sheikh carefully Park of God in his life .

However , it was and still is his active contributions to the external reform , he cares about the issues of the nation and solve their problems and calls for the promotion , and evidence of so blessed his call to the in Tashkent conferences and Pakistan([28]).

His Eminence also keen when visiting the West to be calling Islam a word to and pursuant Faihor the people of their minds, he met Dr. Maurice Bucaille owner of the Book (Science in the Torah and the Bible and the Koran), And discussed some of the issues; as he did it with the doctor dominated American Jewish doctor who treated him, Vhaorh on the subject of faith in God and the Last Day.

ويهتم الشيخ في هذا الجانب أيضًا بهموم الأمة وبشرح قضاياها المصيرية كقضية الأقصى على سبيل التمثيل. The Sheikh contributed material and moral in the Islamic projects , and the best witness to that integrity Zanzibar Association ([29]).

It is the people of His Eminence Sheikh for success in the reform being optimistic side in all conditions of , not known despair to his heart avenue ; therefore afflicted him the odds and made ​​him his wish that was planned , which reminded him of himself replying to a Kuwaiti journalist: «The intensity Faraj later, though with hardship comes ease as the text of the Koran, and when it narrows slave to and much to link relief comes from God Almighty, and that it tried so much and so I'm more optimistic» ([30]). Says: «But I do not never Ochaem and thank God I am an optimist, and I do not doubt I see that the vigilance of Muslims today is better than yesterday» ([31]).

His posts

From official positions occupied by His Eminence Sheikh following:

Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman.

Chairman Sultan Qaboos institutes of Islamic Culture.

President of the Institute of forensic science.

A member of the Appeals Committee (Highest body of the judiciary in the Sultanate).

Chairman of the Publications Committee and the achievement of books at the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture.

Member of the Commission view the moons of the Sultanate.

Member of Islamic Jurisprudence Committee of the Organization of the Islamic Conference.

Member of Al al-Bayt Foundation (Royal Academy for Islamic Civilization Research).

Member of the Board of Trustees of the International Islamic University in Islamabad, Pakistan([32]).

His

Books:

1 Jewels of interpretation, Premium Downloads statement. Print it in four parts.

2 Right overwhelming: Book in some matters of faith: Vision, immortality, creating Quran.

3 Cities in five parts.

4 Too be explained: A brief explanation of the system Sheikh Salmi in faith.

5 The mask has fallen: His Eminence is it some slurs on the side of faith.

6 ـ عوامل تقوية الوحدة الإسلامية في الشعائر الدينية.

7 ـ إعادة صياغة الأمة: يحوي بعض ملامح المنهج الذي تسير عليه الأمة في حاضرها.

8 ـ زكاة الأنعام: Originally a lengthy search involving eminence in the seminar «the global legitimacy for zakat» Kuwait in 1422 / 2001M.

9 The arbitrator of Like.

10 Religion and Life.

Research:

1 It is given by His Eminence research at conferences:

ـ الذبائح وأثرها في إنجاز الذكاة: بحث ألقي في الدورة العاشرة لمجمع الفقه الإسلامي بجدة عام 1418هـ ـ 1998م.

ـ الدعوة الإسلامية مهمة ثقافية روحية أو غزو عسكري: Search thrown at the International Islamic University in Pakistan in 2002.

Diligence and its role in the regeneration: Search in the Fifteenth International Conference of Islamic unity in Tehran in 1423, 2002.

ـ الحقوق في الإسلام وفق المذهب الإباضي: بحث لندوة الحقوق في الإسلام بعمان عام 1413هـ ـ 1992م.

ـ مشروعية استثمار أموال الزكاة: بحث بندوة الحوار بين المسلمين بمؤسسة آل البيت بعّمان عام 1415هـ ـ 1994م.

Worship and transactions and their impact on society (Feet of the Quran Forum in Algeria) In 1401 e 1981.

2 Inspired year in Jumu'ah.

3 الذكاة legitimacy.

4 Irregularity: Research published in the latest book fatwas transactions.

Lengthy answers:

1 Sale dismissal printed in a booklet

2 Smoking printed in a booklet

3 April Fool's printed in a booklet

4 Renounce fanaticism printed in a booklet

5 Righteous between the innovation and printed in a booklet year

6 Rule isbaal include publication in the form of notes

Replies scientific

1 ـ الحجج المقنعة في نفي رؤية الله (الرد على الشيخ إبن باز).

2 ـ الرد على المفتري النصراني.

3 ـ الرد على أحد المغرضين أو (منهج سلفنا الصالح).

4 ـ جواز نقل الدم (تعقيب على رأي أحد العلماء).

5 Kohl issue in Arabic (Comment on the opinion of one of the doctors).

There are Research on the flags of Oman:

1 Alaotba between jurisprudence and literature.

2 Rooting idiosyncratic when Imam Abu Sa'eed Alkdma.

3 Abu Nabhan mark Kharousi and idiosyncratic approach.

4 Khalili jurist and its.

5 Albahlana jurist and literary.

6 I'm blessing and Scientific Research.

7 Highlights in the life of Sheikh Abu Muslim Albahlana-.

8 I'm considering between jurisprudence and literature.

9 Sheikh Khamis Shaksy and idiosyncratic approach.

10 Canadian brand of jurisprudence and literature.

11 Scientific and cultural impact in the Omani presence Zanzibar.

وللشيخ محاضرات كثيرة جدًا منها المطبوع ومنها المرئي والمسموع([33]).

* * *

The second axis: حركة الاجتهاد والتجديد عند سماحة الشيخ

1 ـ طبيعة الحركة وسياقها التأريخي

الاجتهاد في لغة العرب: مأخوذ من الجهد (بفتح الجيم وضمها): It is a hardship, and it says: ﴿وَأَقْسَمُواْ بِاللّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ﴾. It: Exert situation in command request([34]).

Which is when the Shariah scholars([35]): Comes in the sense: Vomiting effort in Drake legal provisions. Or is it: Do industrious and power in the application of science to the provisions of law. Or is it: استفراغ الفقيه الوسع لتحصيل ظن بحكم شرعي. There are other definitions, and is not intended here absorbed as well as to stand at each definition, but it led me to the only proper context.

The fact called for in the discourse on the subject of diligence is الاستمساك back to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger e and resorting to them.

Valajthad right has a composite of two things (Fixed and variable)If juicy industrious party for the first money to secularism, and if you stick with it without regard to the other party money to stalemate ; Valajthad the can not be hard to cancel as variable scope and long texts as his field breakers Znaat([36]).

وأَمَّا ما يدعو إليه سماحته من التجديد فيتمثل في: .

أ ـ تطهير الإسلام من أدناس الجاهلية.

B re-subtraction Islamic format suitable for appropriate age or highlight new issues not previously raised and judged according to the data directory([37]).

As for the relationship between the diligence and innovation:

Ferry Eminence the second dependent on the first , is the primary engine for him ; Eminence cites the historical reality of the interdependence between them , where he says: (فلا تكاد تجد متصفًا بأحد الصفتين إِلاَّ وله قدر لا يستهان به من الأخرى على تباين في المراتب ﴿وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ ذِي عِلْمٍ عَلِيمٌ﴾)([38]).

This is the completed image provided by His Eminence said in a statement the meaning of innovation and diligence, with استدراكه to mark Abu Ala Mawdudi, which limit the renewal (Purge Islam of to Othat the ignorance).

And in this aspect not only of scientific eminence endoscopically (Rooting rules) فقط، بل شارك في الاجتهاد وأسهم إسهامًا عمليًا قويًا مؤثرًا في تحريك عجلته إلى الأمام، ولا يزال كذلك ـ متعنا الله بحياته ـ ؛ فاجتهاداته تعد مثالاً عمليًا للامتداد الطبيعي لحركة الاجتهاد عند الإباضية، والتي لم يسجل عليها أي توقف حتى يومنا هذا، وإن ضعفت في بعض الفترات لأسباب داخلية وخارجية كما هو الحال في أيَّام دولة بني نبهان أو من يليهم من اليعاربة الذين أعطوا للجانب السياسي جل اهتمامهم لملاحقة البرتغاليين ذلكم الخطر الذي كان يتهدد الأمة الإسلامية بأسرها.

As for the reformist side Eminence, may God protect him his distinctive reform school, and built by the correct perception of the ration book and the year, with his eagerness to benefit from the experiences of developed reform schools or contemporary to him, may God protect him .

His Eminence says stating its position on the reform school , which laid down the pillars , Mr. Jamal al-Afghani (T. 1315 / 1897M): (School is paid off and the fruit good, but it does not we can Nbroha from every mistake they must be taken right and leave the wrong).

He says about his experience with Imam Abu Ala Mawdudi, and Abu al-Hasan Nadwi: (Vhola Avaduna great benefit lies to take advantage of all of these experiments)([39]).

Thus, we find His Eminence traces the merits of these schools all without distinction is this not count on one of them ; since his independent approach and outstanding idea , says Eminence: (Not confine our call this narrow frame and a special experience without the other)([40]).

But , as some researchers no luck that these movements innovative menu were not to the extent that rooting movement diligence, and formulates the law commensurate with reality([41]).

This researcher proposes in this case to resort to collective diligence as a solution to this problem. Said: The cause for serious thinking in the collective endeavor are two things:

The first: Acceleration technology, which is increasing day after day, which can not only be نلاحقه great effort.

Secondly: Chaos that have sprung up in the area and different opinion, especially for sensitive topics including important:

The issue of renting wombs.

The issue of the transfer of sperm and keep them until after death.

Fuck Misyaar.

The issue of cloning([42]).

Eminence believes that the jurisprudential academies can be reliable in this aspect (… By scientists empowered and they can with their act as they do not individually Man a few himself many others)([43]).

2 The importance of movement and motivation:

His Eminence Sheikh believes that the importance of diligence lies in the six things:

1 The large number of emerging issues on the scene it must be equivalent in return skill jurists.

2 The emergence of scientific discoveries (Facts without theories) Which are useful for the investigation as reported in the overall interpretation and interpretation Zaher, sometimes a confirmation on the two types:

A is related to the case put new Kalmattiyat in the issue of astronomical calculations to تبدلها circumstances old.

B is directly related to the case, but it may be the manifestation of us supports the presumption to say or contrary to previous.

3 The emergence of a new theory of science must be taken positions against which framed the legal framework when accepting.

4 Change provisions and interests according to time and place, they might have an interest in the evil day on another day, have changed with changing mores and pretensions, which is bridging the street and recognition of the diversity of words and Vows and otherwise.

His Eminence adds: (Some scientists who spoke on condition of fatwa to know the conditions of the people, and that is clear is changing; In the constants it is not required).

5 The need to refute the heresies, they sometimes lack the diligence of the difficulty of the distinction between Sunni and innovation.

6 Intellectual invasion for sparkling manifestations which attracts viewers must meet him stronger than style([44]).

But the seriousness of the matters mentioned by His Eminence had to be an immediate move by the nation's scientists to address this matter until the water returns to normal , we believe full implementation of Islam in our institutions and our communities. وحتى يقضى على هذه الازدواجية التي طفت على سلوكنا بالتزام الدين في العبادات والبعد عنه في المعاملات(كما أدت أيضًا إلى انقسام الشباب إلى فريقين:

Team believes that Islam is a religion of worship only, and regulate transactions leave the field for the situation Rules.

Another team: Awakening youth who believe that Islam is a religion and the state and the system of rule)([45]).

As for the دوافع حركة الاجتهاد والتجديد فكثيرة:

فإلى جانب الإلحاح الشديد للخروج من الواقع المرير الذي تعيشه الأمة اليوم في كل أوضاعها السياسية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية والأخلاقية حيث لا منقذ لها إِلاَّ العودة الصادقة إلى الإسلام، ولا يكون ذلك منها حتى تشفى من الانهزامية والتبعية للآخر فترى أن دينها دينًا قويمًا يواكب كل جديد مفيد، ويصلح بمقوماته لقيادة العالم قيادة راشدة؛ وكل هذا إنما يتوقف على بعث روح الإسلام من جديد، وهنا يأتي دور الاجتهاد والتجديد.

Besides this, there are other motives as Istzarha the Shaykh of the Quran and Sunnah as well as of scientists discussions assets; them:

1 Explicit command of Allah by following the book and the Sunnah of His Messenger e greatest evidence of the legitimacy of diligence; since applied to the issues renewable Reserve it.

2 Many verses that indicate the act of reason and prudence and forethought reflection…

3 Many conversations indicate the great reward it.

4 Fundamentalists discussions included some of the issues that is considered one of the strongest props encouraging him:

  1. As saying the sanctity of tradition capable of ijtihad (This is the view Ibadi), And the majority of scholars.
  2. Some say the inadmissibility of time free of hard-working.
  3. Some say the necessity of world era tradition, Arif seeks to achieve this status to greet God on his hands nation.
  4. Some diligence requirement in mufti and the judge.

His Eminence warns that diligence has become easier than ever before to provide references and diversity, and this most important المشجعات of it, of course,([46])

هذا ملخص ما ذكره سماحته، وهو يعطي صوره واضحة على أهمية الاجتهاد وشأنه العظيم؛ فهو كما يقول الإمام الشاطبي: (المجتهد قائم مقام النبي e في جملة أمور منها:

أ- الوراثة على الشريعة بوجه عام.

With- إبلاغ هذه الشريعة للناس.

T.- تعليمها للجاهل بها.

W- الإنذار بها.

And bounds forward on this evidence of the year: «Scientists and heirs of the prophets ',' Convey from me even a verse».

For these important this imam also said: (The diligence can not be interrupted until interrupted commissioning, when the Hour)([47]).

Adds Dr.. Bashir confirms the importance of the Book of Allah, where:

  1. God is cold it when A_i_cale to the people of elicitation and understanding about God and His Messenger, e.
  2. Shura make God consistently faithful, (The Shura process exploratory opinion wiser through diligence)([48]).

ولهذه الأهمية القصوى نجد أئمة العلم والفكر أطبقوا على التنديد بفكرة غلق باب الاجتهاد، وقد ألفوا كتبًا قيمة في بيان الأثر السلبي الذي تجرعته لأمة من ذلك.

يقول المفكر الإسلامي محمد إقبال: (However, since the circumstances have changed and the Islamic world is affected today as faced by new forces launched unleashed ; evolution of human thought great development in all Menahih , I do not see a reason for continuing to stick to this view any imitation doctrines of jurisprudence famous , and whether claimed the owners of schools of Islamic jurisprudence themselves )([49]).

Says Sheikh Abu Zahra: (. . He did not say one of those who came after he was denied imams diligence on the other, make the deduction is limited to a layer bounded not only time, but it is open to those who fulfilled the conditions)([50]).

He says Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout: (And here remind regret this mistaken idea which sees stop unjust diligence and close the door. We affirm that God's grace on Muslims to open the door of ijtihad)([51]).

3 Objectives and specifications

His Eminence addressed the goals of the movement of diligence, innovation, and the desired specifications subtraction.

He said in the Goals:

1) صياغة الناس العقلية والنفسية لتوافق هدي الكتاب والسنة.

2) محاكمة القضايا الجديدة بالمنظار الشرعي وفق دليله.

3) ترميم وصياغة المناهج (Books, teaching methods, call methods, radio, television, the World Wide Web).

4) إعادة المصطلحات التي غيَّبها الناس إلى مجاريها (Usury interest, drinks wine, spiritual adultery love… . Etc.)([52]).

His Eminence said in Offering new specifications:

1) الموائمة بين مطالب الروح ومطالب الجسد.

2) العموم والشمول ليشمل جميع متطلبات الحياة.

3) أسلوب الطرح الجذاب، (This do not Palmjtahed competence in put trading, but what never put Valajthad the basic PSP).

4) استخدام شتى الوسائل الإعلامية ليبلغ صوت الحق قويًا مسموعًا.

5) إدراك الأوليات وتقديم الأهم على المهم.

6) التطبيق الواقعي حتى لا يقع التنافي بين القول والعمل مِمَّا يؤكد واقعية الدين ويسهل عملية الاقتداء بوجود النموذج([53]).

It can be added to the idiosyncratic side of these goals mentioned by His Eminence the following:

1) صياغة المناهج [Jurisprudential] Even combine theory and practice فتربط the branches of assets to enable the student to the application.

2) إعادة النظر في بعض شروط الاجتهاد التعجيزية التي تحول دون بلوغ مرتبته.

3) Considering the rules and principles of jurisprudence in order to adjust diligence His Eminence explain this latter saying: (Search the foundations that would facilitate consideration of the branches)([54]).

Eminence agrees to this view d. Ammar Talbi, where he says: (Regenerative the beginning of work in jurisprudence and facilitate care is to renew the fundamentalist approach to be the foundations of the regeneration of branches and clear. Even though some of our colleagues and them beauty Attia says that jurisprudence assets necessary care , but postpone temporarily heading renewal and facilitation to jurisprudential branches of the necessary urgent response in this area)([55]).

There is also a difference in the case of re-drafting of jurisprudence on the western legal manner between supporters and dismissive of the idea, fearing for from Anslakhh of jurisprudence and Islamic heritage; Among those naysayers: D. Hossam El Din الأهواني Wad. عمار الطالبي ود. وهبة الزحيلي، حيث يسمي هذه الطريقة بـ (التقريبية)، ولا يرتضيها منهجا؛ ويميل إلى الطريقة الوسطية التي تحافظ على ثوابت الشرع وتراعي المصالح المرسلة في مقتضيات التطور. He called the legal scholar Dr. Sanhoori to the scientific renaissance to study Islamic law in the light of comparative law and explain the way the: (Will not be our main concern in this research hide between Islamic jurisprudence and doctrine west in workmanship , style and photography, but on the contrary سنعني highlight these differences to retain Islamic jurisprudence exquisite example private and will not try to Nstuna convergence between Islamic jurisprudence printer sector, and will not try to Nstuna rounding … It requires precision and scientific integrity to reserve for this Galilee Bmqomath the jurisprudence)([56]).

ونخلص من هذا كله أن تجديد الفقه الإسلامي وطرحه بأسلوب مبتكر لا بأس به ما دام سيحافظ على مادته ومحتواه، ولا يخل ذلك بمصدره أو بمضمونه الشرعي؛ فالحكمة ضالة المؤمن.

ويقول علي آل هاشم: (We call for the renewal and encourage him with a commitment to sound innovation approaches that give vital juristic thought and the ability to cope with the movement of social change, as we want innovation that eliminates the usual classification of intellectual Schools (Ancient and modern), As we want renewal which restores account of legal texts)([57]).

4 Conditions

There is no doubt that the diligence process need to be indispensable conditions so as not to any person who claims to be a hard-working , and he wants to renew this nation. Has passed us that diligence on his own terms has become easier than ever before to provide books as over us Eminence opinion to reconsider conditions prohibitive diligence , however, there is some science is essential for hard-working that Ihrzha and mastered it so:

1) أن يكون ضليعًا في اللغة العربية بقدر ما يتمكن من الفهم والإدراك والتمييز.

2) أن يتضلع في علم أصول الفقه بقدر ما يتمكن من استنباط الأحكام الشرعية.

3) المعرفة بعلوم القرآن وعلوم الحديث وسيرة النبي e.

4) المعرفة بمقاصد الشريعة.

5) Jurisprudence of reality([58]).

These conditions are urged by Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout saying,: (And the scholars, but find and يجتهدوا in the collection means by which they are eligible for diligence in knowing the judgment of God)([59]).

No luck some researchers is an important aspect in the industrious, which is the psychological preparations for him, and for the impact of the environment on him for that([60]). In what Achtrtoh on industrious of jurisprudence fact says the son of values: (This is a great asset… It needs to know the cunning people and deceive them, and their returns and Arafyatem, and the science that deals with this is the social science)([61]).

Dr Hassan al-Turabi: (It also can not be diligent in Islamic jurisprudence of his were not knowledgeable in the science of law, is not valid as well as to strive hard in law was not aware and was able to humanities and social sciences were able enough)([62]) .

And says Eminence explaining to this important aspect: (And renewal as inspired by the givens of the texts it is also characterized by reality, فلذا was incumbent on the renewed that enlightened Psonn God Almighty in the universe… These include Sunan cosmic rules in various fields needed by the human Vtam sociology and psychology and astronomy)([63]).

Says: (And lack of perception of reality makes one not be able to achieve assigned; because he does not know the particulars that have come down the overall judgment, and can not measure not being able to see the illness in check section, and thus breaks down the structure of renewal and diligence together)([64]).

5 Challenges experienced by the:

Between Shaykh , may God protect him a number of challenges arising from the distractions prominent in this area , and through standing on some of the what I saw that these things ; either be emerging in the Islamic environment , resulting from the ignorance of the spirit and nature of Islam. Or came from their enemies Vtlagafoha of them uncritically, and they claimed they wanted to reward so they deluded.

His Eminence says noting the seriousness of the deadlock: (I have gone through a period froze the movement of creativity when imams, and say, considering diligence, and handed people in recognition of all that they found all of their predecessors, have reached excessive so far; This is evidenced by this, which we find texts strange that in the books of doctrine and interpretation and others that make us Nhar )([65]).

His Eminence also mentioned a number of ways that people behave twisted claiming diligence and innovation:

1 Some Almsalehyon them, and they who have made the ride امتطوها interest respond definitive texts.

2 Almtzhlon: وهؤلاء خاضوا في أعمق المسائل، وركبوا الحرام بغير مبرر ودون أن يستفرغوا الوسع، بل لم يمعنوا النظر أصلاً.

3 ـ المبهورون بالغرب، وللهزيمة النفسية أثرها في توجيه هؤلاء.

4 Zahrion, they are who confined their eyes on the scales without pulp.

5 Menhsmon: They who imagine that very diligence is actually justified.

6 Rationalists: Those caught with where Almsalehyon occurred in the perception of conflicting bilateral transport between the mind and, therefore حاكموا definitive texts minds and whims.

7 Fans Balkadim to his grandmother's new([66]).

This is a summary of what was said by his eminence in this aspect and conclude him they between excessive and overly This approach has led them to clear abuses far from the spirit of religion and thought.

The researchers attributed the basis of this a mistake not to distinguish between the meaning of renewal and change the meaning and confuse them, leading them to say: Comprehensive change what it found people, to keep up with the times and conditions subject to the law of evolution([67]).

D calls. Amer Alkfeache, to distinguish between the religious text and religious thought or read the text; divine text is put Khalid infallible just about قيدي that the time and place, either reading or his understanding is the historical development of human يتقادم Negotiable give and take([68]).

And that the right approach is acceptable to His Eminence the moderate who holds charity for humanity as a whole([69]).

* * *

The third axis: Moral values ​​to jurisprudence difference when Shaykh , may God protect him

Constitute the moral values ​​in the Islamic civilization is a prerequisite in research methodology in all the sciences , including the science of jurisprudence. For these values ​​to dominate the other values ​​, whether valuable or scientific methodology , technical or social… In addition, it is fertile ground for the growth and the appropriate renewal Method to give the fruits valid for society, but for all humanity.

And that by combining these values ​​to the jurisprudence of difference, and other public cultural values ​​advocated by Islam; fatwa came Omani including contemporary vitality and renewal to emphasize respect for human rights as a human being in general. And to respect the Muslim a Muslim, more specifically , more accurate and deeper , they are no doubt give a clear picture of the true Islam with all its tolerance and purity and mercy.

The good conjecture Muslims and excuse them, and the Pacific meaningful dialogue with them in order to get to the truth is the heartbeat of this institution Alavtaúah, and it's true: It's verse and the salient feature of the Ibadi school since its inception, first at the hands of the imam bulk Taabi'i the (Mufti of Basra) Jabir bin Zaid t , through the spring and Abu Ubaidah , science 's campaign to the east and the west , scientists innovators in every century y wholes to the present where these values ​​are still lush and thankfully soft bear fruit all the while with the permission of its Lord.

His Eminence said, indicating what must be concerned by the Muslims in this day and age and make it in mind: (There are common denominators between all of the nation , but the nation can all be in agreement on the pillars of Islam ; This is what must be taken into account in the unity of the nation… Why do not always mention the faith rather than to strive always to talk about the difference, which dates back to the interpretations and molecules?)([70]).

He says to take into account the interest of the nation: (The interest of the Union, and conditions must be estimated, why the dark in these circumstances المكفهرة that frown in the face of this nation, what's proposal to take care of this nation, including compounded a وهنا difference?)([71]).

This has been reflected the vision of the institution Alavtaúah positive, She gave an active contribution of both internal and external.

Says Prof. Dr. Mustafa Abdel-Qader: (Oman did not do justice to reveal the treasures of thinking creatively , you need in the era of globalization, the new millennium highlights the creators , and comes on top of Shaykh al-Khalili argument Arab intellectual and historical Islamic , who exceeded his limits and his country of Oman to the world , to take it upon himself to defend Islam and explain its origins … Away from reckless emotions which lies the truth about themselves, and succumb to the rhetoric paper. I've summarized the Eminence Arab history through the pages days through the opinions and statements and judgments reached their peaks; Do they not have the right of believers to give him a recipe (Mufti of Arabism and Islam), Highlighting the creative abilities , and his bright ideas , and words adage that failed to speak the scientific institutions and research centers)([72]).

Until not long considered to minutes and molecules of the subject showed me compelled to limit myself here by mentioning the most important values ​​that accompanied His Eminence fatwa in this aspect: .

1 Sincerity and impartiality of the passions:

Sincerity is the value which is going to work in molar Islam in general , and related scientific field , especially , particularly science or jurisprudence regarding the fatwa ; therefore any deviation from this side attendant tendency to fancy as attendant shortcomings in the matter and the dimension of righteousness.

What Lido today in the corridors of some of the conferences that were originally designed to raise the floor of quarrel and disagreement , and perhaps Tnabz titles reflects and demonstrates the lack of indifference consequences from not accuse anyone in his dedication. I am the nation to meet and unite if each team makes a very energetic and larger quest to win his case only, regardless of the fairness of his conviction or out riding or the means by which to achieve his goal and ambition. This calls for the right to life of grief and sorrow, and here comes the role of fidelity to the right alone to be a panacea for what ails this nation today and the loss of the band.

But thankfully there are scientists in the Islamic nation sincerely serious deployed in parts of the land they hold Islam , and making dearly in order to restore this nation to its place among nations and civilizations. .

If the moral sincerity is not known , however , its effects and manifestations, and also do not realize what it is as well as the amount can not be measured ; it can nevertheless be inferred presence and the amount ترسخه in psychology and the extent seen most of the heart and prey.

Venhann sure that the successes obtained by the Shaykh in every field is conclusive evidence of his dedication to the nation and society, and as we talk about the business side of Method eminence in all aspects, whether written works (Fatwas or research or studies) Or essay (Speeches and lectures, lessons doctrinal, verbal opinions) Or administrative(Participate in conferences and meetings); To witness him that he seeks to Word.

So let demanded the right willing, for example, to the fatwas of his eminence to Z. find that they do not go out under his hair for this context, but willing to consider books eminence in this aspect, and grasped his interpretation of doctrinal and other research, and to consider student right .

يقول سماحته في أعمال ندوة الفقه الإسلامي المنعقدة بجامعة السلطان قابوس عام 1408هـ 1988م، وكان رئيسًا لها: (The thankfully came to fruition in terms of dating , which yield affection in the soul , and removes the loneliness of hearts, and linking these hearts after Tnafarha , Menna reminds us of God to this nation ; says: ), And remember God's grace upon you when you were enemies He formed between your hearts So you became his grace brothers (([73]).

2 Excuse others at a different

وعن هذه القيمة الأخلاقية يقول عثمان بن عبدالله الأصم ـ رحمه الله ـ : (وإذا الاختلاف في حكم الحادثة بالرأي لم يجز لكل فريق من أهل الرأي أن يخطئ صاحبه)([74]).

وجاء عن صاحب قاموس الشريعة ـ رحمه الله ـ : (The God of generosity and mercy wider slaves in the most important matters of governance , and delegated to them , and ordered them to the diligence… )([75]).

Through this gate wide of the concept of divine mercy and generosity and expansion on the subjects confirms these scientists dedicated Nabhon agreement that people in the branches can not, The difference in understanding the provisions inevitable is an urgent need Ojptha several factors: ـ

أ – منها: أن الله تعالى أراد أن يكون في أحكامه المنصوص عليه والمسكوت عنه، وأن يكون في المنصوص عليه المحكمات والمتشابهات والقطعيات والظنيات لتعمل العقول فيما يقبله الاجتهاد.

ب ـ من حيث اللغة: In the texts of the Koran, the common word that is likely more than one meaning, the truth and the metaphor.

C in terms of the nature of human beings God has created them to think about different typ and qualities.

The difference in the branches intellectual wealth of the nation grows in the shadows jurisprudence and widening his circle around, industrious jurist can be renewed for the benefit of slaves and Salah country.

In this course , the True heading eminence in his fatwa trend away from the tensions that arise between now and then when some scientists on the branches of jurisprudence ; Eminence says in his fatwa: (لا ينبغي للمسلمين أن تشتد الخصومة بينهم في مسائل فرعية، للاجتهاد فيها مجال رحب ما دام كل مجتهد فيها يتعلق بما يراه حجة ويرتضيه دليلاً شرعيًا اجتمع فيه وصفان: قطعية متنه ونصية دلالته… .. )([76]).

ويقول في موضوع آخر: (I was not in the answer to the prayers Shafi'i nor Shafei passport not null , and I had to judge the invalidity of prayer a Eetmzhb doctrine and lead prayers applied the teachings of the sect ; , the Association of Muslim Scholars have judgments and opinions in prayer and other acts of worship , no longer dispute the issues leading )([77]).

3 ـ إحسان الظن بالآخرين:

This principle was pursued by his eminence in his dealings with the Muslims in general, and with scholars in particular; listens to their words and seen in their writings and verified by carefully and in good faith and good conscience, seek them excuses and justify their positions if they tolerate the facet of the right, a far cry from accusing one in intention or .

His Eminence says commenting on Dr.: Ahmed Abdel Raouf in his speech at a seminar held jurisprudence at Sultan Qaboos University , has stated his grief severe winning leniency from some Muslim scholars in some of the issues that count tolerated فجيعة in the dearest thing in Muslim life, and he named (التراجعات والانهزامات في عالمنا الإسلامي): (شكرًا لفضيلة الشيخ على هذه الغيرة وهذه الصراحة، وعلى كل حال هذه القضايا التي ذكرها قضايا مهمة، وهي معتبرة إن شاء الله. But I wanted to say that Muslim scholars improve their conjecture , but there may be people محسوبون the scholars of Islam, and محسوبون on science, issuing fatwas exceed the limits prescribed by God Almighty ; should not be condemned all Muslims because of those , this is reality, and the ([78]).

4 ـ الإنصاف للآخرين والبعد عن تجريحهم.

Walking Fatwa Omani contemporary on this platform who walked by his predecessor, Saleh , where did not affect their offending each other despite their differences , is evidenced by this ye friendliness and serenity , love and brotherhood between Asahabeyen Aljalilin Abdullah bin Omar and Abdullah bin Abbas y wholes , despite what the Mstehma .

يقول الإمام السالمي ـ رحمه الله ـ مبينًا هذا المسلك القويم:

نحن الأولى نسكت عما قد مضى ولا نعد الشتم دينا يــــرتــــضـــــــى

فهـذه بـــلادنــــــــــا لا تـــلــــــقى بها لسب الصحب قطا نــطــــــقــــــا

ونحــن لا نطالــــــب العــبـــــــــادا فــوق شهـادتيهم اعــــتــــقــــــــــــادا

فمن أتــى بالجملتين قــــــلــــنــــــا إخــواننــا وبـالحقوق قــــمــــنــــــــا([79])

ويقول العلامة أبو إسحق اطفيش ـ رحمه الله ـ (وهو شيخ سماحته) في معرض الرد على الأستاذ محمد بن عقيل العلوي الذي شتم الإباضية، ونسب مذهبهم إلى الخوارج: (It is our belief that verbal abuse is not to worship, and the benefit of people cursing; Oebadh ya see?! God worshiped بالشتم not, or sin?! The people of piety does not deliberately commit)([80]).

ومنهج سماحة الشيخ ـ حفظه الله ـ في هذا الجانب يجرى على نفس الخطة ويسير على نفس الأسلوب فهو يؤثر السكوت وعدم الخوض فيما جرى بين الصحابة y من خلاف كما يقول سماحته: (قضية ما جرى بين الصحابة: ﴿تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ﴾([81]) وأين نحن من صحابة رسول الله e أولئك قوم اختارهم الله عز وجل لصحبه خير الأنام، وظهر على أيديهم وألسنتهم هذا الدين وانتشر في أرجاء الأرض… ([82]).

And through Taatbaa of fatwas Eminence , I find the presence of the imams of the Islamic sects in many of them , and I find it reminds them of revered and respected, and down each and every one of them scientific stature that befits him , Fatanna For example, in the first part of the following statements worship fatwas: (Imam Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar modern, brand Alsohrnfora, Imams Malik and Shafi'i and Ahmad, the mark-kind, and Sayyed Mohammed Rashid Rida, brand Maraghi, scholar Ibn Rushd, Imam Zaid)([83]).

5 ـ الحوار الهادئ الهادف

الحوار بهذا المعنى يعني قيمة حضارية ينبغي الحرص عليها والتمسك بها وإشاعتها على جميع المستويات.

This was confirmed by His Eminence word and sincerity pursuant came in some of the rulings he believes that dialogue is required, but do not be distracted combines dialogue, and compose nor alienate and strengthens nor weakens and is not nearly([84]).

وأهم ما يميز أسلوب سماحته في الحوار:

أ ـ الحلم والوقار، وتقوى الله في كل كلمة تصدر منه.

ب ـ اختياره لأرق التعابير وألطفها.

ج ـ تركيزه على المتفق عليه من غير تضخيم للمختلف فيه.

D ready to give his opinion when that has proven wrong and right at what the other.

And by reference to the jurisprudential research to Shaykh They scattered in the books of fatwas and other we can identify the style of conversation when considering the issues and his response to the objections and discussion of the statements; find the following statements (وقد يتساءل بعض الناس لم هذه العناية بهذه القضية التافهة؟ فالجواب. وقد يقول قائل: إن كان الأمر كما تدعون فما بال بعض كبار علماء السلف؟ فالجواب. If it is said: فالجواب… Etc.)([85]).

وأختم هذا المحور بالقول: The keenness of His Eminence on these good values ​​has had a clear positive impact on both internal and external, which was confirmed by the fact and saw people; says one of the researchers: (The thought of Sheikh al-Khalili moderate and centrist significant impact on the Omani society in general and the doctrine Ibadi private , so that became Oman at the forefront of Arab and Muslim countries calling for dialogue and rapprochement between Islamic sects as the most successful way of understanding among the people, under the umbrella of tolerance of these institutions have the Omani society , led by the Grand Mufti of the Sultanate : Ijtihad in Islam and the rapprochement between Islamic sects)([86]).

* * *
The fourth axis: Issuing approach when Shaykh, may God protect him

Through this axis Grace of God I will try to stand on the general lines which set the course of his eminence, which discusses or Lefty in matters of doctrine. Suffice it to limp on the most important monuments, nor would argue that I give a complete picture in this quick brief; that these monuments which of renewal in the Method what does not hide, and I'd like to elaborate a comparison between curriculum Eminence and what it was like some scientists applicants it .

1 Freedom from neurological and tradition

Enables brand Khalili may God protect him from exceeding arch fanaticism narrow that did not deliver him many of the scholars and understanding, and that's what pronounce him his research and his fatwas ; what are , in fact, only translation live capacity of the chest and the spaciousness of mind and openness to others , The Bat has a goal .

The Eminence Research reflects the fact that the independent world, which reached the absolute degree of diligence; Vsmaanh (Does not know the right men, but he knew what they have the right), And I think that was in your hands Dear Reader some evidence on what you previously made clear to his senses and identifies it right, God willing,:

Perhaps a fatwa came when His Eminence violation of what it jurists, when the evidence is stronger interest in the matter and where they are the preponderant fatwa pick them regardless of those who say other than, or ES with them; From this section:

Opined Eminence hypothesis congregational prayer on the Senate, which is, in fact, was responsive to the needs of the nation, which are meant to unity among its members, also meant to have the lead in the ground, and can not under any circumstances be up to this Alsedd unless Anzbt her in prayer, as ([87]).

His Eminence also issued a fatwa sanctity of usury credit: It is selling sex بجنسه Mtfadila hand-in-hand; came in the advisory opinion: Money is likely to Imam Abu Jacob Allowargelana, and pointed to the choice of the pole, and favored by Imam al-Khalili mercy of God all of us, and in our time imam reasonable and transferred Alqnobi God save the inadmissibility of the Lord, which is credited as the conversations contained in it, and God knows([88]).

Look at saying may God protect him : (And for the conversations contained in that) To learn that relies on the strength of evidence and Rgehana.

B cares Eminence God save trackers research scientists of the predecessor and successor, and review of the statements of different where the balance between the evidence, viewed in their documents for transport and mental to choose from what was the happiest texts Shara, and closer to the purposes and first the interests of the people; is thus not left out on the products of scientists .

C Eminence see that all discretionary matters where the difference is not severe, and that the difference with the doctrines of the same as the difference in the same doctrine([89]).

ومن أمثلة ما خالف فيه سماحته الجمهور متشبثًا بالدليل الأقوى رأيه في بعض مسائل كفارة القتل:

قال سماحته: اختلف العلماء: If you subscribe group in the murder how answer them Atonement فقول the public , including Hasan and Sabri and Nakha'i and tiller Aeka and Malik , Shafi'i and revolutionary , Ahmad, Ishaq , and Abu Thor and opinion makers , and therefore more companions that every one of them to offer one expiation. It was: بالتفريق. There is no doubt that public opinion and the safest safe side and totally unknown, but bo rather it is based on the evidence likely, which is likely to have evidence of this in the words of expiation obligatory for everyone, whether one or fasting Atqa([90]).

2 Attention realistic jurisprudence

Realistic jurisprudence which discusses the emerging issues in the community, and express his opinion in times of calamity that has befallen the people , which does not have a previous ruling , or have a previous judgment but it needs to be revisited to change the conditions of the people and change the conditions of the times Bjerian of time and different place.

Shaykh says in this aspect: (If the era of the Caliphs was characterized by the movement of intellectual jurisprudence of the multiplicity of the facts, how under any circumstances of our time, and incidents where accidents are endless with the multiplicity of aspects; Valjnayat and Qraúnha diverse Kalpsamh and others, ratios and signs be proven characteristics of genetic, and various innovations, new medical Kalrahm alias, reproduction and transfer of members and others, all of those . The days are still wheel spin in the economic sphere Kalmaamlat multi- bank Fannie resolved without diligence ?!)([91]).

It is by standing on fatwas eminence in this aspect , we find that the trial of these issues incident endoscopic legitimate according Dalila فيتبين favor of Vassadha with taken into account the interests of the people and appreciation for ضروراتهم of. His Eminence says in the issue of cloning: أنا قلت من أول مرة عندما بدأ الاستنساخ بأن السير في هذا المنهاج يؤدي إلى تمرد الإنسان وخروجه عن سير الفطرة، وذلك مِمَّا يؤدي بطبيعة الحال إلى المفاسد الكبيرة، وفتح هذا الباب يترتب عليه ما يترتب من دخول الكثير من الأمور الشاذة التي تنحرف بالإنسان ذات اليمين وذات اليسار ليخرج عن المنهج الصحيح؛ وَإِنَّمَا قلنا ما آتاه الله سبحانه وتعالى الإنسان من علم يجب أن يستغل فيما يعود بالصالح على الإنسان، يمكن أن يستنسخ أعضاء الإنسان إن كان بحاجة إليها… )([92]).

وهنالك الكثير من هذه الفتاوى العصرية التي تناولها سماحته وبين فيها رأيه مِمَّا يعطي الصورة الواضحة على التجديد الفقهي عند سماحته ـ حفظه الله ـ .

3 ـ تغليب روح التيسير والبعد عن التشدد

Once it is at first sight in the products of Eminence Sheikh jurisprudential Antba the reader has to be taken into account along with the inherent Alhanifip tolerant, namely by the facilitation and raise critical, so based on a data book Hakim, Sunni orthodoxy. ويحضرني في هذا المقام بعض الشواهد:

أ – إِنَّهُ كثيرًا ما ترد فتاوى سماحته وبحوثه القيمة مطعمة بالآيات والأحاديث الدالة على معنى اليسر بهدف ترسيخ هذا المفهوم في قلوب المسلمين. يقول سماحته في فتاوى الصلاة: (من لا يستطيع الاتجاه إلى القبلة في الصلاة يصلي كيفما أمكنه فإن الله تعالى يقول: ﴿لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ مَا آتَاهَا﴾ ويقول: ﴿لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللّهُ نَفْسًا إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا﴾. والنبي e يقول: «إذا أمرتكم بشيء فأتوا منه ما استطعتم… » ([93]).

B is that God does not save Eminence is forbidden for people to take in his opinion, Fidel Mstftih intensified if it is coming down in times of calamity to avail himself of the words of scholarly, with the appropriate words to what is regarded as most correct Eminence, also came . يقول سماحته: (هذه القضية بحثت في المجامع الفقهية وغيرها، وللعلماء فيها رأيان: Them from the stresses afflicting the patient to come to God with patience, and that this is not healthy for him to affect anything other than his body; because altruism is not self-sacrifice, altruism but self. ومنهم من قال ـ وهذا قول أكثر علماء العصر ـ : إذا لم يكن ذلك تجارة ولم يكن ذلك من شخص لا يملك أمره ولا بتأثير ضغوط نفسية أو غيرها، وَإِنَّمَا ذلك اختيار فلا مانع من نقل الكلى. ونرى أن من توسع بهذا الرأي فنرجو أن لا يؤاخذه الله تبارك وتعالى)([94]).

ومثله في حكم إقراض المنافع (… وإن توسع أحد بحيث أخذ برأي المجيزين فَإِنَّهُ لا يُعنَّف، والله تعالى أعلم)([95]).

C expanding circle facilitation at Eminence in what permeated by scourge, especially the harsh nature of this age, has resulted from the tyranny of physical intractable problems, which requires critical and requires lifting and pushing hardship and bring facilitation. وهذا مقرر عند العلماء السابقين؛ قال أبو سعيد: يقال ـ والله أعلم ـ : إِنَّهُ ليس العالم من حمل الناس على ورعه، ولكن العالم من أفتاهم بما يسعهم من الحق([96]).

The concept of facilitation when Shaykh may Allah protect him being according to certain limits and controls, and not easing waiver for something which brought him Shariah. Eminence and insight into the needs of people with the fatwa of their patient cures and medications Alilhm; Sometimes Lefty Eminence is the safe side, including taking into account the state of the liquid or if the community whether lenient with him in the order of things dragging him and his community what dire consequences. قال أبو المؤثر ـ رحمه الله ـ : (ينبغي للمفتي أن يتحرج، ولا يضيق على الناس ما هو واسع لهم، ولا يوسع لهم ما هو ضيق عليهم)([97])

ومثاله: Eminence in a fatwa ruling women driving cars; believes that it is safe to leave her leadership to the consequent dangers of religious only if necessary for that, should not be exaggerated Valdharorh([98]).

D as expanding circle facilitation at Eminence if what came Poller repentant wants to Aoab to the Lord and lift off of his guilt, a reformist approach leaves in the appreciation of the Mufti, the nation's scientists unswerving course in science. وقد سئل الشيخ ناصر ابن أبي نبهان ـ رحمه الله ـ عن معنى هذين البيتين:

وتبذل الرخصة يا محبوبِ لكل من تاب من الذنوبِ

لكن ذا الإصرار عنه تكتم ليس له تبذل فيما نعلم؟

Said: فإذا علم منه التوبة بذل له الرخصة لئلا يستصعب الخروج من ذنوبه، وهكذا كان يعمل والدي. والذي يراه يطلب الرخصة حيلة وهو مصر على الذنوب، لم يعلمه بالرخص، وأفتاه بالأشد([99]).

وعن ابن عباس ـ رضي الله عنهما ـ أن رجلاً سأل عن توبة القاتل، فقال: لا توبة له. وسأله آخر عن توبة القاتل، فقال: له توبة. Then he said,: إن الأول رأيت في عينيه إرادة القتل فمنعته، فجاء مسكين قد قتل فلم أقنطه([100]).

ومثال ذلك من فتوى سماحته فيمن ترك صيام عدة سنوات بجهل، ثُمَّ جاء تائبًا أن عليه قضاء ما أفطر، وله أن يكتفي بكفارة واحدة([101]).

وإجمالاً: Eminence embraced the approach to be a compromise between the decomposition of many of the provisions under the pretext of fixed cope with the development and facilitation on the people, and those who have committed reverence everything that is old, claiming conservative approach and advances, provisions Fterahm firing haphazardly prevention and prohibition.

وانظر ـ إن شئت ـ في الفتاوى التالية لتتبين منهجه السليم في هذا الأمر:

1 ـ فيمن أراد أن يعمل في بنك ربوي بحجة أن الإسلام دين يسر([102]).

2 ـ فيمن يحتج بأن بعض العلماء أفتى بحلية الزيادة البنكية([103]).

3 ـ حكم عمليات التجميل([104]).

4 ـ مخاطبة الناس بلغة العصر.

مِـمَّا يميز منهج سماحة الشيخ في هذا الجانب: .

A - Lefty it formulates its research and jurisprudence in plain language, free of jargon and specialist words exotic, which is applied to guide the Holy Book in this regard; says the Almighty God: ﴿وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ﴾([105]).

With the ease of style Eminence is accurate phrase Mtejera words, as appropriate and in tune with what he needs guiding.

However observed simplicity and lack of affectation in the phrase, the eminence stands in his speech when committed to a certain degree in classical Arabic, do not descend to the level of people in their rhetoric;, but seeks to improve their tongues, which is very jealous on the language of the Koran.

And His Eminence also does not lend itself to that question is provided by the restaurant a few foreign words in order to retouch question only, which does not lend itself well to be in question syntax error, especially if the question is given to him in writing, Vimay to fix the calendar language.

B observed God save the characteristics of thinking respondents on their differences; Some firm in his faith, and of them lenient in his religion, including the skeptic who does not accept the judgment without knowing the wisdom and significance, including the ignorant, and of them dismissive, and those commoner, and those university educated; each of these .

وأكتفي بمثال واحد فقط، إذ الأمر بات واضحًا لا يخفي على المتأمل؛ فقد ورد عليه سؤال فيه شبهة أثارتها بعض الطالبات عن (طبيعة المساواة بين الرجل والمرأة), And why not entitled to equal inheritance?

His Eminence has been elaborated in response to this suspicion, and answered by an answer substantiated metastasis and mentality, with its focus on realistic Islam and moderation in this side and the right outlook for the concept of equality([106]).

C cited in the advisory opinion with new cultures Science diverse as characterized by Shaykh horizon wide and mentality conjures scientific evidence and cultural information on the subject at high speed and agility are present, it appears as a poller that Eminence specializes in the art; If occur on the side of medicine or astronomy or history chapter . This feature is added to the fatwa horizon plenty of active and energetic, and thus positively affect the Poller creation of reassurance has.

In question responded to him by one of his brothers from the Republic of Mauritania Istftih for the rule of smoking, he replied Eminence lengthy answer 25 ورقة ـ ؛ فيها استعراض لخطر التدخين وبيان ما صدر من منظمة الصحة العالمية ومؤتمرات وندوات طبية وما أعده مهرة الأطباء من كتابات في بيان هذا الخطر. وقال سماحته بعد ذلك: (According to finally have an answer shortly after the liberation of the Arab section the BBC that the number of those who die because of the smoke had risen to five million, also came on a site this section of the global information network). ويستطرد سماحته بذكر ما ورد عن المكتب التنفيذي لمجلس وزراء الصحة لدول مجلس التعاون من إحصائيات في هذا الموضوع([107]).

5 ـ الإعراض عما لا ينفع الناس

Of renewal wrought by his eminence in his fatwas do not remove them from what people need in their working lives; It's that I do not find him in these opinions regarding the answer puzzles doctrinal issues or delve into the virtual dialectic, and the Eminence very careful to avoid issues that evoke old differences : ) That nation hath her what they earned and you what كسبتم do not ask what they were working (([108]).

وما حاله هذا إلا كحال الخليفة الأموي الراشد عمر بن عبد العزيز t عندما سأل عن قتال أهل صِفَّين فقال: (تلك دماء طهرت منها سيوفنا أفلا نطهر منها ألسنتنا)([109]).

Vsmaanh looking not only these issues with a view to taking a lesson or correct historical fallacy or pay only a suspicion.

It also confirms his eminence on the order is very important, which is not to involve religion in everything, and investigate Muslim differentiate between what comes to religion and what is not about him; says Eminence response to the Astvtah in the case of the arrival of man to the moon's surface, and reconcile to say his arrival, and between : ﴿… That you can be Tnfzu of the heavens and the earth Fanfzu not without authority (([110]): (This case is not about religion and belief, there is no need to be examined in the light of religion. But must disliked the Koran for him to like her also reported that some of them leaning on that verse to prove access on the moon, what is the evidence; in the gallery because they talk about the Day of Resurrection. It arrived the moon was not implemented from the heavens and the Earth and how the Earth's moon continued between them is not only a second and a half the speed of light; while diameters measured in the heavens and on thousands of millions of light-years, and God knows)([111]).

6 ـ إعطاء الفتوى حقها من البيان على حسب مقتضاها

ألاحظ أن لسماحة الشيخ ـ حفظه الله ـ في بعض فتاواه بيانا مفصلا يستغرق عدة صفحات، بينما قد لا يزيد عن كلمة أو كلمتين في البعض الآخر. ومرد هذا الأمر كما هو معلوم مراعاة ما يقتضيه السؤال من إطالة أو اقتضاب.

أ ـ فمنها ما يحتاج أن يساق لجوابه الدليل بمختلف صوره أو ببعضها ومثال ذلك: فتوى سماحته في اللحوم المستوردة التي جلبت من بلاد الكفر، حيث يحاول بعض الناس المجادلة في حكمها. ومن ذلك أن المستفتي يورد بعض الاعتراضات منها:

1 ـ أن جميع الناس يأكلونها ومنهم حجاج بيت الله الحرام.

2 ـ الاستناد إلى ما جاء في الآية الثالثة من سورة المائدة وفي الآية المائة وثلاثة وسبعين من سورة البقرة، ونحن مضطرون.

3 ـ أن طعام أهل الكتاب حل لنا.

4 ـ حديث «لا تجتمع أمتي على ضلال». ونرى المسلمين مجتمعين على أكلها.

5 ـ هل من المعقول أن يوضع عليه ذبح على الطريقة الإسلامية للتضليل، والغربيون عرفوا بالصدق والأمانة.

Eminence came fatwa unsubstantiated, familiar aspects of the subject, for Respondent these objections, indicating that there must be put in place all the evidence. Thus, His Eminence addressed this issue until this opinion is no longer in a statement this provision suspicion of incredulous. All that brought the country of infidelity meat basic principle of the inviolability even received an acceptable guarantee stating that the Almabh this sacrifice of those permissible to eat his sacrifice, and we must also benefit from a guarantee that the carcass had been slaughtered on the way legitimate in Islam([112]).

It answers to what needs to connect a statement in which legislative wisdom. It's that what was said in the advisory opinion of the legislative judgment in religious rites, and it is also mention of wisdom, and it is also the wisdom of the legality of the stoning of the adulterer bosses, and the wisdom of the prohibition of marriage Bmsenath adulterer, the legality and wisdom of Idi-Adha and al-Fitr([113]).

C The answer needs to connect the referee in charge of your other provisions of Islam so far as fairness in the commands and prohibitions.

When talking about the many reasons advocated by Islam in the legality of polygamy has not ignored his eminence to mention that multi-modal justly among women. He attributed his eminence in that when deficiencies are found to apply to Muslims and exercising the wrong, and do not come back on principle;, they should be careful of Justice and careful to follow the Koran([114]).

D In some answers are backed by Shaykh compared between Islam and other faiths and perverted the laws of Islam knows what is in the best of preferred and in other aberration and shades. ومثاله: The issue of women's liberation, and gave it to him compared to what Islam and what it received in the previous eras of Islam, or even the vaunted liberation at the present time.

هـ ـ وهناك من الأجوبة ما فيه استطراد لبيان أحكام مرتبطة بالسؤال نفسه، مراعيًا فيه سماحته ما يحتاج إليه السائل. ومثاله: ما أجاب به سماحته عن حكم الأغذية والأدوية التي يدخل في صناعتها الجلاتين. Said: (… فما بالك فيما تيقنت حرمته كالجلاتين الذي ثبت بالتواتر أَنَّهُ لا يخلو من عظام الخنزير وأدهانه…)، ثُمَّ تناول سماحته خطورته على الناس، وعرج إلى مسألة مرتبطة بتناوله وهي إجابة الدعاء فقال: (… The people who made the joke does not raise, God forbid, the answer from the requirement to pray to be calling for halal food is not compromised in it, and is now the most cherished of red sulfur, I am God and to Him we return we ask Allah for good health)([115]).

7 ـ توظيف الفتوى في خدمة الجانب الإصلاحي:

Characterized by the fatwa when Shaykh as its character reformer worthy of consideration, has been able Eminence, thanks to whom God talents innate and queens creative and acted in the arts say that makes the fatwa School advocacy and clear-cut, adopts the movement of Islamic awakening and going by walking an adult does not bump it or recklessness.

ومن أهم المعالم الإصلاحية في هذه المدرسة الإفتائية عند سماحة الشيخ ما يلي:

أ ـ التركيز على القضايا الأساسية للأمة

His Eminence has given the issues that mean the pillars of the Islamic nation and the elements of renaissance large area of ​​his fatwas, it is a permanent concern for the correction and evaluation does not find an opportunity to only Ahthblha, but all opinions Eminence does not depart from this framework.

ومن القضايا التي عني سماحته بها أكثر من غيرها:

1 ـ فكر الأمة ومقومات التصور الصحيح عندها.

2 ـ الوحدة الإسلامية.

3 ـ الشباب.

4 ـ المرأة.

* On the intellectual side confirms his eminence that the nation needs to be rewritten again so that it can regain its civilization, and that there is an invitation from the invitations all apostles carried only on the correct perception, and to deny perceptions false and replaced by perceptions the right to walk the nation the right way, the correct perception (Is the perception of truth as it is, whether it was of them relates to Bembda existence and its rights to worship, or what it relates to the system of the universe and the necessity of undergoing the command of Allah, or the system of relations between Muslims, and that these relations it is a relationship of brotherhood and love and mercy, or what was ), Also calls for Eminence to Muslims what to measure who is going to be brought to them by others on this perception, so do not Athalkon on imports of intellectual and behavioral by the enemies of Islam)([116]).

ويضرب سماحته أمثلة على محاكاة المسلمين لغيرهم إذا ما جانبهم التصور الصحيح بـ (كذبة إبريل، غياب التاريخ الهجري، تقليد غير المسلمين في اللباس و… . )([117]).

His Eminence also warns of attack on the nation's cultural that are meant to be formulated in accordance with the beliefs of new concepts satisfy tyrants in the earth([118]).

In a statement, it must be characteristic of the Muslim Ummah of His Eminence, the thought of standing against extremist ideas that worn for Boss religion and sanction the lives of people in the name of Islam, where he says that: (It is regrettable that we find some people affiliated with the Islam destroying it from the inside rather than destroy enemies from abroad; Those who have committed tragedies great not heeded Baharmat killing women and children and displaced innocent people and committed they have committed on behalf of Islam, and Islam innocent of all that, Islam is a religion that promotes compassion … . This anomaly is far from the teachings of Islam and its values, Fleet those what never belonged to Islam, but did not accuse liked to catch this true religion clean this dirty charges that recover the debt, including)([119]).

It is this section baptizing Eminence to warn people of the heart of the concepts and standards in terms of changing the heart of things so that gives meaning to another, has been counting Eminence this intellectual invasion of the risks of the new Rzi by Islam and the spiritual drink wine label)، والربا بـ (الفوائد)، والزنا بـ (الحب)، والغناء والرقص بـ (Art)([120]).

يقول سماحته مجيبًا لسائله عن حكم الشرع في ما يأخذه بعض الناس من البنك، وقد سماها السائل (بالفوائد): (First, I want to draw on an important issue, namely, that man would be bound in his words to express the Qur'an, as he should habit which one persists in his behavior; thing taboo can not be expressed in words, looking forward to it, and serves as propaganda for him, The expression of usury interest is permissible and this ([121]).

وقال سماحته في موضع آخر: (ولقد ظن بعض الناس أن الربا سبب للنمو والزيادة حتى قال كثير منهم: The banks that deal with riba reason for the prosperity of the economy, and you know why it is right for the pond, and a reason to spend money on the growth of, and reason for Asttra corruption in fruits and crops)([122]).

* On the subject of unity among Muslims stems Eminence from the base of the brothers of faith, and that this nation of units required to unite commanded not to disperse and the religion of Islam Pklyate and its fractions leads to a Union that Morse in the right way, and perform rituals leads the individual to be a member of the construction in the nation, as well as .

Eminence and see that the unit be careful to avoid every reason to difference and the band and the Diaspora.

Eminence and calls to the meeting on the common denominators from which the pillars of Islam, and calls for a meaningful dialogue between scientists quiet, and on returning any difference to them specialist. We must distinguish between what is a matter of opinion, between what is a matter of religion.

Through these data Eminence able to score a rod head start in the field of fair competition among scientists dedicated to bring together the Islamic nation and heal Sdaha and out of the Strait of sectarian create factionalism.

يقول سماحته في جوابه عن فريضة الحج فيما إذا كانت قد أدت وظيفتها المقصودة عبر السنين المختلفة: (There is no doubt that the Islamic nation holds every one of its members between Joinha passion kindled Chdh to his fellow believers, blaze in the same feelings of enthusiasm for this debt; But Unfortunately, this passion often is accompanied by the knowledge and insight in order to be human is able to use and disposal …We thank the Almighty God that I found groups of people met from different parts of the world and among them was dating and harmony and mutual affection and compassion, but that does not mean that the nation has become the solution of the order but it… )([123]).

وفي سؤال آخر هذا نصه: (The Islamic nation united in a lot of things, in faith and in the curriculum, and in the Hajj, and the lack of autism in a single day of the month of Ramadan, why do not we fast in Amman with others?). قال سماحته: (… In any case, attach hopes to unity, but we have to know what are the elements of the unity of the nation, the nation is not united to meet in Hilalha, nor united to meet in a prayer lead at one time, so that leads noon prayers from the far east to the far west at one time … Where these feelings? )*.

And see what opinions Eminence attend wire and strengthens the unity of the nation and of interdependence, for example, was quoted as saying in the transfer of Zakat in the case dispensed with: The scholars differed in this matter; Some of them prevent the transfer and saw it acted in the same country. Some of them said that permits the transfer of the need to plug in the other country, and this is most likely due to say that the Islamic nation one nation equal integrated and God knows *.

* On the subject of young people stems eminence from the base of the youth of the nation are the measure of progress and delay, standard advancement and Anahtatha; From this, the discourse emphasizes the importance of raising young Muslims on the Koran, which instills in them the spirit of independence at all, and they shall be immune from the psychological defeat unaffected Boadaúhm.

Eminence and regrets very much that these young Muslims were actually psychological defeat, and finds that the reasons for this: The weakness of religious faith, and the lack of Islamic Awareness, and the penetration of colonialism in many Muslim countries, and international organizations come together on youth and mothers of three Jewish and atheistic Communism Crusade and malevolent. ومن سائلهم إيجاد الشقاق بين المسلمين وإشاعة الرذيلة بينهم، واستخدام كل وسيلة من وسائل الإعلام في ذلك. والعلاج الذي يوصي به سماحته هو: Go right to Islam, and by educating young people, and to create confidence in the people of the Muslim its principles, values ​​and morals, and to familiarize them with the face of adversity, and carry the banner and endure the hardships of life *.

* On the subject of Muslim women believe that women Eminence great importance in building the society, they are half of the society and the other half brought up on her hands, and they won their full rights under Islam; while actuated ignorance of ancient and modern chasm to perdition. Eminence and confirms that the legislation Islam for women is a response to the call of instinct and that the difference between men and women as different fungal Eminence connects calls between women's liberation and the World Zionist.

Eminence and encourages Muslim women to take care of family affairs and directing them boys destination sound *.

Eminence and warns of the mixing of men and women in the study, work, and between that if a woman wants to work outside the home for them to comply controls Shara also have to choose what work commensurate with the nature that created them *.

ب ـ إيجاد الحلول الشرعية للقضايا المعاصرة (طرح البديل)

Firsts side of reform at the Shaykh in his foundation Alavtaúah address what is emerging on the scene of the issues and express the legitimate government which, they thought these issues, economic or social or political or educational. Even can reform movement to continue and its wheels that spin had to be accompanied by movement Avtaúah developed not only a statement the legitimate government of coming down, but also extends to offering alternative, so the Shaykh makes his foundation Alavtaúah based on guarantees to meet to achieve happiness in this world and hereafter also included for man . وإليكم بعض النماذج على ذلك:

يتناول سماحة الشيخ في فتاوى المعاملات قضية بيع السيارات بالتقسيط وما ينتابها من مخالفات شرعية في الوقت الراهن، ثُمَّ يعقب سماحته على الحكم، ويطرح البديل: (I suggest that there is a company carried out by the people of goodness to buy cars and sell them; When one comes displays on this company that wants a certain car they buy him this car, it is not nothing wrong with it, though the price was double the original price, there is nothing wrong in it when . فهذا هو البديل الذي أراه والله أعلم)*.

ـ وفي مسألة التبرع بالأعضاء أو نقلها يوجه سماحته إلى أن استنساخ الأعضاء خير من نقل الأعضاء؛ لأن نقلها يؤدي إلى فقدان المنقول منه ذلك العضو. If possible, be reproduced livers, for example, so anyone who has been a liver disease that instilled the liver that was reproduced for the better, even if that could be reproduced for a kidney transplant for those who disrupted Clah was okay. Thus Fastnsak Members do not mind it religiously, even if the deceased was cloned from him because the clones of it is better than the movement of the livers of the dead, and God knows *.

We have passed a fatwa Eminence passport compelled to avail himself of the advisory opinion of the scientists who say the permissibility of organ transplants.

And instructs his eminence of wanted to deposit or invest his money to Islamic banking as an alternative to usurious banks, provided that familiar with the program in order to be on the safe money transactions Forbidden *.

ـ في مسائل حكم استماع الغناء والموسيقى يوجه سماحته إلى النشيد الإسلامي كبديل عنها*.

ج ـ تطهير الإسلام من البدع

His Eminence Sheikh confirms God save through rulings on the seriousness of innovating in religion as people invent a lot of things were not in the era of the Prophet e, a far cry from the requirements of this true religion, and far from the approach the Prophet e.

One of these things are addressed by the updated opinions Eminence: Read the Koran Pay; since reading the Koran worship, worship is not taken by the reward; Just as the human does not take paid on links that offer it, so do not take paid on the reading of the Book of Allah, the Almighty, but the reward that's what bestowed the reward in the Hereafter *.

Including what it took time and effort even unbend to the right people, and returned them; such as meals that people used them solace days and what they evils, including those related to Palmatdh. وقد كانت هذه المحدثات والبدع موجودة إلى وقت ليس بالبعيد، ولكن بفضل الله تعالى تمكن سماحته من تطهير المجتمع العماني من الكثير منها. نسأل الله تعالى أن يثيبه على ذلك.

د ـ الإصلاح من خلال أسلوب الفتوى

ولسماحته ـ حفظه الله ـ أسلوب دعوى مميز في فتاواه، ومن أهم خصائص هذا الأسلوب:

1 ـ المزج بين قوة العبارة وسلاسة الأسلوب: In many opinions that need to co-opt Poller and influence it with a view to possess the virtue of virtues or abandon the vice of vices baptizing Eminence to give an advisory opinion in a manner influential, converts the meanings of mental and psychological emotions and scenes missing facts are visible and things felt, as which collects between addressing the mind . وما أكثر ما يطالعنا في فتاوى سماحته هذا الأسلوب الإفتائي المبتكر ومن ذلك:

ـ قوله: (إن الاختلاط بين الجنسين هو نار الفتنة التي تطلع على الأفئدة، ولا يرضى لنفسه الاصطلاء بها مؤمن ولا مؤمنة) *.

(But their hair was not degraded bearish Savla, did not like the hair that Ttakiah Qraúh evildoers toxins, broadcast for corrupting society and spreading obscenity, and answer vices to stop their souls and for God's sake) *.

(نحن نثق بالله سبحانه وتعالى، فبجانب هذا الشر المستطير هناك خير ينتشر انتشار الضوء في الفضاء يطوي سجاف الظلام، والحمد لله) *.

2 ـ الجمع بين الفتوى والجانب الروحي: Characterized by a fatwa Shaykh along linguistic Rsantha came accompanied by recalling being in God and the Last Day, and the torment and reward, including the souls and remind them of the rights of God, the Almighty and responsibility in his hands. وهذا مِمَّا جعل الفتوى ندية غير جافة تحمل طابع الإيمان والخشية والتوجه إلى الله ـ تعالى ـ . وهذا الأسلوب نابع من القرآن الكريم كما هو واضح لا يخفى في آيات الأحكام وغيرها.

3 Proverbs and evoke sermons and stories: It is a method Eminence Budaiya blow to the likes of, and mentioned the sermons in many of his fatwas; and only his belief in its active role in the minds and souls, and their impact in the sent Elan in spirit Poller to do good, and Alnaa by citizen sedition and evil; says his eminence in the gallery talk : (وقبل فترة جاءني أربعة أشخاص من وزارة الإعلام ليسجلوا ندوة تتعلق بمرض فقدان المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز), And they told me that this terrible disease is spreading, though it Moktma; Badia In two cases in the same every day, at least, it is a serious invasion gripped the people do not stop at the borders ask pardon of God and wellness . And told me that one of the debauched young killer God discovered this disease, what have I done? )*.

He says in the gallery to talk about marriage man Etapih: (Not long ago, a man came at the age of seventy years, a tribe of Oman, has been brought by his nephew to enter Islam; because his father married his mother and is not Islam Vrepetth non-Islamic education in the life of his father. وقبل فترة أخرى جاءني رجل وقد جاء به ابن عمه ليدخل في الإسلام… وجاءني بعد ذلك بابن عمه الآخر ليدخل الإسلام، فسألته عن سبب هذا؟ فقال: We found that it was Shahuanaa did not marry a Muslim unless grandmother, therefore we are, we were Muslims; The others, they were not on Islam, he said,: إن في أسرتهم أربعين شخصًا على غير الإسلام؛ أي على المذهب الكاثوليكي، وهذه الأسرة تنحدر من أصل عماني. Said: بأن عمته كاثوليكية، وقد تزوجت يهوديًا. Thus are tragedies because of the distance from God and because of desires to follow) *.

These are the main points that can be considered as an approach to the understanding of the curriculum eminence in the advisory opinion, and I know that this subject needs to take a deep look, but it suffices that these words are milestones on the road.

وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

* * *

Conclusion

بعد هذه القراءة السريعة في فتوى سماحة الشيخ أمكنني أن أقول أن سماحته قد قدم لنا فتواه من خلال الاعتبارات التالية:

1) التجديد أمر مطلوب يفرضه الواقع.

2) ليس من معنى التجديد تجاوز النصوص أو تعطيلها.

3) أن المصلحة المعتبرة شرعا لا تصطدم بالنص الشرعي.

4) التفريق بين مسائل الرأي ومسائل الدين.

5) الإصلاح سمة بارزة من سمات التجديد.

6) الوحدة بين الأمة من أولويات مطالب الدين الإسلامي.

The last prayer to thank God.

* * *
فهرس المراجع والمصادر

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*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

[26]) المرجع السابق، ص141.

[27]) المرجع السابق، ص143.

[28]) Seen: المرجع السابق، ص140.

[29]) المرجع السابق، ص159.

[30]) المرجع السابق، ص186.

[31]) المرجع السابق، ص169.

[32]) مكتبة الأنفال، لقاءات مع 16 عالماً، ط مكتبة الأنفال 2006م ج1 ص16.

[33]) زايد الجهضمي، معالم الفكر التربوي. ، ص17 ـ 179.

[34]) ابن منظور، لسان العرب، ج2 ص397.

[35]) نادية شريف العمري، الاجتهاد في الإسلام، مدرسة الرسالة، 1405، 1485م ص9.

[36]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد وأثره في التجديد ص15.

[37]) المرجع السابق، ص100.

[38]) Surat Yusuf: 76. Look: المرجع السابق، ص100.

[39]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، إعادة صياغة الأمة، ط1، مكتبة الأجيال، ص135.

[40]) المرجع السابق، ص311.

[41]) يوسف الكتابي، التجديد والاجتهاد مظهر أصالة الإسلام، المجمع العالمي، المؤتمر الخامس، ص311.

[42]) المرجع السابق، ص311.

[43]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، إعادة صياغة الأمة، ص76.

[44]) أحمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد، ص79، 98، 99 Adapted.

[45]) يوسف الكتابي، التجديد والاجتهاد ص299 بتصرف.

[46]) أحمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد ص103 ـ 106 Adapted.

[47]) نادية العمري، الاجتهاد في الإسلام، ص4.

[48]) بشير بن مولود الجحيشي، الاجتهاد التنزيلي، ط1، كتاب الأمة 1424، 2003م، ص36.

[49]) محمد هشام الأيوبي، الاجتهاد ومقتضيات العصر، دار الفكر الأردن عمان، ص257.

[50]) المرجع السابق، ص257.

[51]) المرجع السابق، ص257.

[52]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد ص114 بتصرف.

[53]) المرجع السابق، ص115 ـ 116 Adapted.

[54]) المرجع السابق، ص120 وينظر إعادة صياغة الأمة، ص21 ـ 26.

[55]) عمار الطالبي، تجديد الفقه وتيسيره، المجمع العالمي، المؤتمر الخامس، ص388 بتصرف.

[56]) المرجع السابق، ص389 ـ 399 Adapted.

[57]) علي بن السيد عبدالرحمن آل هاشم، الأصالة والمعاصرة في الفقه الإسلامي [المجمع العالمي، المؤتمر الخامس، ص292.

[58]) رسالة المسجد، مركز السلطان قابوس للثقافة الإسلامية العدد 113/10 ـ 114/15و16.

[59]) محمد هشام، الاجتهاد ومقتضيات العصر، ص258.

[60]) علي، الأصالة والمعاصرة، ص289

[61]) عمار، تجديد الفقه، ص392.

[62]) المرجع السابق، ص395.

[63]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد، ص110.

[64]) المرجع السابق، ص111.

[65]) أحمد الخليلي، إعادة صياغة، ص27.

[66]) أحمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد، ص100.

[67]) يوسف الكتابي، التجويد والأجتهاد، ص301.

[68]) عامر الكفيشي مقومات النهوض الإسلامي، دار الهوى، 2006م ص474.

[69]) ندوة الفقه الإسلامي بعمان، ط1، وزارة الأوقاف، 1408 ـ 1988م ص98.

[70]) مجلة رسالة المسجد، العدد123، ص12.

[71]) المرجع السابق، ص13.

[72]) زايد الجهضمي، معالم الفكر التربوي، ص10.

[73]) Sura: 103. Look: كتاب ندوة الفقه الإسلامي، ص1024.

[74]) جميل بن خميس السعدي، قاموس الشريعة وزارة التراث، سلطنة عمان، 1404 ـ 1983م ج،ص26. .

[75]) المرجع السابق، ص142.

[76]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، فتاوى الصلاة ط2 وزارة الأوقاف سلطنة عمان 1419هـ ـ 1998م، ج1 ص140.

[77]) المرجع السابق، ص142.

[78]) كتاب ندوة الفقه الإسلامي ص446.

[79]) عبدالله بن حميد السالمي، مفتاح السعادة ط1 مكتبة نور الدين، 2003م ص201 ـ 203.

[80]) أبو اسحق أطفيش، النقد الجليل، ط1 مكتبة الضامري، 1414، 1993م، ص36.

[81]) Sura: 134.

[82]) كتاب ندوة الفقه الإسلامي، ص784.

[83]) ينظر أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الفتاوى، ج1 ص174، 469، 493، 515، 522، 523.

[84]) رسالة المسجد، العدد 113، ص9.

[85]) المرجع السابق، العدد 112، ص40.

[86]) مقال للدكتور سامي صقر والدكتور محمد عبد الكريم.

[87]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الفتاوي، ط2 الأجيال، سلطنة عمان ج1، ص53.

[88]) المرجع السابق، ج3 ص177.

[89]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، ، فتاوى المرأة المسلمة، ط1، الجيل الواعد 1428 ـ 2007 ج، ص89.

[90]) الفتاوى، ج5، ص110.

[91]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الاجتهاد وأثره في التجديد، ص97.

[92]) رسالة المسجد، العدد 107، ص5.

[93]) الفتاوى، ج3، ص144.

[94]) المرجع السابق، ج1، ص24.

[95]) المرجع السابق، ج3، ص200.

[96]) جميل بن خميس السعدي، ج2، ص139.

[97]) خميس بن سعيد الشقصي، منهج الطالبين، وزارة التراث، سلطنة عمان، جص137.

[98]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص238.

[99]) جميل بن خميس، قاموس الشريعة، ج2، ص135.

[100]) المرجع السابق، ص136.

[101]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص280.

[102]) الفتاوى، ج3، ص238.

[103]) المرجع السابق، ص152.

[104]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص497.

[105]) Surat Ibrahim: 4.

[106]) ينظر الفتاوى، ج2، ص599 وص600.

[107]) المرجع السابق، ج5، ص442.

[108]) سورة البقرة، الآية (134).

[109]) أبو إسحق اطفيش، النقد الجليل، ص54.

[110]) سورة الرحمن، الآية (33).

[111]) الفتاوى ج، ص137

[112]) ينظر الفتاوى، ج5، ص410 ـ ص417.

[113]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص149.

[114]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص102 ـ ص103.

[115]) الفتاوى، ج5، ص420 ـ ص421.

[116]) رسالة المسجد، العدد 102، ص11.

[117]) المرجع السابق، ص12.

[118]) المرجع السابق، ص13.

[119]) المرجع السابق، ص13.

[120]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الإسلام بين محن ثلاث، المطابع العالمية، سلطنة عمان، ص9.

[121]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص611.

[122]) أحمد بن حمد الخليلي، الإسلام بين محن ثلاث، المطابع العالمية، سلطنة عمان ص12.

[123]) فتاوى المرأة، ج2، ص356.

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