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About rationing provisions punishments in Islamic jurisprudence

About rationing provisions punishments in Islamic jurisprudence *

Preparation: D. Rajab Abu Melih Mohammed **


Praise be to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messengers Muhammad and his family and followed his Sunnah and guided followers until the Day of Judgement, and after..

This paper discussion about rationing provisions sanctions in Islamic jurisprudence, are not intended to list the jurisprudence in the door of the sanctions, they do not accommodate it, as they do not talk about rationing in the door of sanctions because it is more important than others, Sharia all either may not be indivisible them or decrease or .

But the first goal of this paper Hotrah debate about the importance of rationing in this era which the change occurred to the judicial system, which was based on the judges Dealing directly with the text , replace these judicial institutions according to the system controller that a judge is given depends on the laws and rules and regulations prepared him in advance, and allows those who appear before the judiciary to object or appeal of these provisions in accordance with a specific system also.

The second objective is to ask the confused emerged in modern times as a result of the so-called dialogue with the other, whether internally or externally. These problems have raised fears among the other end of the application of Islamic law, and we have her sons in front of him - as is- So do not turn these fears to believe in facts , and felt that it would not be safe on his property and himself and displayed in the application of Islamic law.

This paper was made in the introduction and preface and four chapters; deals with a brief definition of boot rationing, and sanctions, and the first chapter: About the legalization of sanctions and controls observance of the purposes of Sharia punishment legislation, Chapter II: On the issues of parental retribution. The third chapter: On issues relating to border issues, and Chapter IV: About jurisprudential academies efforts to codify sanctions, then the conclusion and results.

The God of the intent behind.


Deals with a brief definition of rationing, and sanctions:

Rationing language: Source “Gannan” Viz “Development of laws”, A word generator (Any non-Arab origin), And the law “The measure of all things and the way”.

AndRationing idiomatically It: The drafting of the provisions in the form of legal materials arranged numbered, similar to modern laws of civil, criminal and administrative… Etc., so as to be easy reference checked, can easily adhere to the judges, due to the lawyers, and handles on the basis of citizens.

Or is it: “The drafting of the provisions of the transactions and other contracts and smoothed her theories, the University of the framework, in the form of legal materials easy reference”.

Some researchers knew that: Formulation of jurisprudence single - topic that did not leave applied to select people, distinguishes peremptory terms , including serial numbers and logically arranged away from the redundancy and inconsistency.

This definition contains the following elements of the rationing:

1 –Drafting: A feature on blogger jurisprudence rationing.

2 –Arrangement and numbering: It is another feature make it easy refer to the provisions of.

3 -Saying: “Jus” Is to distinguish between mere statement provisions, and the obligation, which is the nature of the laws.

4 -Saying: “Did not leave people applied for the selection of”;: Do not have to refrain from the applied refrained they are not abandoned them, but in other aspects of the intervention so, Kalaqhobat the.

5 –One-Thread: Because the laws are usually separates each subject and another, it does not preclude that the sum of these threads represents a codification of Islamic jurisprudence([1]).

The authorized public rationing contemporary scholars, including some members of the Council of Senior Scholars in Saudi Arabia, as demonstrated in view المتحفظين on the Commission's decision to ban rationing of the fuqaha they: Sheikh Saleh Bin Ghosoun , and Sheikh Abdul Majeed bin Hassan, Sheikh Abdullah Khayyat , Sheikh Abdullah bin impervious , and Sheikh Mohammed bin Jubair , Sheikh Rashid bin Khnen. And those who see the passport as well as members of the senior scientists , Dr. Saleh bin Abdullah bin Humaid , and Almjizin of rationing as well as Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Mohammed bin Ibrahim Al Al-Sheikh , Dr. Abdulrahman Al -Qasim ; , where he wrote it in search of a broad concluded it is permissible to rationing, and even its necessity.

It is famous contemporaries who saw rationing passport: Sheikh Mohamed Abdou and Sheikh Muhammad Rashid Rida and Sheikh Ahmed Shakir and Sheikh Mohammad Abu Zahra , and Sheikh Mustafa Zarqa and Sheikh Ali al - Tantawi and Dr. gift Zoheily and Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi and Sheikh Mohammed bin Hassan الحجوي.

The prevention of a range of contemporary and them: Sheikh Mohammed the Secretary Shanqeeti, and Sheikh Bakr Abu Zaid, Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdulrahman Al-Bassam.

Where the transfer of Sheikh Bakr Abu Zaid Shaykh Shanqeeti may God long words to him in the risk of rationing. The Sheikh Bakr Fella research published in the book Fiqh of stalactites and his title (And mandatory rationing).

Sheikh Bassam his message titled (Codifying the law.. Harms and مفاسده).

And who said prevention as well as the: Council of Senior Scholars in Saudi Arabia where he addressed the issue of rationing under the title: (Identify the most correct view of the scholars), And divided into two parts: First about blogging, and the second about necessary. The decision was issued by majority prevention of rationing([2]).

Did not find the opinion of the synagogues of jurisprudence in this important issue, and was impressed not taken up by the councils so far seen by research and decisions , even though the reality of the jurisprudential academies see the passport of this, and issued decisions after discussing the research and comment on is the image is very close .

And I think that to say that it is permissible or scars - unless it is obligatory- Is the most correct opinion now, after that turning the elimination of diligent members (Who Istnbton the provisions of the process of partial texts then ruled out) Institutions to govern in accordance with the laws prepared in advance, and this ensures the stability of the institution of the judiciary, and ensures to Mathleen before it or veto right of appeal to other departments.

The transfer of Shaykh Dr. Yusuf Qaradawi luminous words to a big world, and an updated Jalil, is a scholar Sheikh “Ahmed Mohamed Shaker” God's mercy in his lecture entitled: (The book and the year should be a source of legislation in Egypt) Speaking for nearly half a century, said God's mercy in a statement operational plan for the quotation of Sharia laws:

Do not think that when I invite you to Islamic law invite you to comply with the stipulated son Abdeen or Ibn Najim, for example, in the tradition of scholars in their branches, which Astenbtoha is Mansosh in the book and the year, many of them the embarrassment, both; I refuse tradition of the whole and not invite him … Then singles diligence is a product in the formulation of laws, but it is almost assignee be done by an individual or individuals. And the correct product is a social endeavor (Any collective)If exchanged ideas, Tdwolt the views, the back face of righteousness, God willing.

The plan process, as I see: أن نختار لجنة قوية من أساطين رجال القانون وعلماء الشريعة، لتضع قواعد التشريع الجديد، غير مُقَيَّدة برأي، أو مُقَلِّدة لمذهب، إلا نصوص الكتاب والسنَّة، وأمامها أقوال الأئمة وقواعد الأصول وآراء الفقهاء، وتحت أنظارها آراء رجال القانون كلهم، ثم تستنبط من الفروع ما تراه صوابًا، مناسبًا لحال الناس وظروفهم، مِمَّا يدخل تحت قواعد الكتاب والسنة، ولا يصادِم نصًّا، ولا يخالف شيئًا معلومًا من الدين بالضرورة.

This committee must be موفورة number, be it a supreme committee, lay the foundation and paint the curriculum, and divided work between the sub-committees, then reconsider as they made and placed, to coordinate and refine, and then recreated in the legal form minute, displays full to the nation, to be the subject of research and criticism .

The first thing you should work on the Supreme Committee to examine itself or sub-committees aware of jurisprudence issues, and issues of modern science (Hadeeth) For each issue, and standardize the elicitation of evidence approach. Check issues which are due in which to denote words on the meanings in the language of the Arabs , from about truth and metaphor, and the public and private sectors, and the frank and interpreter , and the interpreter and total, and other rules of the assets, Kibwab measurement and plaudits and interests Sent , etc..

And check the rules in the modern novel criticism and narrators , on the one hand and hand Metn attribution, and the talk is true fit to protest and should be taking , and what is weak is not fit to protest.

And checking the exact venerable rules, which have not achieved an advanced scientists - as far as we know- But that Quraafi noted the brief reference in the difference thirty-sixth of (Book differences), Which is the difference between the conduct of the Messenger of Allah e fatwa and reporting, and the between disposal imam, and between his disposal Elimination([3]). It is basic research to study the conversations and inferred by the lesson is true, Vivriq between the conversations that came from the Messenger of Allah e acted him imam , فليست have the status of general legislation, but the reference in the fold until ordered by the Imam of the public interest , and the conversations in the districts of partial , act it : (Judicial principle).

Has made an example of such a rule in my explanation on the great (Book message) Imam Shafei (P 240 – 242).

And in order to work and أعظمه impact door to check the Commission (Opposed to the evidence and weighting them), It is the science of assets to the truth, and that is the field of endeavor, and it is the basis of jurisprudence and deduction.

If that was , and united the base upon which the inference and deduction , look at the general rules which are due to jurists in فقههم of different persuasions , applied the rules of assets approved by the Supreme Committee or the General Committee (Jurisprudence and modern assets) Then weigh the balance of the book and the correct year, and taking them what the evidence on his health and his approval of legislation right.

Then the Committee will consider the general rules of positivism, on different principles and types, and weigh the balance of legislative rules Islamic Vtakhtar of which requires the public interest choice , which was not opposed to the letter of the texts of the Quran and Sunnah , does not contradict anything tenet of religion necessarily , nor a fundamental rule of Islamic law.

After all this, after settling the rules that are derived branches and issues on the basis of, and placed balances the right evidence, so as not to diverge roads Palmjtahed, divided doors jurisprudence between the sub-committees, to apply to branches of the issues and their fractions on the rules which have been approved and put its provisions correct necessitated by the evidence right .

This is a big business is huge, not only play scientists الأفذاذ the faithful, Shara scientists and legal scholars, we must transcend selected on personal desires and whims party, etc., which may spoil the selection or weakens.

And سيدعوهم this work to be يفرغوا him alone , there may be entrusted to any one of them the work of others, so that their time all stood it, walking on the same pace , walking actively connected to its intended purpose as soon as outlined. The call to choose many dozens of members and assistants , and perhaps with all of this is not done in less than twenty years) اهـ([4]).

This is advocated by Sheikh God's mercy for more than half a century is what we aspire to now, and we hope that you make jurisprudential academies, or specialized committees in jurisprudence and law; even issued us تقنينا does not stop at the doctrine of jurisprudential particular, but it puts all schools of Islamic jurisprudence - In front of him; to take them articles of the law derived from Islamic law, and is an officer in the acceptance or response is the strength of evidence, and the appropriate application of time and place and taking into account the conditions that apply when this law, the Commission shall be in permanent session to receive the problems that arise through the application and seek to resolve them.

Yes there are laudable efforts have been made on the subject of rationing, but it is still locked drawers had not yet seen the light , and can not be judged or assessed only if applied on the ground. Valvgah an organism grows and thrives in environments in which it operates , and lead the movement of life ; affects and is affected by , and freezes and ينزوي in environments that only endoscopically and Altqaid without descend to the ground.

This is about the rationing Sanctions:

Penalty in the language: Name of punishment, punishment broken and Punishment: That man be rewarded as an act of bad. Said: Punished him guilty punished and punished: Take it, as in the verse: ﴿وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُم بِهِ وَلَئِن صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِّلصَّابِرينَ﴾([5]).

والعقوبة في الاصطلاح: Pain is caused due to human crime, as defined by Tahhaawi. Some of them knew beating or cutting and the like, so-called; they follow guilt, followed by: If followed([6]).

He says Imam Ibn Taymiyyah: (وجماع ذلك: أن العقوبة نوعان: One: The guilt of a past as a reward for what earn نكالا of God , Kjld the mustache and ejector , cutting warrior and thief. The second: Punishment for the performance of the right and duty , leaving Moharram in the future , as apostate يستتاب even deliver, if he repents and be killed , and also punishes those who do not pray , Zakat and rights of human beings even performed. Valtazir in this beating most of it in the first beatings; That may be hit again and again, until lead due Prayer, or cause it to be)([7]).

* * *
Chapter I:
About the legalization of sanctions and controls observance of the purposes of legislation Sharia punishment

Punishment in Islamic law began for two important two of the most important purposes of the street from the imposition of these sanctions.

The first destination: Algebra, we mean redress the damage to the victim by the offender.

And algebra in the language otherwise fracture. Said: Repairing bone Jabra; any fix after the break. The sense of charity to a man is said: Jabra repair if the best of him, and أغناه after poverty. The supplementary words will be said: To leave the duty of the duties of the pilgrimage or came Bmahzawr it Gabra blood. As they say: Jabr recommender narrated If you did not find age to be on Zakat sucker waving below it and pay the credit, so-called pay credited Jubrana the. The sense of coercion on the thing, it is said: Jabra repair on the matter, and told Azhari: Gabra Ajabura and forced him إجبارا the: I hate it([8]).

In Idiosyncratic terminology Is defined as the reform of the occurrence of the defect, or to supplement what happened from a lack of, or rectify what happened too in the governance process of the legal provisions)([9]).

The second destination: Sturgeon, Sturgeon in the language of prevention and Prevention. It is intended the prohibition on an act forbidden in various ways, including intimidation and threats, including punishment, whether the ability or the ability of. And There are mentions Quraafi differences God's mercy between Sturgeon and reparation says:

And edit these two great rules to make their difference from the object:

Face first: That balances legitimate expected to ward off evil, a legitimate Ajawabr to rectify the missed interests.

Second face: That most of the balances on disobedient Zgra the them from sin, and Zgra those offers after them in sin; may be with no disobedience as in boys and lunatics I am Nzjarham, Nadbam not for their disobedience, but to ward off Mvassadhm and Astslaham. As the beasts , and كقتال prostitutes to disperse ward off the floor with non Altathem ; because they Mtaolon the. Most Ajawabr on Do not be a sinner , has initiated Jaber with willful ignorance and science and oblivion , male and madmen and boys.

The third face: That most of the balances; either within the capacity either Tazirat not ability, they are not actually for Mzjorn but do it their imams. But Ajawabr did those خوطب them, have differed in some expiation Are checks and because of the rigors of carrying money and other , or are Jawabr ; they worship is not valid unless structures , not closer to God زاجرا Unlike Punishment and Judicial Sentences they are not قربات ; because they are not actually .

Face fourth: That Ajawabr located in the souls and the members, member benefits and the surgeon and worships money and benefits, other than balances it lies in the crimes and irregularities, in the beginning of the industrious Ibn Rushd: And felonies that have a legitimate limits of five:

One: Chilling or criminal souls and Members, which is named were killed and wounded.

The second: Criminal on the broiler, which is labeled by weight and a serial killer.

Third: Criminal money ; and this is what it was obsessed Bhrab called Hrabh if without interpretation, and that interpretation was called a prostitute , and had them mesmerized on face Almaavsh of Herz -called theft, etc. which was mesmerized by its high rank and Sultan force called robbery.

Fourth: Felony on the symptoms, which is named defamatory.

Fifth: Criminal trespass to seize what his wife Shara intake and drink ; this but there is a limit to this law only in the wine , which is an agreed limit after the owner Shara God and prayers be upon him. اهـ([10]).

Retribution and blood money and taking into account the purposes of the legislation:

If we look at the sanctions parental retribution, the human mind no matter Sama and Ola, and whatever maturity and will not be elevated up to the rule of the fairest of the storytellers who make God the life of the people) and you in retaliation, O men of understanding life, that ye may ward off (evil) (. Whatever Loud shouts of hate against Islam and its people that the severe punishment of the death penalty, and the loss of the hearts and otherwise;, those are wrong and they know they are wrong, even if one of them stung this fire, killing a Aziz has shouted a loud voice and said,: The punishment is not enough to take my right and redemptive for Victims. وإن في تمكين الشريعة ولي الدم من أخذ القصاص، مع التلويح له بأنه إن عفا فله أجره عند الله تعالى لأكبر دليل على حرص الشريعة الإسلامية على الدماء، وصيانتها ﴿وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُم بِهِ وَلَئِن صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِّلصَّابِرينَ، وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلاَّ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ تَكُ فِي ضَيْقٍ مِمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ، إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَواْ وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ﴾([11]). ﴿وَجَزَاء سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ، وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ، إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ أُوْلَئِكَ لَهُم عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ الأُمُورِ﴾([12]).

Sharia keen on the blood of these pretenders , and in order to remain this blood Reserved not assaulted by one , they must be retribution punishment. As for what happens now that the avenger of blood finds killer of his brother or his father or his son walk on the ground and eat and enjoy even after a while , this drives the revenge in his heart and motivates him to take revenge , and perhaps revenge diploid , or taken revenge is the killer and get into a succession of .

The point is that these people do not hide them this talk, and know him well; but instead that Ankhalawa of Islam College, and contest it bluntly, wear the mantle of Islam and the contest in his laws and teachings. What applies to capital punishment applies fully to death his parents , which is not governed by the judge , but in the absence of conditions on the intentional murder, or to pardon the avenger of blood for retribution and accept blood money, a punishment for the killer of hand, and compensation to the parents of the slain on the other hand.

Had committed Sharia deadly retribution just might damage occurred on the parents murdered in some cases where parents in need of compensation , which compensates for the loss of عائلهم more than their need for retribution , which is as much as what goes anger and heal their chests do not back them something of benefit, The Glory Aleem initiated what ([13]).

وإذا نظرنا إلى التفريعات في هذا الباب لوجدنا مدى الروعة والحكمة التي تتمتع بها الشريعة الإسلامية، فهي تنصف المرأة وتجعل لها الحق في القصاص مثل الرجل، وهذا في الرأي الراجح لدى الفقهاء، وتنصف أهل الذمة وتحرم دماءهم وتعصمها من أن يتناولها أحد بسوء، وتجعل المسلم يقتل بالذمي -كما هو عند الأحناف خلافا للجمهور-، وتقف في وجه المحتالين لإسقاط القصاص في قتل الجماعة بواحد، وتعصم الأطراف وتجعل لكل طرف وكل عضو من أعضاء الجسم حرمته، والتعويض المناسب له إذا لم يتمكن القاضي من تطبيق القصاص، وتقدر المعاني وتجعل لها حرمة الأعضاء تمامًا كالبصر والسمع والكلام والجمال وغير ذلك، وتجعل للجنين حرمته وتحميه حتى من أمه وأبيه وهم أولى الناس به وأشفقهم عليه، ولكن الله سبحانه وتعالى أرحم به من أمه وأبيه، ويجعل العقوبة على أمه لو حاولت أن تتخلص منه، بعد مرحلة معينة من عمره.

All this and many other makes us confident that this is the first Sharia laws applied on Muslims and non-Muslims, if they want real justice, equitable and realistic.

Border and observance of the purposes of Sharia:

If we look at the border, we find that the law dealing with special treatment; If given the right to the avenger of blood that revenge, or forgive and accept blood money, or pardons for retribution and blood money together; it is quite different in the borders, the right of pardon is not owned by a guardian, . Not fall under any circumstances unless it is a requirement of the conditions , whether private or limited reduction ; and then know that the establishment of the reduction is due , and the retribution is right. If the person to waive his right he does not have to take up in the performance of his duty.

The suit violence and cruelty suit false, that debunked who has the lowest informed by Islamic law and the spirit of the legislative public, which does not go out except from people Ascent them, and ruined their hearts, and Tmargoa in the mud of sin, and drank from the Underworld Cup so drunk, and felt their weakness and disappointment; so they start to blame .

I will speak in haste for each end of these limits:

1 – Apostasy([14]):

We have ensured that Islamic Sharia religious freedom for all people, God says: ) There is no compulsion in religion clearly distinct from error (([15])، ﴿وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَمَن شَاء فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَلْيَكْفُرْ…﴾([16]).

Shara gave dhimmis - although it does not Ikarham on religion- The right to practice their worship and rituals as they see , and maintained their churches and synagogues , and did not force them to enter this religion , and asked them to think well before you enter this religion , nor Adkhloh , however, has convinced him completely.

And an increase in the investigation and resolution , tell them to enter this religion, and come out of it again; this it cost him a lot , he is assigned the old insisted on getting out of this debt. If the parties the floor, and doctrines of human require anyone who wants to enroll conditions , and make it the duties must be carried out ; nearer law of God Almighty to require that what you see of the conditions, and had duties that regulates ordered entrants where , and only turning it as it wanted : ﴿وَقَالَت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ آمِنُواْ بِالَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَجْهَ النَّهَارِ وَاكْفُرُواْ آخِرَهُ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ * Do not believe except for those who followed the religion Say that guidance is the guidance of Allah be brought a as what Ootim or Ihajokm when Lord Say credited the hand of God , which He bestows on whom He will of God and a broad education (([17]).

Vhadd apostasy is not cruelty to it, not injustice to one, as long as the human enters this religion obedient without coercion of one, and the law gives the right of this apostate that corresponds to and understood so relieved that he has confusion or ambiguity, and يستتاب even takes the opportunity to refer to the religion of Allah .

2 -End prostitute([18]):

تتعامل الشريعة الإسلامية مع الواقع دون أن تحلِّق في عالم المثل والخيال الذي لا يوجد إلا بين الملائكة، فمادام هناك حاكم ومحكومون فغالبًا ما يحدث التنازع، وقد يصل الأمر إلى حد الخروج على الحاكم؛ سواء كانت الفئة الخارجة على حق أم على باطل، والشريعة الإسلامية تتعامل مع هذه الظاهرة بهدوء أعصاب لا مثيل له في التشريعات الأرضية، فهي لا تكفر فئة على حساب الأخرى؛ ولكنها تتعامل مع الفئتين كمؤمنين سواء المخطئ منهم والمصيب، يقول الله تعالى: ) , طائفتان or of the faithful battled make peace between the بغت one on the other Faqatheloa that non even تفيء to the command of Allah , the profits make peace between them with justice and Okstoa God loves المقسطين the * The believers brothers make peace between أخويكم of the fear of God, that ye may obtain mercy (([19]).

The prostitutes have rights in Islamic law, including:

1 – Not follow Mdbarham, or equipped Jeriham, nor Tzipi their wives and their children.

2 – Not assisted ruling on their fight kaafir so they do not shed none of the non-religion.

3 – Does not guarantee that prostitutes are damaged in case of war.

3 -End banditry([20]):

Has harsh Sharia in some sanctions , but cruelty doctor who looks at a member of the patient do not find a cure , but amputation who shall Bpetrh , perhaps ينفطر his heart on this work , but it has to be him ; They are cruel phenomenon stems from the heart Rahim, known as the interest of one where you are.

Thus find banditry extent, it finds the beholder at first glance that harsh punishment, but who looks at the crime sure it amended the sky which does not land without it, and the great truth of God says: ﴿إِنَّمَا جَزَاء الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَن يُقَتَّلُواْ أَوْ يُصَلَّبُواْ أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْاْ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ * إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ تَابُواْ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَقْدِرُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴾.

Separates the scholars in this punishment say: The killed and took the money had been killed and crucified, and killed and did not take the money had been killed, although they took the money and did not kill, cut off their hands and feet from opposite, though أخافوا way did not kill or take money, exiled from Earth.

Which looks at the seriousness of this crime, and what caused the people of dread and horror, and they do not feel safe on their own property and honor; believes that this fair punishment, and believes that the law is right; since made the crime of the border not only punishment; Because killer in banditry is not intended .

4 -Extent of adultery:

The Islamic Sharia Baqhobtin ruled reduce adultery: Punishment first skin, this penalty applies if an adulterer or adulteress virgin has never married, and this is reflected in the words of God: ) Adulteress and the adulterer فاجلدوا each and every one of them a hundred lashes does not take you by the compassion in the religion of Allah , if you believe in Allah and the Last Day and witness عذابهما range of believers (([21]).

The second sentence: Stoning and this set from through anecdotal year and the operation of the Messenger of Allah e, ​​and there is a fit and compatibility between the crimes and between Aqhobtehma ; In adulterer is Shariah bosses only Baquba skin and defamation ) and witness عذابهما the community of believers (. The married adulterer is not relentlessly with no mercy him after he knew the way to the wife, and my father, but that injects himself in no man's land, leaving the meat good mature and eat from the stinking malignant, leaving the purity and chastity and Morgh himself in the mud, it does not deserve to live.

And Islamic Sharia تحتاط in proving this cautionary great crime are not accepted in proven less than four witnesses , and must describe the incident and accurate description , and the description is united not increase it or decrease. And if you want Sharia to be unable to witnesses and their disposal for this certificate ; Jackets because they want these sins , and in all that is right God Almighty. Perhaps to review the traditions of the Prophet e and cashed attempt to recognized this limit see the extent to which want Jackets Sharia in this limit.

Flogging as a punishment in general and how to implement the limit and the requirement of jurists not be held limit on the day of severe heat or severe cold, and the skin is differentiated on the rest of the body , and that fear Gald face and sensitive areas in the body of the offender ; All this shows the extent of mercy and compassion to these perpetrators, and respond to Almichdeghin .

5 – Extent ejaculation:

Jealous of the law on the rights of followers intense jealousy, and protects the necessities that can not live Muslim existence هنيئة, but saved; and these necessities protect supply. As maintained Islamic law on the protection of the symptoms of to desecrate impure materially the crime of adultery, and made ​​her death ; also maintained that the profane is common symptoms morally He is perhaps the most physical impact from pollution , as the poet says:

جراحات السهام لها التئام ولا يلتام ما جرح اللسان

Therefore, we find severe punishment here probably exceeded in the final sum of the death of adultery is not bosses, God says: ﴿وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاء فَاجْلِدُوهُمْ ثَمَانِينَ جَلْدَةً وَلاَ تَقْبَلُوا لَهُمْ شَهَادَةً أَبَداً وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ * Except those who repent and make amends, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful (([22]).

The punishment here composite of three sanctions:

(A) Eighty lashes. (With) Not to accept the certificate. (جـ) Sentenced بالفسق.

If people took our time to the death penalty for خرست tongues long fought in the symptoms of people خوضا great , and to protect the symptoms as long violated the tongues of adulterers ; But in the absence of rule book of God , we find that ejaculation is easy , shooting the man his brother, easily, and perhaps accepted him projectile easily too, so !!.

If Dasher has learned that if the pronunciation of this word stung the back eighty lashes , and fell to his testimony , was an evildoer between people ; for Effat tongues and تحصنت symptoms, and the great truth of God says: ﴿يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ *وَاللّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَن تَمِيلُواْ مَيْلاً عَظِيمًا * God wants to relieve you, and man was created weak (([23]).

In the application alone, adultery and tossing a significant need for maintenance of human necessities, namely the need to offer, or save the offspring.

6 –End Theft:

Necessities maintained by the Islamic Sharia save money , and therefore embarked extent of theft. People may think that Islamic law to the death penalty cause the creation of unemployed individuals with disabilities in need of dependents, and thus create a burden on society, in addition to other lawsuits that face of compassion and interior torment.

And Islamic law before they impose the death theft necessitate guardian before it performs reduction to ensure a dignified life jamon where people on the minimum standard of living , and the inability guardian for so it should be to stop the implementation of this limit until it has passed this intensity about the people as did our Lord .

The law does not go hand in every small or big, but they require a certain minimum threshold, a quarter of a dinar of gold;: Nearly fifty Egyptian pounds at this time. Then she does not punish only crime is complete, any: After being stolen from output like score.

The Mercy zenith when many scholars when they see that the yield in the theft for the third time, having cut off his right hand and his left leg it يستودع the prison, and it spends money Muslims House. Imam Ali says the: “I am Osthieddi that God not to let him hand eat your or Aestbri the urine or ablution , and also strive to cut foot and left heel until it stands thief”.

And who looks at the crimes of theft and replicated in this era turned the sanction of the pieces to the prison to know the extent of preferred Islamic law on human , often goes thief to steal , and when he finds resistance from the owner of the house kill him, and perhaps kill his family ; If tuning show that this is the time . Had his hand cut off and his leg was able to climb up on the houses, or to hold a gun and kills innocent. Although we hear these charges that shed in the face of the law without the right of those who said God in them: ﴿الَّذِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَيَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجاً وَهُم بِالآخِرَةِ كَافِرُونَ﴾([24]).

7 -حد الخمر:

The Prophet e to the Arabian Peninsula is tired of desires playthings , and sink into sins to the ears , and on top of this sin was sits wine, meanwhile, was favorite drink them; therefore gradually Sharia prohibition , and did not deprive them once , but not for this gradient is able to Sharia . I have tried many of the country governed by human laws that prohibit alcohol at one time, and after he has spent millions of pounds failed utterly ; because they did not take the principle of hierarchy, and tried prohibition on alcohol alone, and left a lot of sins that reach rights and pay to sugar such as adultery and other. There is a difference between that deprives God the Creator of the people, and between that deprives people did not see the creature has the advantage of, or as well as they.

The death wine is discretionary them closer to the limit - in my opinion - but the majority of scholars are prepared by the central border. The intent of this reprimand and punishment restraining destruction and murder, but it was Imam Ali t say: “What was built on one end to die of it and I find myself in it, but the owner of the wine; since the Prophet e did not enacted by us”.

Expiation, Altaazer and purposes of law:

And expiation in Islamic law a two-pronged: Incision closer to the punishment Kkavarh manslaughter, the construction closer to worship كالإطعام of the fasting rather than as in expiation mushrooms in Ramadan for those who can not tolerate fasting. And embarked expiation in Islamic law for the expiation of sins;: Erased, and the clearing of the Muslim.

Through the sanctions imposed on offenses that deserves its owner will expiate them see how keen Islamic law on the education of Muslim create surveillance on his tongue as in expiation zihaar and perjury in the right, and the actions that are not frequented by Kkavarh manslaughter, and the sanctity of birds and animals in the sanctuary , as in .

And discretionary penalty imposed Islamic law, so as not to escape the perpetrators of sanctions imposed by the ability of specific crimes, arguing that the crime did not fully prove the culprit.

Have denied God Almighty adultery premise from the beginning to look at foreign women to fall into this crime , and require the wisdom of God the Almighty not impose the death ability only for this crime , located mostly accepted by many irregularities ; them: To look at the woman or to be alone with her ​​, kiss her , or correspondent , or otherwise. If imposed Islamic law for each violation of these irregularities penalty ability to inflated penalties in Islamic law and needed a man a long time to save them , but was so rigid you can not understand the circumstances in which it occurred this crime , people that have signed them this crime, and the punishment appropriate for each circumstance of this ([25]).

* * *
Chapter II:
Retribution and blood money issues

There are issues on the table in front of the rationing process in the door of the sanctions to be answered, and the home of the dispute resolution around, and these issues:

First: Muslim killed a non-Muslim institutes:

See audience of jurists Maalikis and Shafi'i and Hanbali that a Muslim does not kill the infidel , any infidel was , whether it was a confederate or institutes. Tap believes that Muslim kills Balzma institutions , and their evidence in this Quran is the general who spent that self -esteem and an eye for an eye , without distinction between the same Muslim and non - Muslim. And interpret the talk, which was understood by the majority of scholars another explanation, a hadith of the Prophet e «not kill a Muslim kaafir, is not in his era»([26])؛ Any: Does not kill the Muslim kaafir warrior, nor is the era in his kaafir also warrior([27]).

Says Imam San'aani the: “… Not to kill Muslim infidel fuel, and this went public, and it does not kill a prince, (Vdhu Testament) Man of the people of the house of war we enter safely, killing is prohibited for a Muslim until he returns to مأمنه. If killing a Muslim; said tap: Kills Muslim Balzma if to kill him without being brought to maturity, or kills Palmstamn. He protested saying in the modern: «Is not in his era», it Matov on saying believer, must be restricted in the second as the first party is estimated, nor is the era in his kaafir, and must restrict the infidel in the military المعطوف wording; because dhimmi kills Balzma the and kills a Muslim. If the restriction must him in المعطوف , which is identical to Matov it , it must be such an estimate in المعطوف it shall be appreciated , not kill a believer kaafir wars , and the concept of war that killed Balzma evidenced by the concept of offense. The tap was not working concept, they say,: The hadeeth indicates that it does not kill Baharba frank. The killing Balzma Fbamom verse: (Self-esteem). As narrated by Bayhaqi «he e killing of Muslim institutes, he said: I Akram of In his trust », a modern transmitter from 'Abd Rahman bin Albilmana, Roy has brought; Bayhaqi said, is a mistake. And said Daaraqutni son Albilmana weak argument does not play If modern arrived, what about sends?! Abu Obeid said al-Qasim ibn Salaam: This talk is not بمسند. Shafie said the mother should hadeeth of Ibn Albilmana, was in the story repository killed by Amr Ibn illiteracy الضمري the. Said: For this, if proven , would have been copied ; because modern ' does not kill Muslim kaafir » speeches by the Prophet e Open day as in the novel Amr ibn Shuaib , and the story of Amr bin illiteracy advanced before بزمان. This, and the reported appreciation of Tap, has answered him that he should not be appreciated; as saying: «Is not reign in his» Tam words, there needs to be harboring; because Aladmar is unlike the original, not so they can be to him, but the need shall be forbid the killing of institutes.

And saying: The killing is known institutes, but it was not for the benefit era, there is no need to News. Answer: It is in need of it; It is not known, however, the path of the street, but the apparent generalities eliminates passport kill him, even him infidel estimate, there استلزام delivers customized I Baharba; because the absolute kindness may be part not to take part in every way([28]).

And I think that the opinion of the tap is wiser at this time, has gone to some companions كعمر ibn al-Khattab in one story about him, which is consistent with the contract disclosure, and the concept of citizenship; It is not unreasonable to introduce it safely and under that it is safe to himself and his then ننتقص or ننقض this .

Secondly: Friendly dhimmi:

Of issues around which many ancient and modern dispute the issue of friendly dhimmi , sees some scholars as half of a friendly Muslim , and some see it as friendly Muslim , and finds another team as a third friendly Muslim.

Maalikis Hanbali , a doctrine Omar bin Abdul Aziz and buttonhole and Amr bin Shoaib that the written friendly dhimmi and institutes half free friendly Muslim ; report narrated by Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father and grandfather of the Prophet e said: «Institutes friendly half friendly free». Word of Abdullah bin Umar: «Institutes friendly half friendly Muslim». The people of the book are the Jews and the Christians. And friendly Magi eight hundred AED when Maalikis, Hanbali, and has said Omar and Othman Ibn Masood y. As well as apostate when Maalikis.. This self-Friendly.

Maliki said: Surgeon friendly people of the book as well as half of the friendly Muslim surgeon. Hanbali said: Plastic People of the Book of Dyatem as Muslims from Dyatem surgeon, and تغلظ Dyatem privacy when meeting who sees toughening challenges Muslims.

The correct when you tap that dhimmi - in writing or other- Repository and Muslim blood money either , and this saying Ibrahim Nakha'i and popular , and it was narrated from Omar and Othman Ibn Masood and Muawiya y. No different from as parental Islam and disbelief when the tap; Equal blood, and so the verse: ) Though some among you, including the Charter of the Muslim ransom to his family (([29]). Almighty launched to say بالدية in all kinds of killings of non-separation, indicates that to be one in all. Roy «that Amr Ibn illiteracy الضمري the killing Mstamnin judged the Messenger of Allah e therein beginning of Harin Muslims». Syphilis narrated that Abu Bakr and Umar spent a in dhimmi friendly such a friendly Muslim; Because the necessity Kamal depends on parental Kamal murder case, due to the provisions of a minimum of masculinity, freedom and infallibility has found. He quoted some of it is not friendly tap in the repository.

And Shaafa'is said: Has all of a Jew or a Christian if his safety and solve Mnakanh third friendly breath Muslim and other. Friendly pagan and Magi If two safety thirds of ten friendly Muslim, such as Magi Abed sun, moon and heretic who has safely; and it was narrated Saeed bin Musayyib that Omar t make a friendly Jewish and Christian four thousand dirhams and friendly Magi eight hundred dirhams, and this estimate does not do without arrest , . And all this in males. The female of the infidels women with safety Vdathen half of them male friendly agreement; Ibn Qudamah said: We do not know at this contrast, Ibn al-Mundhir consensus of the scholars that a woman's friendly half friendly man([30]).

The basis of this difference are two things:

The first command: Difference is contained in that effects and oppose Some utter the settlement, and each provides for the half-life, and others see enough in the third.

The second thing: Differences in factors affecting the decrease of the parental (Femininity and disbelief and slavery)([31]).

The public believes that infidelity Menks friendly and Hanafi are not considered infidelity as well as. This dispute (Based on the difference in the blood of non - Muslim bruised Muslim to kill Muslim if he killed a non - Muslim or not kill it)([32]).

Those who does بالتقنين in the current era the opinion of the tap, in the case of merger of the people of the book within the national community , they have to have and it is on them, and then to make sure of their loyalty and belonging to the homeland who enjoy living in the bounty , even يأمنوا on themselves and their blood and their money. We can promote tap the following opinion:

First: The Faucet make a non-Muslim is equal in the blood as long as infallible blood a Muslim; (Because the attack on the Adamic, an equal, and infidels does not detract from his humanity, all people of Adam, and building on that be ديته the كدية marrying a non-spin)([33]).

Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout says: (Islam decided parity among all people in the blood, and did not make one as well as blood on the blood of another , and did not see in the group Human honest in this respect does not affect his life his crime , and non- Sharif cast his crime for predators)([34]).

Islam is not an obstacle to parity, if people have equal rewarded Dyatem does not matter what some of them natural variations or the nature of the([35]).

Secondly: His son Turkmen: (In the discipline of Ibn Jarir al - Tabari is no dispute that the Atonement in the killing of a Muslim , both institutes , the liberation of the neck so is blood money)([36]).

Thirdly: That the conversations contained the Messenger of Allah in a friendly dhimmi conflicting; Some states half of a friendly Muslim, and some see ديته full Kamuslim.

The effects contained companions and followers of different and conflicting with each other, even in tells about one such companion: Omar and Othman, or per Tabi such as Omar bin Abdul Aziz and tender, between the man who said one third, Someone in half and the man who said equality.

Say: This conflict and who have made all the difference a team of scholars snap-in effects relied upon by other victory for his opinion and weakness to the opinion of others; makes us insure to what the book was approved them, which is equal blood money between them, this alone is the one who can say his health.

IV: The receipt of the difference between jurists evidence that the issue discretionary , and it remains to be of the view that equality in parental between the Muslim and dhimmi relevance requires that Nrgehh for equality in humanity, as it is consistent with the assets of the law, which was based on achieving justice full of people in this world , and in the Hereafter room .

V.: Sheikh Mohammed al - Ghazali saw in the act of Osman , who completed which dhimmi friendly , and was half of a friendly Muslim , saw in this course (Indicating the possibility of change if the situation changed, and it seems that the dhimmis integrated into the Muslim community for sincerity and saw Osman reassured their promotion Dyatem status)([37]).

This course - if true explanation- Is to be today with dhimmi behavior to reassure them on their status, and make them feel that they are first-class citizens, not second-class. It is inconceivable to settle ordinances between the Muslim dhimmi and in blood money, and walk course reassurance and equality of felonies, Nasr we مجافاة actually the name of Sharia in the capacity of, and take the path of discrimination and segregation that we went to is saying Alohnav.

VI: This diversity of interpretations , and this jurisprudential large wealth inherited open for diligent and researchers (Wider doors to Choose the law governing the affairs of the Muslim communities of different circumstances, is dependent on choosing only one thing which is not contrary to the origin of the assets of the legislation deterministic , with the investigated object of interest, and for justice , and that was the basis for Time Islamic law, and validity of every time and place)([38]).

In saying equality between the Muslim dhimmi and in blood money for Justice, and the injury was appointed an interest which is consistent with the assets of the legislation peremptory([39]).

Thirdly: Retribution between men and women in the arts and below:

Scholars differed about retribution between men and women in the murder, sees the majority of scholars must be retribution between men and women in murder. Some of them believes that parents should pay half the women parental guardians man. Some believe that women's parents do not pay anything.

Shafie said Almighty God's mercy: Did not know who received violation of the scholars that Ldermin متكافئان freedom and Islam ; If man was killed women deliberately killed , and if killed killed him, shall not be taken from the woman nor أوليائها thing for a man if you killed him or if he kills them , and as men , kills man . (Shafie said): As well as wounds in which retribution all her injuries if Oqdtha self Oqdtha in wounds that are less than self , do not differ in anything except his parents; If he wants أولياؤها parental redeemed half of a friendly guy , but he wanted parents man ديته of her money redeemed hundred camels do not detract . Shafie said: And the governors of women and successors Colah man and his heirs do not differ in anything but parental([40])

Anas bin Malik may Allah be pleased with him: «The ongoing found the head trauma between two stones, Vsaloha of the: Your making this: So, so even mentioned Jew Vomot a of her head, he took the Jewish endorsing, and ordered the Messenger of Allah e that satisfied his head between two stones ». Agreed, version narrated by Muslim([41]).

Men and women were killed, which otherwise: Went to kill most of the scholars, Ibn al-Mundhir recounted consensus on this point for this talk. Hasan al-Basri and it does not kill man Balonty, like inferred, saying the Almighty: ) And female Balonty (.

Stated that he proved in the book Amr Ibn packages received by people accepted that the male kills Balonty, it is stronger than the concept of verse.

The Alhadoah went to the man driven by women, and carried his heirs half ديته; said: To Tfautema in blood money , but he says he: ) And wounds punishment ( , it was reported that the disparity in blood money does not necessitate the disparity in psychology , so kill Abdul value A. Abdul value of twenty , and has signed equal retribution ; because to be equal in wounds that do not increases Almguets on what happened from the wound([42]).

The most correct Which is correct with the purposes of the law to save souls , not inconsistent with the provisions of the Koran definitive permanence and significance that men kill women , does not pay أولياؤها to Ouliaih something , and led him in the self and without self.

IV: Are women are friendly to half of a friendly guy?

Jurists argued that female friendly free Muslim woman is half the free Muslim male friendly, so narrated that the Prophet e and Omar Ali and Ibn Mas'ud and Zaid ibn Thabit y. Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abd al-Barr: Scholars are unanimously agreed that women's friendly half friendly man; because of the report narrated from the Prophet forbid e said: «Friendly women's half of the friendly man»([43]). And because it is in the certificate and inheritance of half man, so in blood money, and this self-Friendly.

In the friendly parties and wounds that went forth: Hanafi, Shafi'i said,: It's half of the friendly parties and the man also surgeon; what was narrated from Ali t said: Woman's mind on the half of the men in self and without. That was narrated from Ibn Sirin , and its revolutionary and said Laith and Ibn Abi Layla , Ibn Shubrumah and Abu Thor, and favored by Ibn al - Mundhir ; Two people because they differ Dathma in self , فاختلفت in Parties. He said Maliki and Hanbali: Women equal to men in a friendly to third parties friendly guy , if reached one - third returned to her mind , if cut her thirty it may Fingers three camels as men. And if you cut her four fingers it takes half of what takes men ;: Take twenty camels, and narrated from 'Umar and Ibn Umar and Zayd ibn Thabit y, and has said Saeed bin Musayyib and Omar bin Abdul Aziz , the buttonhole and syphilis, is the view of the scholars of the city seven ; and it was narrated from ' Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father, his grandfather said: The Messenger of Allah e: «Woman's mind, such as the mind of man until the third from Datha»([44]). It offers text on anything else([45]).

With the view of Ibn al-Mundhir according to scholarly consensus, the son Qudaamah transfer Advanced saying and also the view of Ibn Abd al-Barr, and then said: (And told others about the deaf son of Garret and they said: Datha كدية man for saying peace be upon him: «Self-insured hundred camels»([46]). Then after that, saying: (This is the view thumping against the consensus of the companions of the Prophet ; in the book Amr Ibn packages « friendly women's half of the friendly man » , which is more specifically than they mentioned , two in one book shall be what we are explaining what they mentioned dedicated to him)([47]).

Sources have identical religious jurisprudence in a friendly to say that half of the women friendly man([48]).

The truth is that Rhode violation 'm attic and Abu Bakr deaf to the majority of scholars makes the suit non-Muslim consensus , and this is what prompted us to say that the majority of scholars are of the view that women 's friendly to half of the friendly man.

Parental decrease of femininity:

فقهاؤنا was considered God to have mercy femininity of the factors affecting in decrease blood money, and these three factors as mentioned by Ibn Rushd is (Femininity and disbelief and slavery)([49]).

Unanimously quoted as evidence for that measurement, Perhaps الكاساني the Hanafi expressed public evidence in this regard best expression:

First: (Consensus companions y it was narrated from Umar and master Ali and Ibn Mas'ud and Zaid ibn Thabit , God bless them , they said in a friendly woman: It's a half of a friendly man, and did not convey that they denied a shall be unanimous).

Secondly: (Because women in inheritance and her testimony is half the man so too in Datha of the)([50]).

Thirdly: (Because in the book Amr ibn al - packs « friendly women's half of the friendly man »).

It is specifically what they mentioned, and they are in one book shall be what we are explaining what they mentioned dedicated to him, and in response to evidence deaf son attic is saying e: «Self-insured hundred camels»([51]).

The opinion of many contemporaries in women's friendly:

If the majority of scholars old saw that half of women friendly friendly men and quoted a consequence, the majority of scholars believe that the contemporary women 's friendly equal to that of a friendly man , and quoted so many evidence.

Al-Qaradawi says in the introduction to his quest for women's friendly: (Has invited me of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs in Qatar to participate in the (Roundtable) Held at the date of 22-12-2004 to discuss (Friendly women in Islamic law), And whether halving Datha of friendly relation to men is not accepted ijtihad , or is that something can renew the diligent in our time , necessitated by the change of time, place and rights?

This is what called me to search in the case by referring to our sources of origin infallible: Holy Quran and Sunnah , and what helps them sources of interpretation, and modern explanations , and through jurisprudential References to different sects and stripes ; jurisprudence companions and followers and followers, and later of imams Almtbuaan and is Almtbuaan. The filled in the books and modern interpretation , In Sunan wrote and effects, and in the books of fiqh and assets, discussing the subject of his roots , and due to the evidence derived from the provisions, and relied upon by the people of Islamic ijtihad and fatwa: Qur'an and Sunnah and consensus , measurement and interest and sayings of the Companions.

وبعد مناقشة الأمر بحياد وموضوعية تبين لي أن هذا الحكم الذي اشتهر لدى المذاهب المتبوعة أن دية المرأة على النصف من دية الرجل، والذي استمر قرونا معمولا به لا يسنده نص صحيح الثبوت صريح الدلالة من كتاب ولا سنة، كما لا يسنده إجماع ولا قياس، ولا مصلحة معتبرة، ولا قول صحابي ثابت، وإنْ كان الراجح أن قول الصحابي ليس بحجة في دين الله؛ لأنه يتوارد عليه الخطأ والصواب، ولا معصوم غير رسول الله، ما لم يجمع الصحابة على شيء فيكون إجماعهم هو الحجة الملزمة([52]).

Anyway not here Multi search to this important issue , but on those who بالتقنين in the door of the sanctions to be saved to the opinion of Rajah in this matter; it , although not on the table at فقهائنا veterans such abundance and this size , they are issues now , especially after the proliferation of incidents : (Have wondered: Why minted المجتهدون and المجددون throughout the ages on this issue, and did not appear where regenerative opinions, also appeared in a divorce case when Imam Ibn Taymiyyah and his school?…

Found that the women were killed or semi- intentionally error in past times of scarcity was important , not Kasrna which frequently mistake killed in traffic accidents , in which women become infected man , did not raise the problem about the subject until a new call for diligent scholars)([53]).

Member استؤصل in cultivation or limit the punishment:

Given the scientific and medical progress contemporary Some people saw the possibility of any member of the amputation of cultivation in the extent or punishment, and thus combine the two things: The first command: Apply borders, and the second: Reparations , which occurred on held by reducing re- planting the member who استؤصل.

Because this is not imagined , but that there were preparations for special medical if excised member inside the operating room fitted, are then planted again; the purposes of Shara from the application of reduction have been eliminated , there is no rebuke the offender , who will often under the influence of drugs during the amputation and transplantation. Nor reparation which arose from his behavior, and cut off by humans and could not planted. Therefore Fiqh Academy, studied this issue and concluded the following resolution:

The Islamic Fiqh Council held at the sixth session of the conference in Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 17-23 Shaaban 1410 AH 14-20 azar (March)1990م، بعد اطلاعه على البحوث الواردة إلى المجمع بخصوص موضوع زراعة عضو استؤصل في حد أو قصاص، واستماعه للمناقشات التي دارت حوله، وبمراعاة مقاصد الشريعة من تطبيق الحد في الزجر والردع والنكال، وإبقاء للمراد من العقوبة بدوام أثرها للعبرة والعظة وقطع دابر الجريمة، ونظرا إلى أن إعادة العضو المقطوع تتطلب الفورية في عرف الطب الحديث، فلا يكون ذلك إلا بتواطؤ وإعداد طبي خاص ينبئ عن التهاون في جدية إقامة الحد وفاعليته. Decided as follows:

First: May not be legally re-Managing harvested implementation of reduction; because the reduction in the survival of the impact of a full investigation of the penalty prescribed legally, and to avoid complacency in completeness, and in order to avoid clash apparently ruling.

Secondly: As retribution has proceeded to the administration of justice and fairness of the victim, and the maintenance of the right to life of the community, and the provision of security and stability , it can not be re - member استؤصل the implementation of the punishment , except in the following cases:

A - To authorize the victim after the implementation of retribution re-User harvested from the offender.

B - to be the victim has been able to re-member lump him.

Thirdly: May be re-member who استؤصل on end or retaliation because of an error in judgment or in execution. And God knows.

* * *
Chapter III:
Border issues

There were suspicions of many in the recent period after نحيت Islamic law applicable in most countries of the Islamic world, and applied the application partly in some places , and exited generations culture jurisprudence and legitimacy is limited, and looked at the progress reached by others is not a resident of the border and weight, but accuse each . Because some Muslims do not know of sharia law , but cutting , stoning and steel تنادت votes from home and abroad sometimes suspend border indefinitely , and sometimes abolished altogether ; as it stands in the way of renaissance , and is working to poor relationship between us and the developed countries that make the non-application of the border condition .

And then For Based بالتقنين the great effort to clarify these issues first, and responding to suspicions II. They also illustrate the greatness of Islamic legislation destruction, and not a minor at the door only sanctions.

As issues arose in the area of parental retribution originated in the field of border issues , addressing such issues as fall within these limits and what comes out of them, also addresses how to apply the limits and conditions that must be met one who applied to him limit.

First: Apostasy:

Differences arose among contemporary scholars about apostasy , whether it was a penalty ability No one can strive to mitigate them or increase them , or is it death Taziria leave the governor or his representative to apply depending on the seriousness of the apostate ?

We can summarize the contemporary views on the subject of apostasy in three directions or opinions:

The first opinion: See that apostasy is a crime punishable by marginal worth perpetrator killing an end, as illustrated by anecdotal Sunnah and practical.

Second opinion: See that apostasy is a crime punishable by discretionary subject to time, place and circumstances, and not an end estimated.

The third opinion: See that apostasy is a crime ; But punishable in the afterlife, no authority to one of the apostate in the world , but his account in the Hereafter.

The first opinion is represented by contemporary scholars Sheikh Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi , and we will mention a summary opinion on this issue , where he says:

… Islamic scholars are unanimously agreed that the death of the apostate, although they differed in identified, and their audience as a murder, a view that the four schools, but eight.

And where received inter conversations correct number of companions: Ibn Abbas and Abu Musa, Maaz, and Ali Osman Ibn Masood, Aisha, Anas and Abu Huraira and Muawiyah single.

Has come in various formats, such as the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him» (Narrated by Muslim congregation but , like him for Abu Hurayrah Tabaraani the attribution of Hassan , and Muawiyah single attribution men are thiqaat)([54]).

And the hadeeth of Ibn Mas'ood «does not solve the to shed the blood of Muslim who bears witness that there is do not god but of God, and I am the the Messenger of of Allaah, except in one of three: Self--esteem, and الثيب an adulterer, and outgoing to his religion Junctions of the group » (Narrated by group)([55]).

In some formula you from 'Uthmaan to: «… Kafr man after his conversion to Islam, or adultery After Ahsana, or whoever kills, and adulterer الثيب, and outgoing religion junctions of the group » (Narrated by group)([56]).

The great scholar Ibn Rajab: And killing every one of these qualities agreed between Muslims.

It was reported Ibn Taymiyyah: That the Prophet e before repentance group of apostates, and ordered the killing of a group others, Dmoa to apostasy other things include the harm and damage to Islam and Muslims ; such as his command to kill Scaled bin Hababah Day Open for annexation to apostasy insults and kill a Muslim , and ordered the killing of Ibn Abi said the annexation to apostasy . And Ibn Taymiyyah difference between two: That apostasy abstract accept her repentance, and apostasy in which the fight against God and His Messenger and strive in the land of corruption does not accept repentance before the ability.

Abdul Razzaq, narrated by al-Bayhaqi and Ibn Hazm: To ANSA returned from travel introduced on the age, asking: What do six الرهط of Bakr bin Wael who wore all Islam, Vlhakoa the polytheists? : O Commander of the Faithful, folk dressed in Islam, and pursued the polytheists, were killed battle, Fastrdja the age - which he said: I am God and to Him we return - said Anas: Do was released only to murder? : نعم، كنت أعرض عليهم الإسلام فإن أبوا أودعتهم السجن. وهذا هو قول إبراهيم النخعي، وكذلك قال الثوري: وهو الرأي الذي نأخذ به، وفي لفظ له: “يؤجل ما رجيت توبته”.

Then attached Sheikh to this novel in the margin says: (The meaning of this impact: That “Omar” Did not see the death penalty is needed for an apostate in each case, and they can fall off or postponed, if the need to be dropped or postponed. And necessity here: حالة الحرب، وقرب هؤلاء المرتدين من المشركين وخوف الفتنة عليهم، ولعل عمر قاس هذا على ما جاء عن النبي e في قوله: «لا تقطع الأيدي في الغزو»، وذلك خشية أن تدرك السارق الحمية فيلحق بالعدو.

وهناك احتمال آخر، وهو أن يكون رأي “Omar” أن النبي e حين قال: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him» uttered as imam of the nation, and the head of state, that this decision of the executive branch, and an act of political legitimacy, not fatwa and notification about God, obliges him the nation in every time and place of the event; shall be apostate and every allowance .

على نحو ما قال الحنفية والمالكية في حديث «من قتل قتيلا فله سلبه». وما قال الحنفية في حديث «من أحيا أرضًا ميتة فهي له».

إن المرتد الداعية إلى الردة ليس مجرد كافر بالإسلام، بل هو حرب عليه وعلى أمته؛ فهو مندرج ضمن الذين يحاربون الله ورسوله ويسعون في الأرض فسادًا. والمحاربة كما قال ابن تيمية نوعان: محاربة باليد، ومحاربة باللسان. والمحاربة باللسان في باب الدين قد تكون أنكى من المحاربة باليد. As well as the corruption may be hand may be the tongue, the tongue and the spoil of religions may be greater than spoiled by the hand, and affirmed that the fight against Allah and His Messenger tongue more, and seek amok tongue UCD.

And I see that scientists are dispersed in order Fad between parts and the diluted, dispersed as heretics in between calling and non-calling, and also must distinguish apostasy is in the large and light, and is among the apostates and non-preacher preacher.

What was the apostasy Mglza Cardh Salman Rushdie, the apostate and was calling to his innovation tongue or pen; former in like thickening in the sentence, and taking the words of the nation's public and visible conversations; Astisala of evil and a dam to the door of sedition. Otherwise, it can take the words of Nakha'i and revolutionary, which is narrated from Omar Farouk([57]).

The second trend Prof. Dr. Muhammad Salim Al-Awa Secretary-General of the Union of Muslim Scholars, and after that little Quranic verses that talked about a renegade says:

We concluded in the foregoing that the Koran did not specify a worldly punishment for apostasy, but vowed to verses in which the male apostasy of the apostate Baquba Okhroah. وبينَّا أن الفقهاء يستندون على أحاديث نبوية صحيحة لبيان حكم المرتد، وأنهم يذهبون -بصفة عامة- إلى أن المرتد يُقتل لردته عملا بقول رسول الله e: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him» (رواه الجماعة إلا مسلمًا).

In spite of the apparent trend in Islamic jurisprudence to narrow the scope of penalties, and the marked expansion in the various sects in the realization of the base ward off sanctions suspicions;, we note that the trend different shows regarding the crime of apostasy and punishable; where there is expansion in criminality, the consequent expansion in cases of signature .

While recognizing the criminalization of apostasy, we waver in pieces that her punishment decided by Islam is the death penalty, and that this punishment of sanctions border.

Has outdone such a frequency late Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout, said after the document among scholars in the report of the death of apostasy, and in their disagreement over the implementation of the Hadith in the killing of the apostate: “The changing face of the consideration of the matter; since it was observed that many scientists believe that the border does not prove a speech on Sundays, and that the infidelity itself is not Mbaha blood, but whereby it is permissible is to fight the Muslims and aggression against them and try their faith, and that the phenomena of the Qur'an in many verses refuses coercion ”.

إن أقوى ما يستند إليه الفقهاء في إثبات عقوبة القتل حدًا للمرتد هو الأمر الوارد في قوله e: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him». والسؤال الذي يجب أن نتصدى للإجابة عنه هنا هو: هل الأمر الوارد في هذا الحديث يفيد الوجوب، أو أنه أمر قد أحاطت به قرائن صرفته عن الوجوب إلى غيره؟

وتتلخص هذه القرائن في الأمور التالية:

The first command: From these clues, which acted to talk about it obligatory to permitted, and that the conversations which stated that the Messenger of Allah e killing an apostate or feedback Boehma or ordered to be killed, all is not valid in terms of the bond, and then it does not prove that the Messenger of Allah e punished on .

The second thing: ما رواه البخاري ومسلم من أن «أعرابيا بايع رسول الله e فأصاب الأعرابي وعك بالمدينة، فأتى النبي e فقال: يا محمد أقلني بيعتي، فأبى. ثم جاءه فقال: يا محمد أقلني بيعتي؛ فأبى. فخرج الأعرابي، فقال رسول الله e: إنما المدينة كالكير تنفي خبثها وينصع طيبها». Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar and Imam al-Nawawi Cadi Ayyad, citing that the Bedouin were asked the Messenger of Allah e dismissal of the case of Islam, it rose phenomenon, however, was not punished by the Messenger of Allah e Bakabh is not the man, but let him come out of the city without being exposed to a.

The third: ما رواه البخاري عن أنس t قال: «كان رجلا نصرانيًا فأسلم، وقرأ البقرة وآل عمران، فكان يكتب للنبي e، فعاد نصرانيا، فكان يقول: ما يدري محمد إلا ما كتبت له، فأماته الله فدفنوه، فأصبح وقد لفظته الأرض…». Talk. ففي هذا الحديث أن الرجل تنصر بعد أن أسلم، وتعلم سورتي البقرة وآل عمران، ومع ذلك لم يعاقبه النبي e على ردته.

This fourth: What is his story contained in the Koran about the Jews who were reluctant between Islam and infidelity to glamourize believers about their faith and Arteke Islam, he says: )oukalt Range of people believe in Him who sent down the book on the face of those who believe the day and Acfroa etc. Maybe they Ergon(([58]). وقد كانت هذه الردة الجماعية في المدينة، والدولة الإسلامية قائمة، ورسول الله e حاكمها؛ ومع ذلك لم يُعاقب هؤلاء المرتدين الذين يرمون -بنص القرآن الكريم- إلى فتنة المؤمنين في دينهم وصدهم عنه.

It is not easy, we recognize that with the existence of these facts multi-Rose With no punishment for apostates e Apostle in any of them, that the death of the apostate is an end to the killings; because of the characteristics of the border-as we introduced- وجوب تطبيقها كلما ثبت ارتكاب الجريمة الموجبة لها.

وإذ كان حديث الرسول e: «من بدل دينه فاقتلوه» حديثا صحيحًا من حيث السند، فإننا نقول: إن الرسول e إنما أراد بهذا الحديث -والله أعلم- أن يبيح لأمته قتل المرتد تعزيرا.

وحاصل ما تقدم أن عقوبة الردة عقوبة تعزيرية مفوضة إلى السلطة المختصة في الدولة الإسلامية، تقرر بشأنها ما تراه ملائما من أنواع العقاب ومقاديره. It may be that the punishment decided by the Islamic State of apostasy is death; thus combine the effects mentioned for companions, and that has been proven in some of them to kill the apostate rule, and in other non-wedding-cake to kill him. And it also hold the opinion Sufian Ibrahim Nakha'i and revolutionary in that apostate repent, never kills.

Although the offense finished it when he went to an audience of scholars; seen as passport apostate punishment for apostasy, and saw the necessity of the fact that the penalty kill; What we have presented the evidence of the witness At our- له، فإن يك صوابا فالحمد لله، وإن يك خطأ فمني وأستغفر الله([59]).

The third opinion: ويمثله جمال البنا، ومدرسة القرآنيين:

وقد وقف جمال البنا عند قول الله تعالى: ﴿لا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ﴾([60])، وعند قوله تعالى: ﴿فَمَن شَاء فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَلْيَكْفُرْ﴾([61]). وهو يتهم الفقهاء بأنهم اخترعوا حدّ الردة من بنات أفكارهم، مجاملة للحكّام الظالمين؛ ففقهاء المذاهب الثمانية من بداية تدوين الفقه وقبله متهمون عند (جمال البنا) They Mudallson buy the revelations of Allah a bit pricy, and invent apostasy, he says: “If it is not in the Koran that provides for the death worldly apostasy, and if not in the work of the Apostle or saying what includes such punishment, and if it was the positions of most of the companions are far from atone Muslim or judgment apostate or sanction it; Where were those !

He came by the scholars when they wanted to write down and Iguennoa provisions, and that was in the late Umayyad dynasty and early Abbasid state; raged when political animosities and ideological differences, and threatened the unity of the nation and its existence, then stop jurists position protectors of law and order and authority. As if the climate dictated they should Apetroa of each community outside it, and found the conversations and the precedents that have been developed in a way distorted or watered or synthesized her support forces him what could be a recipe Advo legitimacy to this process amputation”([62]).

And therefore sees (جمال البنا) That no punishment in this world for a Muslim who is his religion and bounced Islam, whether Muslim birthday of Muslim parents, or a non-Muslim Islam was introduced and came out of it, even if they repeat this act of it every day; enters Islam willing and leave whenever he wanted, without interference from . But went (جمال البنا) Beyond this where he sees that we as a government, a Muslim or a Muslim society can not arrange any punishment for the apostate; do not call him his wife unless she wanted it and demanded it, nor be deprived of inheritance, does not prevent the burial in Muslim cemeteries, not so that we can : He died on the disbelief that Vsakhald in fire or fire enters originally; Because this command to God willing, tortured willing pardoned.

And figured that interested ordered rationing of sanctions in Islamic jurisprudence would stand in front of the two views of the first and second Erghawwa whichever is first accepted and appropriate for the age in which we live; The third opinion does not deserve to stand with him or prolongation in the discussion.

Secondly: Extent of adultery:

Did not differ jurists who seemed old and newly penalty in front of the adulterer unprotected; they fixed the text incised Quranic texts that segmental significance, God says: ) Adulteress and the adulterer فاجلدوا each and every one of them a hundred lashes does not take you by the compassion in the religion of Allah , if you believe in Allah and the Last Day and witness عذابهما range of believers (([63]).

ولكنهم اختلفوا حول عقوبة الرجم للزاني المحصن، هل هي عقوبة حدية أم عقوبة تعزيرية؟ أم أنها لا حدية ولا تعزيرية؟

It also differed on defining the concept of chastity, is becoming immune to the man if he marries, even for one night and then died or divorced his wife, he has to this description throughout his life?

As for the punishment of stoning Alahassan a consensus has been told by many scholars, no one disagreed with this matter, but the Kharijites;, because the Messenger e dish this limit on the married adulterer in his life, became anecdotal years and years, we can not deny actual or exceeded. يقول ابن قدامة: (وهذا قول عامة أهل العلم من الصحابة، والتابعين، ومن بعدهم من علماء الأمصار في جميع الأعصار، ولا نعلم فيه مخالفا إلا الخوارج، فإنهم قالوا: الجلد للبكر والثيب، لقول الله تعالى: ) The harlot, and the adulterer فاجلدوا each and every one of them hundred lashes (. They: Not be left to the Book of Allah and the hard road of cutting certainty for news where the individual may be lying, and because this leads to copies of the book a year, and it is not permissible)([64])، ويمكن الرجوع إليها من خلال كتب الفقه في المذاهب الفقهية المعتبرة([65]).

لكن الخلاف وقع حول شروط الإحصان؛ فبعض الفقهاء توسع في هذه الشرط، وبعضهم ضيق، وبعضهم اقتصد.

Unanimously agreed on the some chastity terms in adultery, and differed in others; it agreed terms: البلوغ والعقل، وهما شرطان لأصل التكليف، فيجب توفرهما في المحصن وغير المحصن وقت ارتكاب الجريمة. والوطء في نكاح صحيح. والحرية؛ لأن الرقيق ليس بمحصن. والإسلام وهو محل خلاف بين الفقهاء([66]).

وإذا كانت عقوبة الرجم للمحصن حدًّا مقررًا في التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي -ذكرًا كان أو أنثى- فمن ذا المحصن الذي تنطبق عليه تلكم العقوبة متى ارتكب جناية الزنى بأوصافها المقررة فقهًا؟

هل المحصن هو من جامع في نكاح صحيح ولو مرة واحدة في دهره، كما هو مقرر لدى الفقهاء القدامى ([67]) ؟

وقد تساءل الشيخ محمد أبو زهرة عن تعريف المحصن وقال: (أهو الذي تزوج ولو انقطعت الحياة الزوجية؟ أم هو الذي يستمر متزوجًا؟)([68]).

وبناء على تعريف الفقهاء -رحمهم الله-؛ فإنه (لو ماتت زوجة الرجل أو زوج المرأة أو طلقها فإنهما يعتبران محصنين إلى الأبد، ولو لم يَعُدْ أحدهما إلى زواج بعد ذلك قط)([69]).

والسؤال الذي يطرح نفسه إزاء تعريف الفقهاء للمحصن: What's the basis of the distinction adopted by ancient scholars to distinguish between bosses and bosses?.

(إذا كانت التفرقة بين الشخصين قائمة على مجرد كون أحدهما تزوج والآخر لم يسبق له الزواج، فإن كلام الفقهاء يبقى صحيحًا. وإن كانت التفرقة على هذا النحو فلا يمكننا فهم أساسها المنطقي)([70]).

وإن كنا لا نقبل هذه التفرقة دون فهم أساسها وتعليل وجهتها لسببين:

First: أن هذه المسألة ليست من الأمور التعبدية التي مبناها في الجملة على التعبد دون الالتفات إلى المعاني كما يقرر الإمام الشاطبي([71])God's mercy.

II: أن واقع الخلاف بين الفقهاء في تعريف المحصن وشروط المحصن بدا معللا ومبررًا في الجملة.

أما إذا كان أساس التفرقة بين المحصن وغيره هو (The fact that as a married first able to fulfill his desire on the path laid down by God, a marriage, and the other is capable of doing so it has to be reconsidered in the words of the scholars about this condition and continue even once Bjamaa)([72]). He went to Dr. Ismail Salem is the view of Dr. Awa, and called for a reconsideration of the issue Alahassan and conditions([73]).

Has dealt a serious scholars this issue in his report to the Department of Islamic Sharia Master's degree from the Faculty of Dar Al Uloom University of Cairo, and after the presentation of the concept of chastity in the language and the Quran and Sunnah and sayings of scholars; concluded that requires survival marital list during an adulterer in adultery even true ([74]).

وهو أمر جدير بالنظر حيث إِنَّهُ يتسق مع مقصد الشارع في تغليظ العقوبة على المحصن الذي كان عنده ما يستغني به عن الحرام، لكنه لم يفعل.

Thirdly: القذف:

No disagreement about the death tossing in Islam, came the verses are clear in this matter, and applied by the Prophet e practical application in the fabrication accident, which involved a mother of believers Aisha, may Allah be pleased; God says: )walven Accuse honorable women but bring not four witnesses, Vagelteke eighty lashes and never accept their testimony, and those are the transgressors * Except those who repent and make amends, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful (([75]). But they differed on bosses who that shot must establish the limit on the launcher. Among the most important issues now before the research is the question of doctrinal tossed a non-Muslim adultery, when majority of scholars that Islam is a condition of chastity; does exempt non-Muslim thrower of punishment?([76]).

Many of the scholars may Oajabua limit if tossed Muslim is a Muslim, and was the wife of a Muslim or mother to him, because of the right of Muslim; because it inflicted shame because this ejaculation. But most of them did not pay attention to that shame may cause a non-Muslim himself and his family, especially in conservative societies as happens in some areas of Musrogerha, where is the adultery of the crimes that tarnished the whole family's reputation, and Tsamha shame and Shunnar, and this is where Muslims and non-Muslims agree. Therefore if contemporary rationing went to criminalize tossed a non-Muslim and arranging the death tossing his Muslim Kqzv alike to that was closer to the spirit of the legislation and the purposes of the sanctions, and in particular that it was not opposed to categorically address the evidence conclusive significance in this regard, and we can draw on to this view, the following evidence:

1 -We did not differentiate between Muslim and dhimmi immunized if per weight in the death of adultery or -jlda Orgoma-, which is the basis of libel according embarked on a correct view of the jurists and in the balance of the year;, the distinction between them in the end ejaculation unwarranted, and they stay pretty adultery requires tossing them by the end of.

2 -Although the requirement scholars puberty -kahd policeman commissioning- In the projectile to establish the limit on the launcher, and the owner of the Hanbali Oajabua the limit on the ejector boy and boys at Ataqh intercourse -ouhddoa below nine years of the girl and boy for ten years- As long as the foot in Utah like it or like it, and they gave the reason for that they Ataaran adultery.

The same illness list in dhimmi who Ataar adultery, which was prescribed limit ejaculation; and thus falls condition of Islam in chastity, as falling puberty condition when Hanbali and the owner of the check the illness for which they embarked on the death penalty in both.

3 -It is agreed among scholars that if a Muslim stole money dhimmi cut it, and thrown on the first measurement; because the presenter handed over the money in legitimate priorities, not more money in respect of the offer.

4 -The lawsuit settlement between non-Muslim and dhimmi in the death of libel contrary to justice and fairness, which ordered him to deal with the dhimmis in the Book of our Lord, the Almighty said: )la God forbid you who have neither faith nor drive you out of your homes, dealing kindly and justly with them that God loves Almkstin(([77]).

وإن العدل في حقيقته (هو المساواة بين أبعد الناس وأقربهم في قضاء الحقوق وإقامة الحدود)([78]).

5 -To say the settlement between the Muslim and dhimmi in ejaculation is consistent with the tolerance of Islam, and of the laws enacted for the administration of justice among the people, which is (Lowest to justice, and to human rights conventions, and to respect the human psyche without looking at the whiteness and blackness, or freedom and slavery, or infidelity and faith)([79]).

6 -إن القول بالتسوية هو الذي يتفق مع الحكمة من تشريع حد القذف، وهو صيانة الأعراض وحفظها.

7 -إن القول بعدم التسوية معناه تقنين للظلم تحت ستار العدالة، كما أن معناه (حماية الرذيلة والإثم والاعتداء باسم الإسلام، والإسلام لا يحمي الاعتداء ولا الرذيلة)([80]).

8 -إن العدل بالتسوية هو الذي يتفق مع القاعدة الفقهية العظيمة التي تقول: (لهم ما لنا وعليهم ما علينا), Which is one of the glories of justice for Muslims, and the disclosure contract between it; and this undoubtedly requires settlement in the end ejaculation, but this rule Ankrmt([81]).

9 -إن القول بالمساواة بين المسلم والذمي في حد القذف فضلا عن أنه (يحقق لهم الأمان والراحة والطمأنينة، ربما يكون سببًا لاعتناق أهل الذمة الإسلام الذي يسوي بين المسلم وغير المسلم) في الجنايات؛ لأن عقد الذمة هو بمثابة طريق يتعرف من خلاله غير المسلم على الإسلام([82]).

10- The extent of the human right to slander as is the opinion of most scholars owner and Shafi'i, Ahmad and Abu Yusuf, and some Hanafi, who dominate the right of slave([83]) ـ يستحق بالطلب ويسقط بالعفو؛ بخلاف سائر الأحناف الذين يغلبون فيه حق الله([84]).

وعلى هذا فالقول بالتسوية في حد القذف هو الذي يتناسب مع القول بأنه حق للآدمي (وجب للجناية على عرض المقذوف، والجناية لا تختلف بالرق والحرية)([85])، ولا بالإسلام وضده.

IV: شرب الخمر:

No disagreement among scholars that drinking alcohol a crime of major crimes that threaten the stability of the family and society, and it is absent of mind which is a blessing for the blessings bestowed by God on man, and keeping the mind of the basic purposes which Islam came to save them, and established a lot of protective measures from falling into the :

The first to say: Tap went to him, Maliki and Hanbali in correct them, it is more correct when compared to Shaafa'is that limit eighty lashes, there is no difference between male and female, and has said the Revolutionary. واستدلوا على ذلك بإجماع الصحابة؛ فَإِنَّهُ روي أن عمر استشار الناس في حد الخمر فقال عبد الرحمن بن عوف: اجعله كأخف الحدود ثمانين، فضرب عمر ثمانين، وكتب به إلى خالد وأبي عبيدة بالشام. وروي أن عليا قال في المشورة: إِنَّهُ إذا سكر هذى وإذا هذى افترى، وعلى المفتري ثمانون.

The second: Shaafi'is in correct them and Hanbali in the second novel chosen Abu Bakr and Abu Thor to limit as much as forty-only, even if the Imam saw attainable eighty Jazz in correct when Shaafa'is; and increase the forty be Tazirat. وقد استدلوا على ذلك بأن عليا جلد الوليد بن عقبة أربعين ثُمَّ قال: «جلد النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ـ أربعين»، وجلد أبو بكر أربعين، وعمر ثمانين، وكل سُنَّة، وهذا أحب إلي([86]).

والراجح من خلال هذه الأقوال أن العقوبة تعزيرية تترك للقاضي يقدرها حسب الظروف والأحوال، وحسب إصرار الجاني وإدمانه على المعصية.

V.: البغي:

بغى على الناس بغيا: أي ظلم واعتدى، فهو باغ. والجمع بغاة. وبغى: سعى بالفساد، ومنه الفئة الباغية.

والفقهاء لا يخرجون في الجملة عن هذا المعنى إِلاَّ بوضع بعض قيود في التعريف؛ فقد عرفوا البغاة بأنهم: الخارجون من المسلمين عن طاعة الإمام الحق بتأويل، ولهم شوكة. ويعتبر بمنزلة الخروج: الامتناع من أداء الحق الواجب الذي يطلبه الإمام، كالزكاة. ويطلق على من سوى البغاة اسم (The people of Justice)، وهم الثابتون على موالاة الإمام.

والبغي حرام، والبغاة آثمون؛ ولكن ليس البغي خروجا عن الإيمان؛ لأن الله سمى البغاة مؤمنين في قوله تعالى: ), Although two sects of believers make peace between the two battled the Bagot, one over the other that wants to Faqatheloa Tfe to the command of Allah .. (to be said: ﴿إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ﴾([87]). ويحل قتالهم، ويجب على الناس معونة الإمام في قتالهم. ومن قتل من أهل العدل أثناء قتالهم فهو شهيد، ويسقط قتالهم إذا فاءوا إلى أمر الله. ويقول الصنعاني: إذا فارق أحد الجماعة ولم يخرج عليهم ولا قاتلهم يخلى وشأنه؛ إذ مجرد الخلاف على الإمام لا يوجب قتال المخالف. وفي حديث رواه الحاكم وغيره قال النبي -عليه الصلاة والسلام- Ibn Masood: «يا ابن مسعود: أتدري ما حكم الله فيمن بغى من هذه الأمة؟ قال ابن مسعود: Allah and His Messenger know best, said: حكم الله فيهم ألا يتبع مدبرهم، ولا يقتل أسيرهم، ولا يذفف على جريحهم».

And see that Shaafa'is prostitute is not the name vilified; prostitutes violated because the interpretation is permissible in their belief, but they are wrong in it, they have the kind of excuse; them because of civil jurisprudence. They: What is contained in libeling, and what happened in the words of scholars in some places what he described as disobedience or laptop on the immorality of no eligibility for the diligence, or do not interpret it, as well as that was interpreted segmental nullity.

يقول الإمام الشافعي ـ رحمه الله ـ: روي عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن جده علي بن الحسين -رضي الله تعالى عنهما- Said: دخلت على مروان بن الحكم، فقال: ما رأيت أحدا أكرم غلبة من أبيك، ما هو إلا أن ولينا يوم الجمل، فنادى مناديه: لا يقتل مدبر، ولا يذفف على جريح.

Shafie said: فذكرت هذا الحديث للدراوردي، فقال: ما أحفظَه؛ يعجب بحفظه. هكذا ذكره جعفر بهذا الإسناد. Darorda said Jaafar told us that his father was not a high t takes a toll, and he was fighting himself proceed, and that he was not injured, nor on Ivvv kills mastermind.

Shafie said: أخبرنا إبراهيم بن محمد عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن عليا t قال في ابن ملجم بعدما ضربه: أطعموه واسقوه وأحسنوا إساره، إن عشت فأنا ولي دمي أعفو إن شئت، وإن شئت استقدت، وإن مت فقتلتموه فلا تمثلوا([88]).

And scholars regard as wrong to go out and fight them to desist Aoajabun him Lord aggression for legitimate ruler and those with him; but they do not Ikvrunhm not Evsagounam this out; they go out to interpretation, though it sinned. ولا يرى الفقهاء أن اسم البغي يفيد الذم.

ولذلك يذهب رأي راجح في الفقه الإسلامي إلى أن الذين يخرجون على الإمام لظلم وقع عليهم ليسوا من أهل البغي. Accordingly, (أي على الإمام) أن يترك الظلم وينصفهم. ولا ينبغي للناس أن يعينوا الإمام على البغاة؛ لأن فيه الإعانة على الظلم([89]).

ولا بد أن يعاد تقنين أحكام البغاة وفق ضوابط المعارضة السياسية في العصر الحالي. The Imam Ali t for this Fiqh foundations outran his time many centuries.

The mistake a lot of people, whether they are specialists in the Quran or not when they mix between prostitutes and warriors, and they throw a verse banditry in the face of all tempted to breach the ruling whether right or not right, and they are tempted rulers brutally all tempted to say: No, even if the opposition controls in accordance with the work of contemporary political, civilian opposition and they do not carry a gun in the face; Venriham twist the floor anywhere say: )anma Penalty who are fighting Allah and His Messenger and spread mischief on earth to be killed or crucified or their hands and feet cut off from or otherwise deny it to them from the ground disgrace in this world and in the hereafter torment them Azim(.

The difference between prostitutes and warriors no secret one, but it is a distortion of the verses of the Quran and employment politically main employers, over the unjust unjustly wronged him and encourage him to, and undermines the rights of the oppressed and wasted the nation on behalf of the Koran. وما جاء القرآن إلا لرفع الظلم والضيم عن رقاب الناس، وإقامة العدل في الأرض وإنصاف الناس كل الناس، سواء أكانوا حكاما أم محكومين.

* * *
Chapter IV :
جهود المجامع الفقهية في موضوع التقنين

Not the uniqueness of any jurisprudence academies special session or part of the cycle to the subject of rationing. Nor can I find a reason to apologize for its lack of such important topics discussed, is that some or most of jurisprudence academies March something close to the legalization of jurisprudence through its findings to the decisions and recommendations. وقد قمت بتجميع ما صدر من قرارات عن المجامع الفقهية فيما يخص العقوبات؛ لأنه بلا شك يمثل خطوة على طريق التقنين.

بعض قرارات المجامع الفقهية المتصلة بباب العقوبات:

First: مجمع الفقه المنبثق عن منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي:

1 -Member استؤصل in cultivation or limit the punishment([90]):

The Islamic Fiqh Council held at the sixth session of the conference in Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 17-23 شعبان 1410هـ الموافق 14-20 March (March)1990M.

بعد اطلاعه على البحوث الواردة إلى المجمع بخصوص موضوع زراعة عضو استؤصل في حد أو قصاص، واستماعه للمناقشات التي دارت حوله، وبمراعاة مقاصد الشريعة من تطبيق الحد في الزجر والردع والنكال، وإبقاء للمراد من العقوبة بدوام أثرها للعبرة والعظة وقطع دابر الجريمة، ونظرا إلى أن إعادة العضو المقطوع تتطلب الفورية في عرف الطب الحديث، فلا يكون ذلك إِلاَّ بتواطؤ وإعداد طبي خاص ينبئ عن التهاون في جدية إقامة الحد وفاعليته، قرر ما يلي:

First: May not be legally re-Managing harvested implementation of reduction; because the reduction in the survival of the impact of a full investigation of the penalty prescribed legally, and to avoid complacency in completeness, and in order to avoid clash apparently ruling.

Secondly: As retribution has proceeded to the administration of justice and fairness of the victim, and the maintenance of the right to life of the community, and the provision of security and stability , it can not be re - member استؤصل the implementation of the punishment , except in the following cases:

A - To authorize the victim after the implementation of retribution re-User harvested from the offender.

B - to be the victim has been able to re-member lump him.

Thirdly: May be re-member who استؤصل on end or retaliation because of an error in judgment or in execution. And God knows

2 -قرار مجمع الفقه بشأن حوادث السير([91]):

إن مجلس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي المنعقد في دورة مؤتمره الثامن ببندر سيري بيجوان، بروناي دار السلام، من 1- 7 Muharram 1414 AH 21- 27 حزيران (يونيو) 1993M.

After studying the research presented to the Council on the subject of traffic accidents.

After listening to the discussions that took place around him, and given the worsening traffic accidents and increase the risks to people's lives and property, and require interest-age regulations regarding the licensing of vehicles in order to achieve the security conditions Xlama devices, and the rules of the transfer of ownership, and driving licenses, and reserves sufficient to grant driver's licenses in the special conditions for age

Decided as follows:

First: A-The commitment of those systems that do not contravene the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and Islamic duty; because of obedience to the ruler with organized procedures based on evidence interests Sent. Should these systems include legal provisions which did not apply in this area.

B - which required interest also age Al'zajrh systems of all kinds, including those discretionary fiscal violates that organization FAQ for passage; to deter displays the security of people at risk in the streets and markets of the owners of vehicles and other means of transportation, taking the provisions of calculation prescribed.

Secondly: Accidents resulting from the conduct of vehicles shall apply the provisions of the Criminal prescribed in Islamic law, albeit often of such error, the driver responsible for what is wrought by a third party damages, whether in the body or the money, if the elements of the error and harm, not exempt from this responsibility only :

أ-إذا كان الحادث نتيجة لقوة قاهرة لا يستطيع دفعها، وتعذر عليه الاحتراز منها، وهي كل أمر عارض خارج عن تدخل الإنسان.

With – إذا كان بسبب فعل المتضرر المؤثر تأثيرا قويا في إحداث النتيجة.

جـ- If the accident was due to an error or non-infringement shall bear the responsibility of others.

Thirdly: What caused the beasts of traffic accidents on the roads to ensure their masters damage caused by do if they were remiss tuned in, and in that chapter to eliminate.

IV: If you subscribe driver and injured in causing the damage was on each and every one of them liable for the damage from the other end of the same or money.

V.: A-taking into account what will come of detail, the basic principle is that the direct underwriter if not a transgressor, and the culprit is not guaranteed unless the transgressor or excessive.

B - If you met directly with the offending responsibility was to direct without offending unless the offending transgressor and direct non-transitive.

ج-إذا اجتمع سببان مختلفان كل واحد منهما مؤثر في الضرر، فعلى كل واحد من المتسببين المسؤولية بحسب نسبة تأثيره في الضرر. وإذا استويا أو لم تعرف نسبة أثر كل واحد منهما فالتبعة عليهما على السواء. And God knows

3 -قرار مجمع الفقه بشأن العاقلة وتطبيقاتها المعاصرة في تحمل الدية:

إن مجلس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي الدولي المنبثق عن منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي المنعقد في دورته السادسة عشرة بدبي (دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة) Of 30 صفر إلى 5 ربيع الأول 1426هـ، الموافق 9 – 14 نيسان (أبريل) 2005M.

بعد اطلاعه على البحوث الواردة إلى المجمع بخصوص موضوع العاقلة وتطبيقاتها المعاصرة في تحمل الدية، وبعد استماعه إلى المناقشات التي دارت حوله،

قرر ما يأتي:

First: تعريف العاقلة:

هي الجهة التي تتحمل دفع الدية عن الجاني في غير القتل العمد، دون أن يكون لها حق الرجوع على الجاني بما أدته. وهي العصبة في أصل تشريعها، وأهل ديوانه الذين بينهم النصرة والتضامن.

Secondly: ما لا تتحمله العاقلة:

العاقلة لا تتحمل ما وجب من الديات عمدا ولا صلحـا ولا اعترافـا.

Thirdly: التطبيقات المعاصرة:

عند عدم وجود العشيرة أو العصبة التي تتحمل الديـة، فإنه يجوز أن ينوب عنها عند الحاجة، بناء على أن الأساس للعاقلة هو التناصر والتضامن، ما يلي:

(A)التأمين الإسلامي (التعاوني أو التكافلي) الذي ينص نظامه على تحمل الديات بين المستأمنين.

(With)Trade unions and federations that are held between the owners of the same profession, and to ensure that if the statute to achieve cooperation in carrying Amoarm.

(جـ)Special funds formed by workers in government entities, public and private to achieve solidarity and cooperation between them..

Thirdly: Recommendations:

* يوصي مجمع الفقه الإسلامي مختلف الحكومات والدول الإسلامية بأن تضع في تشريعاتها نصوصا تضمن عدم ضياع الديات؛ لأنه لا يُطَلَّ (لا يُهدر) دم في الإسلام.

* على الجهات ذات العلاقة العمل على إشاعة روح التعاون والتكافل في مختلف أفراد الجماعة والتجمعات التي تربط بين أعضائها رابطة اجتماعية. ويتحقق ذلك بالآتي:

(A)تضمين اللوائح والتنظيمات المختلفة مبدأ تحمل الديات.

(With)قيام شركات التأمين الإسلامية في مختلف دول العالم الإسلامي بعمل وثائق تشمل تغطية الحوادث ودفع الديات بشروط ميسرة وأقساط مناسبة. ومبادرة الدول الإسلامية إلى تضمين بيت المال (الخزانة العامة) مهمة تغطية الديات عند فقد العاقلة؛ وذلك لتحقيق الأغراض الاجتماعية التي تناط ببيت المال -ومنها تحمل الديات- In addition to the economic role.

(جـ) Invitation to the Islamic minorities in various regions of the world to establish organizations achieve cooperation and social solidarity among themselves, and to explicitly cover compensation killings, according to the legal system.

(D)To send letters to governments and bodies, associations and social institutions to activate the acts of kindness and charity, including zakat and waqf, wills and donations to contribute to the carrying Blood Money resulting from manslaughter. And God knows.

4- قرار مجمع الفقه بشأن ضمان الطبيب:

إن مجلس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي الدولي المنبثق عن منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي المنعقد في دورته الخامسة عشرة بمسقط (Oman) Of 14 To 19 المحرم 1425هـ، الموافق 6 – 11 March (March) 2004M.

بعد اطلاعه على البحوث الواردة إلى المجمع بخصوص موضوع ضمان الطبيب، وبعد استماعه إلى المناقشات التي دارت حوله،

قرر ما يأتي:

First: ضمان الطبيب:

(1) Medical science and art for the benefit of mankind developed, and the doctor has to feel the control of God Almighty in the performance of his work, and performs his duty faithfully according to the technical and scientific assets.

(2) يكون الطبيب ضامنا إذا ترتب ضرر بالمريض في الحالات الآتية:

أ-إذا تعمد إحداث الضرر.

ب -إذا كان جاهلا بالطب، أو بالفرع الذي أقدم على العمل الطبي فيه.

جـ-إذا كان غير مأذون له من قبل الجهة الرسمية المختصة.

د-إذا أقدم على العمل دون إذن المريض أو مَن يقوم مقامه “كما ورد في قرار المجمع رقم 67 (5/7)”.

E – إذا غرر بالمريض.

و-إذا ارتكب خطأ لا يقع فيه أمثاله، ولا تقره أصول المهنة، أو وقع منه إهمال أو تقصير.

ز -إذا أفشى سر المريض بدون مقتضى معتبر “حسب قرار المجمع رقم 79 (10/8)”.

ح -إذا امتنع عن أداء الواجب الطبي في الحالات الإسعافية (حالات الضرورة).

(3) يكون الطبيب -ومَن في حكمه- مسؤولا جزائيا في الحالات السابق ذكرها إذا توافرت شروط المسؤولية الجزائية فيما عدا حالة الخطأ (Paragraph “And”) فلا يُسأل جزائيا إِلاَّ إذا كان الخطأ جسيما.

(4) إذا قام بالعمل الطبي الواحد فريق طبي متكامل، فيُسأل كل واحد منهم عن خطئه تطبيقا للقاعدة “If met directly with causing damage which is the direct Valmswol, unless the offending first responsibility of it”. ويكون رئيس الفريق مسؤولا مسؤولية تضامنية عن فعل معاونيه إذا أخطأ في توجيههم أو قصر في الرقابة عليهم.

(5) تكون المؤسسة الصحية (عامة أو خاصة) مسؤولة عن الأضرار إذا قصّرت في التزاماتها، أو صدرت عنها تعليمات ترتب عليها ضرر بالمرضى دون مسوغ.

ويوصي بما يأتي:

(1) إجراء دراسة خاصة بمشكلات التطبيق المعاصر لنظام العاقلة واقتراح البدائل المقبولة شرعا.

(2) إجراء دراسة خاصة بمسائل الضرر المعنوي والتعويض عنه في قضايا الضمان بوجه عام.

(3) الطلب من الحكومات الإسلامية توحيد التشريعات الخاصة بتنظيم الأعمال الطبية مثل: قضايا الإجهاض، وموت الدماغ، والتشريح… Etc..

(4) الطلب من الجامعات في الدول الإسلامية إيجاد مقرر خاص بأخلاقيات وفقه الطبيب لطلبة الكليات الطبية والتمريض.

(5) Demand from governments in Muslim countries regulate the practices of alternative medicine and folk medicine, and supervision, and the development of controls that protect the community from harm.

(6) حثّ وسائل الإعلام على ضبط الرسالة الإعلامية في المجال الصحي والطبي.

(7) تشجيع الأطباء المسلمين على إجراء البحوث والتجارب العلمية والشرعية.

والله الموفق.

5 -قرار Theمجمع الفقهي بشأن: مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) والأحكام الفقهية المتعلقة به([92]):

إن مجلس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي المنعقد في دورة مؤتمره التاسع بأبي ظبي بدولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة من 1- 6 A November 1415 e 1- 6 نيسان (أبريل) 1995M.

After studying the research presented to the Council on the subject of HIV (الإيدز) والأحكام المتعلقة به، والقرار رقم 82 (13/8).

وبعد استماعه إلى المناقشات التي دارت حوله، قرر ما يلي:

First: عزل المريض:

As the medical information currently available to confirm infection with HIV (مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب) (الإيدز) Does not occur through cohabitation, or circumstance, or breathing, or insects, or to participate in the eating, or drinking, or swimming pools, or seats, or eating utensils and so on aspects of cohabitation in everyday life, but are mainly infection in one of the roads :

1 -الاتصال الجنسي بأي شكل كان.

2 -نقل الدم الملوث أو مشتقاته.

3 -استعمال الإبر الملوثة، ولا سيما بين متعاطي المخدرات، وكذلك أمواس الحلاقة.

4 -الانتقال من الأم المصابة إلى طفلها في أثناء الحمل والولادة.

وبناء على ما تقدم فإن عزل الأم المصابة مع طفلها إذا لم تُخْشَ منه العدوى عن زملائهم الأصحاء غير واجب شرعا، ويتم التصرف مع المرضى وفق الإجراءات الطبية المعتمدة.

Secondly: تعمّد نقل العدوى:

Deliberately infecting with HIV (الإيدز) To the right of it in any form of deliberate work of Muharram, and is one of the major sins and sins, as it requires a worldly punishment, the death penalty and vary as much as the gravity of the act and its impact on individuals and its impact on society.

فإن كان قصد المتعمد إشاعة هذا المرض الخبيث في المجتمع، فعمله هذا يعد نوعا من الحرابة والإفساد في الأرض، ويستوجب إحدى العقوبات المنصوص عليها في آية الحرابة ﴿إِنَّمَا جَزَاء الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَن يُقَتَّلُواْ أَوْ يُصَلَّبُواْ أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْاْ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ﴾([93]).

وإن كان قصده من تعمُّد نقل العدوى إعداء شخص بعينه، وتمت العدوى، ولم يمت المنقول إليه بعد؛ عوقب المتعمد بالعقوبة التعزيرية المناسبة. وعند حدوث الوفاة ينظر في تطبيق عقوبة القتل عليه.

وأَمَّا إذا كان قصده من تعمد نقل العدوى إعداء شخص بعينه، ولكن لم تنتقل إليه العدوى؛ فإنه يعاقب عقوبة تعزيرية.

Thirdly: إجهاض الأم المصابة بعدوى مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز):

نظرا لأن انتقال العدوى من الحامل المصابة بمرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) إلى جنينها لا تحدث غالبا إلا بعد تقدم الحمل –نفخ الروح في الجنين– أو أثناء الولادة، فلا يجوز إجهاض الجنين شرعا.

IV: حضانة الأم المصابة بمرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) لوليدها السليم وإرضاعه:

لَـمَّا كانت المعلومات الطبية الحاضرة تدل على أنه ليس هناك خطر مؤكد من حضانة الأم المصابة بعدوى مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) For her healthy child, and breastfeeding him, like communion, regular cohabitation, it does not mind that you are legally Bhoudanth mother, breast feeding and what did not prevent it from medical report.

V.: حق السليم من الزوجين في طلب الفرقة من الزوج المصاب بعدوى مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز):

للزوجة طلب الفرقة من الزوج المصاب باعتبار أن مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) مرض معد تنتقل عدواه بصورة رئيسية بالاتصال الجنسي.

Sixthly: اعتبار مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) مرض موت:

يعدّ مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز) مرض موت شرعا، إذا اكتملت أعراضه وأقعد المريض عن ممارسة الحياة العادية، واتصل به الموت.

ويوصي بما يلي:

First: تأجيل موضوع حق المعاشرة الزوجية مع الإصابة بالإيدز، لاستكمال بحثه.

Secondly: ضرورة الاستمرار على التأكد في موسم الحج من خلو الحجاج من الأمراض الوبائية، وبخاصة مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب (الإيدز).

والله الموفق.

6 -قرار مجمع الفقه بشأن أجهزة الإنعاش([94]):

إن مجلس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي المنعقد في دورة مؤتمره الثالث بعمان عاصمة المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية من 8-13 صفر 1407هـ /11 – 16 تشرين الأول (October) 1986M.

After trading in other ways that have been raised on the subject of resuscitation equipment and listening to a thorough explanation of specialist doctors,

Decided as follows:

يعتبر شرعا أن الشخص قد مات، وتترتب جميع الأحكام المقررة شرعا للوفاة عند ذلك إذا تبينت فيه إحدى العلامتين التاليتين:

– إذا توقف قلبه وتنفسه توقفا تاما، وحكم الأطباء بأن هذا التوقف لا رجعة فيه.

– إذا تعطلت جميع وظائف دماغه تعطلا نهائيا، وحكم الأطباء الاختصاصيون الخبراء بأن هذا التعطل لا رجعة فيه، وأخذ دماغه في التحلل.

وفي هذه الحالة يسوغ رفع أجهزة الإنعاش المركبة على الشخص وإن كان بعض الأعضاء، كالقلب مثلا، لا يزال يعمل آليا بفعل الأجهزة المركبة. And God knows.

Secondly: قرارات المجمع الفقهي التابع لرابطة العالم الإسلامي:

1 -حول المسؤولية عن أضرار الأشياء التي تتطلب حراستها عناية خاصة.

حول المسؤولية عن أضرار الأشياء من حيوان وبناء، وكل ما تتطلب حراسته عناية خاصة:

الحمد لله وحده، والصلاة والسلام على من لا نبي بعده، سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم، أما بعد: فنظرًا لما نشاهده في عصرنا الحاضر، عصر الآلة والتقانة (التقنية) Advanced, and the consequent damage and injuries among workers category, shortening some technicians to do the duty of work and his mastery of the secretariat, and indifference to the rights of others, the Islamic Fiqh Council, the Muslim World League in its fourteenth session held in Makkah, which began on Saturday 20 من شعبان 1415هـ 21/1/1995م، نظر في موضوع: المسؤولية عن أضرار الأشياء من حيوان وبناء وكل ما تتطلب حراسته عناية خاصة، وقرر ما يلي:

First: Damage to the animal, originally legitimate felony animal and the damage that arises from it waste, to talk hard: «Ajme Jabbar», unless the animal owned or under whose tenure known abuse of their own or others, or hyper-owner to save infringement or default. And be the cause of responsibility is a hard error and the actual damage, and is responsible for security is the owner and equivalents, Kalgesb, and thief, and the tenant, and Patron, and the passenger, the driver and commander. They ask about the damage crops, and trees and the like, that the damage occurred at night, to the necessity of keeping the animal to its owner in the night, and save crops owners and so her day, as stated in al-Bara bin celibate t: «قضى نبي الله e أن على أهل الحوائط (البساتين) حِفْظَها بالنَّهارِ، وأن ما أفسَدت المواشي بالليلِ ضامِنٌ على أهلِها»، أي: مضمون.

Secondly: انهيار البناء.. The building owner, and the warden drug suspension, and orphan's guardian, and values ​​on civil minus responsible if the building was constructed originally accompanied imbalance, due to negligence, or negligence, or fraud. وللمالك الرجوع على من تسبب في ذلك، وكذلك على هؤلاء ضمان التلف بانهيار البناء بسبب الخلل الطارئ عليه. وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد، وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم تسليمًا كثيرًا. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

2 -قرار المجمع الفقهي بشأن موضوع إسقاط الجنين المشوَّه خلقيًّا:

الحمد لله وحده، والصلاة والسلام على من لا نبي بعده، سيدنا ونبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم، أما بعد: فإن مجلس المجمع الفقهي الإسلامي، برابطة العالم الإسلامي، في دورته الثانية عشرة، المنعقدة بمكة المكرمة، في الفترة من يوم السبت 15 رجب 1410هـ الموافق 10 فبراير 1990م إلى يوم السبت 22 رجب 1410هـ الموافق 17 فبراير 1990م قد نظر في هذا الموضوع. وبعد مناقشته من قبل هيئة المجلس الموقرة، ومن قبل أصحاب السعادة الأطباء المختصين، الذين حضروا لهذا الغرض، قرر بالأكثرية ما يلي:

– If the pregnancy has reached one hundred and twenty days, it is permissible to abort, even if the medical examinations show that the monstrous, but if it is proved the report of a medical committee of trustworthy specialist doctors, that the survival of the pregnancy the uncertain risk to the mother's life, then it is permissible to abort, whether distorted .

– By one hundred and twenty days after the pregnancy, if proven, and make sure the report of a medical committee of trustworthy specialist doctors -obina technical tests, devices and means of laboratory- أن الجنين مشوه تشويهًا خطيرًا، غير قابل للعلاج، وأنه إذا بقي وولد في موعده فستكون حياته سيئة، وآلامًا عليه وعلى أهله، فعندئذ يجوز إسقاطه بناء على طلب الوالدين.

والمجلس إذ يقرر ذلك: يوصي الأطباء والوالدين بتقوى الله، والتثبت في هذا الأمر. God is the source of strength.

3 -قرار المجمع الفقهي بشأن الملاكمة والمصارعة:

The Islamic Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League Council at its tenth session, held in Makkah has examined the issue of boxing and wrestling in terms of Adahma gymnastics Award, Is it permissible in the rule of Islam or not permissible?

After deliberation on the matter from various aspects, and the outcome of these types attributed to the sport, and became exposed television broadcasts programs in the country and other Islamic. Having considered the studies presented in this regard commissioned by the Council in its earlier by doctors specialists, and after reviewing the statistics provided by some of what actually happened in the countries of the world as a result of the exercise of boxing, and watched on television from some of the tragedies of freestyle wrestling, decided :

Boxing: يرى مجلس المجمع بالإجماع أن الملاكمة المذكورة التي أصبحت تمارس فعلا في حلبات الرياضة والمسابقة في بلادنا اليوم هي ممارسة محرمة في الشريعة الإسلامية؛ لأنها تقوم على أساس استباحة إيذاء كل من المتغالبين للآخر إيذاء بالغًا في جسمه، قد يصل به إلى العمى، أو التلف الحاد أو المزمن في المخ، أو إلى الكسور البليغة، أو إلى الموت، دون مسؤولية على الضارب، مع فرح الجمهور المؤيد للمنتصر، والابتهاج بما حصل للآخر من الأذى، وهو عمل محرم مرفوض كليًّا وجزئيًّا في حكم الإسلام، لقوله تعالى: ﴿وَلا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ﴾([95]). And says: ﴿وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا﴾([96]). And saying e: «لا ضَرَرَ ولا ضِرَارَ».

وعلى ذلك فقد نص فقهاء الشريعة على أن: من أباح دمه لآخر، فقال له: «Kill me» not permissible for him to kill him, even if he was responsible and act worthy of punishment.

Accordingly, the compound decide that this boxing may not be called gymnastics, exercise may not be; because the concept of sport is based on the exercise without harming or damage. ويجب أن تحذف من برامج الرياضة المحلية، ومن المشاركات فيها في المباريات العالمية. كما يقرر المجلس عدم جواز عرضها في البرامج التلفازية، كيلا تتعلم الناشئة هذا العمل السيئ وتحاول تقليده.

Secondly: Wrestling: The freestyle wrestling in which each of the conflicting permissible to harm others and damage to it, the Board considers the similar work similar to boxing mentioned exactly, although different picture; because all legitimate caveats mentioned in boxing exist in freestyle wrestling, which takes place on Duel mode and take the judgment in the prohibition. وأما الأنواع الأخرى من المصارعة التي تمارس لمحض الرياضة البدنية، ولا يستباح فيها الإيذاء فإنها جائزة شرعًا ولا يرى المجلس مانعًا منها. And God knows.

Thirdly: قرارات المجلس الأوروبي للإفتاء والبحوث:

1- حكم تناول الخل المصنوع من الخمر:

الخمر إذا تخللت –أي تحولت إلى خل- بنفسها فهي حلال وطاهرة بالإجماع. وإذا كانت تخللت بمعالجة وعمل متعمد، كوضع ملح أو خبز أو بصل أو خل أو مادة كيميائية معينة، فقد اختلف فيها الفقهاء؛ فمنهم من قال: تطهر ويحل الانتفاع بها، لانقلاب عينها وزوال الوصف المفسد فيها. Some of them said: لا تطهر، ولا يحل الانتفاع بها؛ لأنا أمرنا باجتنابها، وفي التحليل اقتراب منها، فلا يجوز.

After the Board reviewed the evidence of the two teams concluded the first tipping a purity of doctrine and solving use of vinegar; because the pickling-such pervading- Description removes a spoiler causing intoxication, and prove the validity description; because the benefit of nutrition and medication, and others, and because the bug Altnges and prohibition is causing intoxication, and still, the referee is going on with menstruation LACK. وتأكد هذا بقوله -عليه الصلاة والسلام-: «نعم الإدام الخل»، من غير تفريق بين خل وآخر، ولا طلب منا البحث عن أصله ماذا كان.

وما روي بخلاف ذلك مِمَّا يدل على المنع من تخليلها، فإنما هو من باب الردع والتشديد عليهم في أول الأمر، حتى لا يتهاونوا فيها بحال.

* * *

الخلاصة ونتائج البحث

نخلص مِمَّا سبق إلى:

1-That the issue of rationing is an important issue, especially in the current situation; because it fills a need at the judiciary, which shifted from individuals diligent dealing with texts according to their hard work and trying to drop the provisions charged to stable institutions governed in accordance with specific laws, and should be doing this burden integrated enterprise of scholars immigrants and scholars constitutional .

2- على من يقومون على مسألة التقنين أن يعتمدوا على تراث الأمة كله لا يسقطون منه شيئا، فأمامهم القرآن الكريم بتفاسيره المتنوعة، وأمامهم السنة المطهرة وكتبها التي عنيت بشرحها وبيان مدى صحة الحديث وضعفه، وأمامهم تراث الفقهاء في المذاهب الثمانية المشهورة والمذاهب غير المشهورة، وقبلها ومعها آثار الصحابة والتابعين، لا يسقطون منه شيئا ابتداء، ثم يعملون المنهج العلمي الجاد فيما يقبل الاجتهاد من هذا التراث كله على ضوء النظريات السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية الحديثة؛ حتى يصلوا إلى ما يرونه أقرب إلى الصواب والنفع العام، دون التقيد بمذهب فقهي واحد يحمل الناس عليه دون غيره.

3- The rationing of doing this re-consider the transfer to us from previous Ajamaat not hard to prove in front of the scientific criticism, perhaps people have disagreed and did not dispute reach us. Albeit with the excuse of our ancestors in the non-arrival of all opinions to us there is no excuse for us to have this enormous technological revolution occurred in heritage conservation on an easy drive pregnancy and research so that we could easily test the transfer to us from an earlier consensus, it may not be unanimous.

4- بعض هذه الآراء أسس على أحاديث ضعيفة لم يصل ضعفها إلى أسلافنا من الفقهاء -رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين- فأفتوا وفق ما وصل إليه اجتهادهم وهم مأجورن إن شاء الله تعالى على هذا الاجتهاد؛ لكننا لا عذر لنا إن وصلنا الضعف (أي ضعف الحديث) وظللنا نصر على هذه الآراء، ولا نبحث فيها وفق ما أسست عليه.

5- لا يجوز -من وجهة نظري- أن نقوم بتطبيق باب من أبواب الشريعة ونترك الأبواب الأخرى، حتى لا نظلم شريعتنا ونظلم أنفسنا؛ فبعض الناس لا يعلمون من الشريعة إلا تطبيق العقوبات حتى استقر في أذهانهم أن الشريعة نزلت لقطع الأيدي وضرب الأجساد وقطع الرقاب، ولم يروا عظمة التشريع بتمامه وكماله في شتى نواحي الحياة السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية، فنكون كمن قال الله تعالى فيهم ﴿أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَمَا جَزَاء مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلاَّ خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ﴾([97]), Or who said God made them )alven Koran Edein(([98]).

The greatness of the legislation will not be clear unless fully taken, the people shall know their rights and duties, and assess internal and external relationships according to this comprehensive balanced Fiqh.

6- I see that the natural evolution and extension Almstqublalmajama jurisprudential -alta busy along nearly a third of a century issues District, which is on the relevance and usefulness to stand on the solutions and answers about emerging issues- هو موضوع التقنين؛ لأنه مشروع للأمة بأثرها، فلعلها تقوم بهذا العبء وتحمل هذا الواجب، ونسأل الله لها العون والتوفيق.

7- Who are in the process of rationing not to overlook the elements of time, place and people, For these elements are all role in the issue of choice and rationing, and not lose sight of codification of Muslim minorities in the country's non-Muslim, so I do not mind the multiplicity of legislations and differ from country to country as long as they take into account the conditions of the people and the time and place.

Controls rationing sanctions in Islamic jurisprudence:

After taking into account the intended street to impose these sanctions, and taking care not to oppose purposes with religious texts peremptory constancy deterministic semantics, whether with regard to retribution and blood money or were in the border, we have to take into account the controls and rules governing the subject of sanctions and we can summarized below:

1 -لا جريمة ولا عقوبة إلا بنص قطعي ثابت.

2 -الحدود تدرأ بالشبهات، ولأن يخطئ الإمام في العفو خير من أن يخطئ في العقوبة.

3 -Main Disclaimers.

4 -الضرورات تبيح المحظورات، والحاجات تنزل منزلة الضرورة أحيانا.

5 -لا تمييز بين الناس في الجريمة والعقوبة على أساس الدين أو الجنس أو اللون أو المنصب وغير ذلك.

والله تعالى أعلى وأعلم

*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

**مستشار النطاق الشرعي بموقع “IOL. Net”، وعضو الاتحاد العالمي لعلماء المسلمين


[1]) تقنين الأحكام الشرعية بين المانعين والمجيزين د. عبد الرحمن بن أحمد الجرعي موقع الإسلام اليوم.

[2]) السابق نفسه، وينظر أيضا مدخل لدراسة الشريعة، د. يوسف القرضاوي، ص297 المدخل لدراسة الشريعة، د. عبد الكريم زيدان، ص127، 128 الاجتهاد المعاصر بين الانضباط والانفراط د. يوسف القرضاوي، ص21.

[3]) وينظر أنوار البروق في أنواع الفروق لأحمد بن إدريس القرافي 1/ 201 -205. عالم الكتب.

[4]) لقاءات، ومحاورات.. حول الإسلام وقضايا العَصْر للعلامة الشيخ الدكتور يوسف القرضاوي.. Library Wahba

[5]) Surat bees: 126.

[6]) Jurisprudence Encyclopedia, 30/ 269، وزارة الأوقاف والشئون الإسلامية ـ الكويت.

[7]) السياسة الشرعية في إصلاح الراعي والرعية لتقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن تيمية، 156-157. مكتبة ابن تيمية.

[8]) راجع المصباح المنير، ولسان العرب، مادة: Jabr. والموسوعة الفقهية، 15/ 102. والمغرب لناصر بن عبد السيد أبوالمكارم المطرزي، ص74، دار الكتاب العربي.

[9]) نظرية الجبر في الفقه الإسلامي دراسة تأصيلية تطبيقية للأستاذ وصفي عاشور أبو زيد، ص24 ط1، دار السلام للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع.

[10]) أنوار البروق في أنواع الفروق، 1/ 211-212.

[11]) Surat bees: 126-128.

[12]) Al Shura: 40-43.

[13]) Al King: 14.

[14]) Undisputed number of contemporary scholars in that apostasy is the estimated end of the border, and they reckon the death of Imam Taziria leave applied depending on the circumstances of the apostate, and considered dangerous to society, and we will pay special attention to this subject when talking about rationing.

[15]) Sura: 256.

[16]) Cave: 29.

[17]) Sura: 72-73.

[18]) Also contests some contemporary scholars to make an end prostitute, so do not be a tool in the hands of tyrants and oppressors and a sword hanging on the necks of both disagreed opinion, even reducing Dwabth dish up this fear.

[19]) Al rooms: 8، 9.

[20]) Undisputed Prof. Dr. Taha Jabir al-Alwani in the end banditry, and believes that the context of the Koran makes it imperative that these verses are private Beni Israel, given the explicit right to talk on this issue, and this does not quite share his interpretation of it.

[21]) Al Noor: 2.

[22]) Al Noor: 4، 5.

[23]) Nisa: 26، 28.

[24]) سور الأعراف: 45.

[25]) يراجع فقه العقوبات عند الإمام علي-رضي الله عنه- في ضوء فقه الصحابة والأئمة الأربعة، رسالة ماجستير لكاتب هذه السطور؛ نوقشت في قسم الشريعة الإسلامية بكلية دار العلوم 1996.

[26]) صحيح البخاري، كتاب العلم ح 111. Sunan al-Tirmidhi.

[27]) Review: المحلى بالآثار لعلي بن أحمد بن سعيد بن حزم، 11/ 181-182، دار الفكر العربي. أحكام القرآن لمحمد بن عبد الله الأندلسي (ابن العربي) 1/ 90-91، دار الكتب العلمية. تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق لعثمان بن علي الزيلعي 6/ 103، دار الكتاب الإسلامي. تحفة المحتاج في شرح المنهاج لأحمد بن محمد بن علي بن حجر الهيتمي 10/ 117، دار إحياء التراث العربي. الفقه الإسلامي في طريق التجديد للدكتور محمد سليم العوا، 137- 141، ط3، دار الشروق 1427- 2006.

[28]) سبل السلام لمحمد بن إسماعيل الكحلاني الصنعاني، 2/ 342، دار الحديث.

[29]) Nisa: 92.

[30]) المدونة لمالك بن أنس الأصبحي، 4/ 627، دار الكتب العلمية. الأم للشافعي، 6/ 113-114. المبسوط للسرخسي، 26/ 84- 85، دار المعرفة. بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع، 7/ 254. المغني لابن قدامة، 8/290، دار إحياء التراث العربي. أسنى المطالب شرح روض الطالب، 4/ 48- 49، دار الكتاب الإسلامي. Jurisprudence Encyclopedia, 21/ 61-62، وزارة الأوقاف الكويتية.

[31]) بداية المجتهد جـ4 صـ196.

[32]) العقوبة، ص429، فقرة 406.

[33]) العقوبة، ص429، فقرة 406.

[34]) الإسلام عقيدة وشريعة، صـ312.

[35]) التشريع الجنائي، ج2، ص160.

[36]) الجوهر النقي لابن التركماني، ج8، ص103.

[37]) السنة بين أهل الفقه وأهل الحديث، ص26.

[38]) الإسلام عقيدة وشريعة، ص550.

[39]) Controls diligence contemporary criminal legislation in a comparative study of colleague Mr. Fathi Mohammed Abu Roses Master Thesis submitted to the Department of Islamic law at the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Dar.

[40]) الأم لمحمد بن إدريس الشافعي 6/ 22- 23 Knowledge House.

[41]) مسلم، باب ثبوت القصاص في القتل بالحجر، ح 3167.

[42]) سبل السلام لمحمد بن إسماعيل الكحلاني الصنعاني 2/ 343 – 344. دار الحديث.

[43]) البيهقي في السنن، 8/ 69.

[44]) سنن النسائي باب عقل المرأة ح 4723.

[45]) الأم للشافعي، 6/ 114. المنتقى شرح الموطأ، 7/ 81. المبسوط، 26/ 79- 80. بدائع الصنائع، 7/ 254 – 255. المغني لابن قدامة، 8/ 314.

[46]) الموطأ، في العقول -باب ذكر العقول-، (1544). سنن النسائي في القسامة، باب ذكر حديث عمرو بن حزم في العقول واختلاف الناقلين له، (4853). السنن الكبرى للبيهقي، ج8، ص73.

[47]) المغني ج11، ص508.

[48]) بدائع الصنائع، ج8، ص103. الهداية، ج4، ص320. بداية المجتهد ج4، ص196. حاشية الدسوقي ج4، ص413. مغني المحتاج، ج5، ص303. الأحكام السلطانية ص240. المغني ج11، ص508.

[49]) بداية المجتهد، ج4، ص196.

[50]) بدائع الصنائع، 7/ 254-255.

[51]) المغني، 8/ 314.

[52]) موقع فضيلة الشيخ الدكتور يوسف القرضاوي (http://www. qaradawi. net )، وموقع إسلام أون لاين (http://www. islamonline. net)

[53]) السابق نفسه.

[54]) صحيح البخاري، باب لا يعذب بعذاب الله، 2794. وحكم المرتد والمرتدة واستتابتهم، ح6411.

[55]) مسلم، باب ما يباح به دم المسلم ح 3175.

[56]) سنن النسائي، باب ذكر ما يحل به دم المسلم، ح3952.

[57]) من الممكن مطالعة البحث كاملا من خلال هذا الرابط على موقع إسلام أون لاين: http://www. islamonline. net/Arabic/contemporary/2002/02/article2a. shtml

== كما يمكننا الرجوع إلى كتب الفقه على سبيل المثال إلى: Code, 2/ 227-228. الأم، 8/ 367-368. المبسوط، 10/ 108- 109. الأحكام السلطانية للماوردي، 68- 69، دار الكتب العلمية. المغني، 9/ 16 And Beyond. شرح النيل وشفاء العليل لمحمد بن يوسف اطفيش، 17/ 597 -598، مكتبة الإرشاد.

[58]) Sura: 72.

[59]) يراجع البحث كاملا من خلال هذا الرابط:

http://www. islamonline. net/Arabic/contemporary/2002/02/article2b. shtml. وأيضا الفقه الإسلامي في طريق التجديد للدكتور محمد سليم العوا، 251 – 255، سفير الدولية للنشر، ط3، 1427- 2006.

[60]) Sura: 256.

[61]) Cave: 29.

[62]) جمال البنا، تفنيد حد الردة، القاهرة: دار الفكر الإسلامي، (D. T.), P(32-33). وينظر: أشواك في طريق التجديد الفقهي (جمال البنا نموذجا) للباحث وآخرين تحت الطبع، وهو كتاب من ثلاثة أجزاء للرد عن شبهات جمال البنا ومدرسته.

[63]) Al Noor: 2.

[64]) المغني لابن قدامة، 9/ 38- 39.

[65]) الأم، 6/ 144- 145. المنتقى شرح الموطأ، 7/ 132- 133. المبسوط، 9/ 38 -39. Explain the Nile, 7/ 348. البحر الزخار الجامع لمذاهب علماء الأمصار لأحمد بن يحيى المرتضى 6/ 159-160، دار الكتاب الإسلامي.

[66]) المنتقى شرح الموطأ، 3/ 231- 232، المغني، 9/ 43-44. التاج المذهب لأحكام المذهب لأحمد بن قاسم العنسي الصنعاني، 4/ 215، مكتبة اليمن. الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية، 2/ 223 -224.

[67]) صحيح مسلم بشرح النووي، ج11، ص333.

[68]) العقوبة: Paragraph 72 ص77.

[69]) في أصول النظام الجنائي الإسلامي، د. محمد سليم العوا، ص272.

[70]) في أصول النظام الجنائي الإسلامي، ص272.

[71]) الموافقات في أصول الشريعة، ج2 ص256. See: السياسة الشرعية، د. يوسف القرضاوي، ص272.

[72]) في أصول النظام الجنائي، ص272.

[73]) نفاة الرجم وفقه آية التنصيف، ص40.

[74]) ضوابط الاجتهاد المعاصر في التشريع الجنائي مرجع سابق.

[75]) Al Noor: 4-5.

[76]) Code, 4/ 517 – 518. الأم، 7/ 60- 61. المنتقى شرح الموطأ، 7/ 148 -149. والمغني 9/ 76-77.

[77]) Sura Allah forbids: 9.

[78]) سيرة ومناقب عمر لابن الجوزي، هامش ص89 من تعليق المحقق حامد الطاهر.

[79]) السنة النبوية بين أهل الفقه وأهل الحديث ص25. والعبارة واردة في القصاص بين المسلم والذمي ووجدناها منطبقة هنا كذلك.

[80]) العقوبة، ص226، فقرة (5). والعبارة واردة في القصاص بين المسلم والذمي ووجدناها منطبقة هنا كذلك.

[81]) من عبارة شبيهة للشيخ أبي زهرة في وجوب القصاص بين المسلم والذمي، العقوبة، ص266، فقرة 251.

[82]) قتل المسلم بالكافر، ص232. والعبارة واردة في القصاص بين المسلم والذمي ووجدناها منطبقة هنا كذلك.

[83]) تفسير القرطبي، ج7، ص202. الأحكام السلطانية للماوردي، ص237. مغني المحتاج، ج5، ص476. كشاف القناع، ج6 ص105. الهداية، ج2 ص386، 387.

[84]) الهداية شرح البداية، ج2 ص386.

[85]) تفسير القرطبي، ج7 ص199. وينظر: ضوابط الاجتهاد المعاصر في التشريع الجنائي دراسة مقارنة، مرجع سابق.

[86]) Code, 4/ 523. المحلى، 12/ 365. المنتقى شرح الموطأ، 3/ 141-142. المبسوط، 24/ 9- 10.

[87]) Al rooms: 9-10.

[88]) الأم، 4/ 229. المحلى، 11/ 333. المبسوط، 10/ 127. بدائع الصنائع، 7/ 140 -141. المغني، 9/ 3. شرائع الإسلام في مسائل الحلال والحرام، 1/ 307، لجعفر بن الحسن الهذلي (الحلي)، مؤسسة مطبوعاتي إسماعيليان. شرح النيل وشفاء العليل، 14/ 396. Jurisprudence Encyclopedia, 8/ 130 -135. الفقه الإسلامي في طريق التجديد، 239 – 242.

[89]) الفقه الإسلامي في طريق التجديد، 241.

[90]) مجلة المجمع، (ع 6، ج3، ص2161).

[91]) مجلة المجمع، (ع 8، ج2، ص171).

[92]) مجلة المجمع (ع 8، ج3، ص9)، (ع 9، ج1، ص65).

[93]) Surah: 33.

[94]) مجلة المجمع، ( ع 3، ج2/ص 523).

[95]) Sura: 195.

[96]) Nisa: 169.

[97]) Sura: 85.

[98]) Al Stone: 91.

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