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Islamic criminal jurisprudence and attempts rationing

Islamic criminal jurisprudence and attempts rationing *

Preparation: D. Mohammed Bashir al-Haj Salem **

Introduction:

Said: If you want to know how much progress any nation and sold in civilization and progress, look to its goal of law legislation that regulates life and adjusts the behavior of its members and governed by him in all its affairs. Through the level of legislation every nation can see their progress and their contribution to civilization.

The Islamic nation is like other nations of the earth does not deviate from this rule in the possibility of evaluating the balance of legislation. Islamic law is - in its substance and its contents- The largest and most comprehensive legislation known to mankind throughout its history, no Tdanyh in its comprehensiveness and richness other legislation both old and new, including legislation Roman times “Justinian” Pride of Western nations to our present. In its shape and appearance, he is left-handed legislation to lack of proper wording and arrangement and numbering and ease of phrase, and other features necessary today to contemporary laws.

There is no dispute that the law in every nation or society is a definite need indispensable to the group about, is that regulates the community and adjusts the behavior of its members to the balance of fixed, invoked it in the light of justice, freedom and equality, and paints governor domain powers, and doomed his rights and duties, and its benefit the group of potential … The alternative is certain about the law is chaos and insecurity and the loss of other essential interests upon which the lives of people and the significance of their meeting.

As long as the law is so important, the process of drafting legislation rationing good way to ensure its application, and the achievement of its objectives at the best image and best; but derives its legitimacy from the legitimacy of the issuance of the law itself, and”What is not to be, but it is the duty of”. As the benefit from the provisions of the scattered collector collects nor organized Nazim nor subject to the order and good Tab is today very difficult, if not be impossible. Thus, the work of Islamic jurisprudence - which is the law of the Muslims and their balance Legislative- Today has become impossible unless it is re-drafting of Article modern practical approach, makes it easier for those who support it refer to it, and work with its provisions without discomfort or fatigue.

And Islam was a religion of forms and manifestations to stick crusted and Isahd in the kernels, and the wisdom of Ali Hakim to spend disable legislation and deprive Muslims of guided them; claiming the deadlock on unusual phrases old, and the madder the drafting arrangement and Tab suitable for ages without eras and generations without generations, as if plagued by . والحال أن هذا دين الله الذي اتسم من مبدئه بعمومه وشموله وصلاحه لكل زمان ومكان. فكيف يُستساغ والحال تلك مجرد التساؤل في جدوى التقنين وفائدته فضلا عن جوازه ومشروعيته؟!

ونظرا لمكانة الشريعة الإسلامية في نفوس المسلمين، فقد اتجهت همة بعض رجال القانون -بدوافع بعضها ذاتية وبعضها رسمية- إلى دراسة الفقه الإسلامي في جانب منه -وهو المعاملات- To re-drafted in a modern way, similar to the legal formulas adopted in the statutory law, as a step should be met through the application of its provisions. At the same time turned the eyes of some scholars - especially those who gathered in their studies between the law and the law- To re-examine Islamic jurisprudence and drafted in a way mimic the legal formulas, in order to facilitate the study and refer to it. So that the will of the parties met in a very one is finding favor Islamic law to regulate social life and practice in the courts without reference to the painstaking traditional encyclopedias jurisprudence.

This study is not about rationing of only part of the theme, which codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence and related matters, will research and investigation to detect some issues and تجلية the measure of Guamdha.. It is undoubtedly one of the most sensitive issues of Islamic jurisprudence and complicated in this day and age, and it is not easy to go where and during which الجوس, in order to detect hideaways and drawing features.

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The first topic: Entrances to codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence

The first requirement: Connotations of belongings conventional rationing

Before access at the heart of the issue of legalization of Islamic criminal jurisprudence improves trace semantics of terms related or linked to it; to be idiomatic meanings of words contained in the study and clear, and we are aware of the hurry in الجوس through research courses, walking together on a straight path. Among the most important of these terms that represent words inevitably keys identified to clarify what benefit him of meanings meant by them, in order to stand on the floor of a single semantic words: Jurisprudence and legislation, law, crime and crime, and rationing, which loom terminology clear starting traded significance according to their uses, and does not need to and to clarify the statement, but after the investigation is in need of further consideration and scrutiny.

1- Meaning of Jurisprudence and Legislation:

Jurisprudence in the language of the Arabs in the sense of understanding([1]), And it says: ) And the solution node of the tongue * يفقهوا Say (([2]), And says: ) Said O Shoaib what the expense of much of what you say (([3]).

And idiomatically: It “Science Islamic rulings process syndrome detailed evidence”([4]). Any knowledge of the provisions of halal and haram related branches practical and doctrinal issues. The term “Jurisprudence” بهذا المعنى مرادف للفظ “Legislation”However, “Jurisprudence” Islamic specialist legislation without the other, so that it is significant scientific, unlike absolute “Legislation” Is valid representing all that is added to it, it is said: Hammurabi legislation and legislation Roman… Can not be said about it accordingly.

2- Meaning of Sharia: Sharia in the terminology of Shariah scholars is calling to denote the two concerned: The first year, the second special:

A- General meaning: It is expressed by Imam Ibn Taymiyyah saying: “اسم الشريعة والشرع والشِرعة ينتظم كل ما شرعه الله من العقائد والأعمال”([5]). Or is it “A group of assets, and beliefs, principles, and political and social systems, economic, criminal, prescribed by God to organize the life of the individual and the society on the ground, according to his goal Almighty”([6]).

With- Special meaning: وهو اصطلاح الفقهاء حيث أُطلق لفظ “Sharia” ليدل على الأحكام التكليفية العملية، كوجوب الزكاة وحرمة الخمر وإباحة البيع… فالشريعة إذًا هي الفقه ذاته وفق هذا المعنى.

It should be noted that this is not limited to the use of Sharia scholars alone, but found using according to the special significance when some jurists as well, of what came in the first section of the “Omani Penal Code” Of the words “The first section in the penal law”, Where it reiterates this use and the use of “Omani law” In several places, the whole sense of “Omani law”([7]).

وهذا المعنى الثاني الخاص هو المراد بلفظ الشريعة في هذا المقام. وتجنبا لهذا الاشتراك اللفظي([8]) لعبارة “Sharia” في الدائرة الاصطلاحية الشرعية ذاتها؛ سيتم استعمال لفظ “Jurisprudence” دون عبارة “Sharia”؛ لأن دلالة “Jurisprudence” أوضح وأنأى عن الاشتراك المورِث للإبهام والإشكال.

3- مدلول الجناية والجريمة: الجناية في أصلها اللغوي -كما في مختار الصحاح- “To reap the fruit of the door threw, Ajtnaha of the words: Snap… And reap, reap felony. And fabrication like Altjerm which claim to be a sin not done”([9]). The collateral between Dalalta the “Victimization” And”Altjerm”.

And”Felony” Idiosyncratic sense is all that blocked the street and enjoined him Baquba… And scholars use the word “Felony” To denote “Crime” Whatever kind, in soul and blood, money or symptoms. But he thinks and popularized the use of the word “Felony” What is located on a private self and blood”([10]).

The defined Maori crimes as “Prohibitions legitimacy of God enjoined them up or Tazir”([11]). He knew Jarjaani crime by saying: “هو كل فعل محظور يتضمن ضررا على النفس أو غيرها”([12]).

With the clarity of a difference the two men because of the different angle of view of each of them; where Mawardi consideration has been on the criminal side, while focused Jarjaani the look on the side of the damage resulting from the act of the perpetrator.. In the end, the result is a single, consistent in criminal jurisprudence is that Islamic law set forth the provisions of felonies or crimes, which he considered Islam irregularities on the legitimacy of the Order Mqtervha penalty Xaghra.

4- مدلول الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي: Islamic criminal jurisprudence, or Islamic criminal law or the penal system in Islam, or other synonyms of one sense, includes everything attached to crimes or crimes prohibited by Islamic law, and considered entail sanctions violations.

“Valvgah criminal part of the overall Islamic jurisprudence looking at crimes a statement ثبوتا and conditions, and rules and sanctions - Principles- Governed by whether those limits or crimes retribution or Taazer for”([13]).

وعرّف الأستاذ محمود نجيب حسني الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي بأنه “Study Group, which deals with the Islamic religious organization of the crime as a social phenomenon, determined by the street in order to control. And the Islamic religious organization of the penalty and backed measures as a means to combat community crime كضرر and social risk”([14]).

5- The meaning of the Criminal Code: A criminal law when legal compound نعتي significant Qibya, launches on a particular branch of law, cares crimes without the other, he is “Expression that goes out to a set of rules that govern criminal theory of criminal liability, all played by the identify of the crime and the offender and the penalty (Death and precautionary measure), And the rules that define the vocabulary of the crimes and the penalties prescribed to her, as well as the procedural rules that govern criminal proceedings in terms of the procedures conducted since the moment of the crime until the verdict. This means, that the term includes criminal law legal: Penal and Criminal Procedure”([15]).

He did not see some of the legal justification for the distinction between statements “Criminal Law” And”القانون الجزائي” And”Penal Code” And”Offences Act” And”Punitive law”All of that in one sense; says Dr. Mustafa العوجي, Professor of Criminal Law: “Differed naming law which defines the principles of criminalization and punishment for different countries, and what was it for the San people of the law labels local is not inevitably labels stems from the analysis of a particular substance, but as a result of known and usually does not raise any doubt about this content; for he is known by everyone. We see Tradva between each of the Penal Code and the Penal Code and the Penal Code and the Penal Code and the Penal Code and penal law”([16]).

While others of money to the legal detail AC and Vradf the some of those phrases, and allocated the meaning of others, says Dr. Mahmoud Najib Hosni Professor of Criminal Law: “… ونحن نخلص من ذلك إلى رفض تعبير “القانون الجزائي”، وإقرار صحة تعبيري “Penal Code” And”Criminal Law”، والقول بجواز استعمالهما كمترادفين، وإن ساغ أن يُستعمل الثاني في معنى أشمل”([17]).

ويقول الدكتور محمد عبد الشافي إسماعيل: “The term includes criminal law legal: Penal and Criminal Procedure. We can in a brief statement to say: The Penal Code is “Substantive criminal law”, And the Code of Criminal Procedure, is “Criminal procedural law”([18]).

6- مدلول التقنين ومجاله: لفهم معنى التقنين لابد من تعريف القانون أولا؛ وهو عند علماء القانون “مجموعة القواعد الملزمة التي تحكم سلوك الأفراد في المجتمع”([19]). وهو بعبارة أوسع “مجموعة القواعد العامة والمجردة التي تحكم سلوك الأفراد في المجتمع والمقترنة بجزاء دنيوي والتي تلزمهم السلطة العامة باحترامها ولو بالقوة إذا لزم الأمر”([20]).

أما التقنين فعرّفه الشيخ وهبة الزحيلي بأنه “صياغة أحكام المعاملات وغيرها من عقود ونظريات ممهدة لها، جامعة لإطارها في صورة مواد قانونية، يسهل الرجوع إليها”([21]).

Valtguenin if it is the process of drafting the law in general and abstract rules (Any: Characterized peek and abstraction), And are subject to certain tabs and numbering fixed, and those rules are formulated for the purpose of regulating the conduct of members of the community, so that its provisions requiring people and hold them as a result of violating the punishment they shed…

The field of rationing and enters have him Mr. Mohamed Abdel Gawad Mohamed by clarifying the relationship between the conventions mentioned and linking the process of codification in saying: “Islamic jurisprudence is part of Islamic law. Because the law means whatever is prescribed by God for His slaves. All that is stated in the Quran is the law. Whether in the uniformity and creed, worship, or transactions, or stories. أما الفقه فقاصر على العبادات والمعاملات فقط. والتقنين قاصر فقط على المعاملات، أي على أحد قسمي الفقه. والمعاملات تشتمل على جميع فروع القانون المعروفة، من القانون العام بفروعه، وأهمها: Public international law, and constitutional law, administrative law, financial law, criminal law, law and judiciary. As well as the law on the branches, the most important: Civil law, commercial law, labor law, and private international law. وهذه القوانين وغيرها هي المقصودة بعملية تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، وليست الشريعة الإسلامية بمعناها الواسع، ومضمونها الإجمالي”([22]).

فقد ورد من جملة فروع القانون التي تطالها عملية التقنين: Criminal law, which is what some call the penal law, or penal law, is the subject of rationing, like other areas of the law.

The second requirement: Factors helping to codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence

The fact that the jurisprudence Islamic criminal is an integral part of the pan-Islamic or Islamic law, is the fact that cast a shadow on the feelings of Muslims rulers and ruled alike if they defaulted on the right of this section of the Principles of ignoring completely or even dragging its feet in its application and work to exonerate ذممهم from this obligation no matter how .

Whatever the difficulties faced, it remains to Islamic criminal jurisprudence and auxiliaries reasons hardly miss the eye of the beholder equitable, perhaps the most important of which are the following:

1- Forensic calling: Moving more researchers interested in this issue, both from the law scholars or jurists to recognize the usefulness of the legalization of Islamic jurisprudence in various fields of information, but are they a necessary binding derive their legitimacy from the obligation to apply the law of God in the land, as the rationing has become today a condition inescapable : “ونحن مع تقديرنا لهذه المعطيات والأسباب النظرية إلى حد ما، نجد أن مزايا التقنين تفوق بكثير عيوبه ومساوئه؛ إذ إن تلك المعطيات والأسباب ملحوظة عند صياغة القانون، بل لا يمكن إهمالها، وإنما يجب أن يكون دور صائغي القانون دور المجدد، والذي يصطفي ويختار من أحكام الفقه الإسلامي دليلا واضحا على صلاحية الشريعة الإسلامية للتطبيق في كل زمان ومكان، وهو مطلب إسلامي ملح، نابع من حكم القرآن بإيجاب تطبيق شرع الله ودينه. وللتقنين مزايا وفوائد كثيرة أولها: سهولة الرجوع إلى أحكام القانون. Second: ضبط الأحكام الشرعية وبيان الرأي الراجح. Third: وحدة أحكام القضاة”([23]).

2- الداعي العملي: There is no doubt that the effort codification of Islamic jurisprudence in general, and the direction and care it is a clear indication of the will of its application, and work in the reality of the Muslim community at the official level. The draft regulation is an indispensable part of a project to adopt the official authorities or a state institution, and the work of the courts and jurists. It is not imagine the application of any of the provisions of Islamic Sharia in any door of doors, without drafted in the form of legal or illegal material base; so that it is available should be available in every legal base of the three conditions necessary, a: Abstraction, and the public, and the obligation, which can not be achieved collectively in the Islamic jurisprudence generally accepted in traditional encyclopedias jurisprudence developed by the scholars of the law to the provisions of sub-issues statement in isolation from the rule of law.

أما شرطا التجريد والعموم؛ فمردهما إلى الصياغة، وهما لا يتحققان في الأصول التشريعية إلا نادرا، نظرا لتردد تلك الأصول (النصوص الشرعية) بين الصيغة الخبرية، والصيغة الإنشائية. The second very fit with guidance or self-discipline and education, and not commensurate with the application and download. It is, however, just a matter of formality, you need a special effort by specialists sincerely combine knowledge of legality and legal know-how to accomplish the desired, converting those formulas jurisprudence to legal formulas.

وأما شرط الإلزام، فيتوقف على وجود السلطة التنفيذية الراعية له والقائمة عليه. بحيث لا يجزئ تحقق الشرط الأول -أي تجند من يتكفل بعملية التقنين- In the transmission of those legal formula to the implementation stage, but remain without benefit in unrealized very accomplished.

وسلطة القانون بدورها لا تتحقق إِلاَّ في ظل إرادة الدولة واتجاهها إلى تحويل ذلك الحكم الفقهي من مجرد رأي فقيه مبيِّن لحكم لا سلطة له على الناس، إلى حكم ثابت معمول به، تقف وراءه إرادة الدولة التي أذنت بصياغته القانونية، ثم أجازته ليعمل به رجال القانون والمنفذون، كل في دائرة سلطته؛ التشريعية الابتدائية في مرحلته الأولى، أو القضائية التقريرية في مرحلته الثانية، أو التنفيذية العملية في مرحلته الثالثة والأخيرة.

3- And unity of purpose between the Islamic jurisprudence and positive law: There is no doubt that there is no law or legislation, whatever its source, but is aimed primarily at achieving justice among members of the community who came of that law, but to organize their lives and adjust their behavior state power with make up it or termed their representatives to ensure the stability of their meeting, which is the essence of the responsibility of the governing body . If theoretically goal and one which is the basis of justified the establishment of the State.

The Sharia law also meet in the routing task, was unique to the task heavenly legislation, including the Islamic legislation, what was important ordinances limited to the organization of modern society and to achieve justice without interfering with in Hidayat people or directing them to a specific behavioral objective, but “That positive law while turning finally its origin first became placed to guide the group, but taking the theory of Islamic law, which makes the origin of the legislation that made the group and directed by then organized, and so ended positive law to what started it Shariah preceded him by three centuries, if : إنهم وصلوا لنظرية جديدة، قلنا لهم: كلا، ولكنكم تسلكون طريق الشريعة وتسيرون في إثرها”([24]).

Not concerned here with the debate between legal scholars themselves on different backgrounds sectarian whether to deviate from the task of the organization to the task of steering the ordinances due influenced legal approach to Islamic law and Rcnhm it, or is it purely practical experience and accumulated experience that convinced them the usefulness of the task of routing without invoking the theory . فالحصيلة at one end and a positive law deal with Islamic legislation in this goal that has become common in fact, as well as the goal of the organization and achieve justice.

4- Agreement and Sharia law in the concept of crime: Through the definitions contained in each of the offense of the law and the law clearly shows that “Sharia agree fully agree with the modern man-made laws in the definition of the crime, this crime is defined as the laws either action prohibited by law, and either abstain from work required by law, shall not be considered an act or Turk offense in the eyes of man-made laws only if it is punishable under the criminal legislation”([25]).

It is not fortuitous coincidence that Islamic law consistent with man-made laws in the definition of the crime that are more issues each sensitivity. Indeed, the unit mainly due to the definition of the unity of purpose of them together.

However, the convergence of secular laws with Islamic law in the concept of crime - as in other criminal concepts- Was limited to the procedural aspect of it, unlike the criminal Valbonne the vast and sharply between what you see legal theories of contemporary sanctions restraining capable of when their owners achieving the goal of the law was passed goal of deterring criminals, which checks and exclude permanently corporal punishment, and the criminal penalties Islamic adopted in - Those of corporal punishment, in terms of a protective sanctions rather than criminal, and here at issue and repulsion between them.

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The second topic: Difficulties codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence

Facing attempts to codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence difficulties hampering his career, both in the way of legal who turned towards the encyclopedic works jurisprudence to take a substantive rule of them, armed with with their legal expertise to help them re-wording of Article jurisprudence according to contemporary legal conditions. Or in the way of legal and who turned the other hand, to achieve the same end, a trend towards a situation of legal texts section of the law, and reviewed and reconsidered in light of the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence in the same encyclopedias jurisprudence, which went to the first party. And then were several difficulties in the way of these Aharsae, dulling others who do not discourage them in the process of codification originally.

These difficulties do not go out to different from being a self, due to legal persons in their view of Islamic law and the nature of the composition of scientific… أو موضوعية راجعة إلى العراقيل الواقعية التي تقف في طريق العلماء المقتدرين والمخلصين لهذا العمل -من فقهاء وقانونيين- خلال محاولاتهم في مسعى التقنين.

The first requirement: الصعوبات الذاتية

1- Ignorance of the men Islamic criminal law jurisprudence: Says the late Abdul Qadir Back in the context of justifying his initiative to rework Islamic criminal jurisprudence before other doors other jurisprudence: “The department has begun criminal; because Castaway oppressed section in the law. We Muasher not legal study of the law, but the section on personal status, and otherwise he is careless negligence is almost fully, particularly civil and criminal sections. This has led us to the result of negligence should be met which I do not know the provisions of these sections flagrant ignorance. But we nevertheless recognize that the law amounted to civil matters in the level of at least the level it reached ordinances”([26]).

Although the words of the late Abdul Qadir return it has passed more than half a century, a period where the number of breeding legal who pushed keen self - religious or national- إلى الاطلاع الجيد على أحكام الشريعة الإسلامية بما فيها الأحكام الجنائية، أو الذين جمعوا في دراساتهم بين الشريعة والقانون بعد أن تأسست الكليات الجامعة بين ذينك الاختصاصين..؛ مع كل ذلك فإن جهل القانونيين بالفقه الإسلامي ظل هو الحال الغالب، فأكثر القانونيين حتى اليوم يضعون بينهم وبين دراسة الفقه الإسلامي حاجزا نفسيا سميكا يفصلهم عنه، فيبقون على موقف المقاطعة والمعاداة له، ومن طبائع الأمور أن من جهل الشيء عاداه. And who are not ignorant of the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence them completely, often barely exceed their knowledge of Islamic jurisprudence, the provisions of the border without apparent reality and conditions, objectives and philosophy legislative underpinning, and this is something which contributes to more minerals and embers estrangement between them and him.. Evidence that after more than three decades on the words of the late return of books Professor Mohammed Mustafa Qolaly says: “You do not study the legal rulings in criminal matters to an era not far off a large fortune, and was attention Mnasrva the gel to the provisions of civil and personal status. Researchers did not mean most of jurists to study the provisions of the statutory offenses and penalties in the law glue detailed study, and compared with the case in the modern laws list. This shortage was the case between us and the knowledge of the truth of what our of Sacher glorious heritage”([27]).

2- Look for legal Islamic criminal jurisprudence: It is dominated by patronizing look toward Islamic jurisprudence in general, and the criminal jurisprudence of it in particular; says Dr. Ahmad Husni Ahmad Taha: “I've read a lot in our time of some contemporary writers thought that the application of Islamic law, particularly in the penalty area but it is a promise to the first social ignorance. Is not entitled to his or her own people about seven thousand years to be well. And corporal punishment, especially contrary to humanity, it roars over human dignity, freedom and do not agree with, and that it must be considered that the sanctions as a heritage Pal”([28]). This talk is hardly different from what he had said something in the late Abdul Qadir return before the half-century when he stated that “Criminal division in the men's doctrine of public law is not consistent with our present and is fit for today's application, does not reach the level of man-made laws. -But he added- It is misleading false doctrine. If anyone tried fair to know the basis upon which this doctrine Vsaadzh to find its basically only ignorance, Sidhishh knows that we judge of the criminal division in the law no authority and we do not know all the ignorance of the provisions of the Sharia Criminal overview and detailed”([29]).

Here we see again that those suspicions and suits that were common decades ago still come from a lot of legal aloud not timidly it.. Which means that the cuff preponderant remained to this day in the direction of a legal party of the ignorant to the provisions of the law who continued in their view of the law versus inferiority law, Astalaúhm the Islamic jurisprudence; making just think of the codification of Islamic jurisprudence in general and Criminal him, especially a kind of impossible for them. There is no doubt that this impression is often the men of law, and many of their supporters of secular trends in Islamic societies, has made the task of codifying Islamic Jurisprudence tough difficult, and legalization of criminal jurisprudence him farther and harder.

But nevertheless, this view predominant among the general legal did not prevent some great professors whom to alert them to the error that caught it during their assessment of Islamic law through the prism of ordinances contemporary themselves; where they made the theories of legal status subject for comparison - along with Islamic jurisprudence- The criterion for the evaluation process at the same time. This is Mr. Mahmoud Najib Hosni former head of Cairo University says: “Islamic law does not derive scientific value of comparable contemporary legal systems, so that said: What it agreed with her appearance was made and خالفتها where the default directory, it is unscientific approach assumes that contemporary systems is a measure of progress or backwardness, and is supposed to be the ideal of legal systems, and this is not true. وإنما تُقدَّر قيمة الشريعة الإسلامية بما استندت إليه من منطق، وما تبنته من قيم، وما استهدفت تحقيقه من مصالح. وإن الدراسة الموضوعية لها، واستظهار نتائج تطبيقها -حيث أتيح لها التطبيق- Prove that it has become available with all these positive elements for evaluation”([30]).

3- Apprehension of many Muslim intellectuals from the provisions of the border: These scholars intellectuals who Istouhhun just thinking in the application of the provisions of the border at that time, so that enhances the legal opinion of those opposed to the application of the provisions of the law and political elites that run in passengers. He spoke about those legal scholar Sheikh Mustafa blue since the beginning of the fifties of the last century, he said those: “The emerging team of which originated in the Islamic cultural atmosphere does not allow them to know the facts and extensive capabilities in the legal system of Sharia, they see no possibility of the application of Islamic law in the present era; time because there are problems hinder this application does not accommodate the law to be resolved in their eyes”([31]).

Then he mentioned Sheikh blue four basic problems considered that stands behind the position of these, inter alia, the marginal penalties.

The second requirement: Objective difficulties:

1- Difficult to legalize same Islamic jurisprudence: And because of the difficulty of the ancient jurisprudence books and encyclopedias in which these sub-owners approach difficult, complicated, does not fit with the present generations accustomed ease and clarity of phrase in the curriculum Display Classifieds provisions are sorted arrangement consistent and clear-cut; while “Ancient books of fiqh Felict indexed, and not easy to see the likes of a particular issue to find a verdict in the case, but he has to read the Pope and the doors until it finds what he wants, especially if you do not have to guide him. وقد ييأس الباحث من العثور على ما يريد ثم يوفقه الله فيعثر عليه مصادفة في مكان لم يكن يتوقع أن يجده فيه”([32]). Even after the rating jurists contemporary of many encyclopedias university and the comparison between the schools of Islamic jurisprudence prevailing in the Muslim world - where facilitate today more burden rationing Alyruah -; it nevertheless remains difficult work arduous, even when it takes an effort officially that calls for him and take care Bmassarifa exorbitant rulers themselves, Vijvvon .

2- صعوبة تطوير القانون: In exchange for style rationing Islamic jurisprudence through refer directly to the works jurisprudential traded, there is a pattern of rationing through back some legal rules legal position itself in the light of the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence; so that it is a branch of the law and my specific - such as law constitutional, commercial or criminal… – Subject for consideration and review in order to re-drafted, and Islamic jurisprudence is the norm for such a review and re-drafting, while true to Islamize called positive law, or inherently seek the face of the compatibility between the rules and provisions of Islamic jurisprudence.

But this process, in turn, is not without difficulties and considerable caveats, of not less than codify Islamic jurisprudence difficulties according to the first type. The main reason for this is that the legal thought he had taken the shortest route and left the codification process by inflicting changes to drafting legal while keeping their assets intact, and if it finds itself in the face of the maze of law scholars, and different reasoning in the same question, Vertbek his mind and goes determination and dominated by despair . Says Dr. Mohamed Abdel Shafi Ismail, a professor of criminal law in the context of talking about the difficulties faced by to discuss the development of criminal law in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia to them: “Lack of writings on this subject as far as I know, and how purports researcher writings on this subject, and writing it is only a reflection of the thought of the writer? - Develop specific text in accordance with the provisions of the law, and was the subject of text Ajthadia, provided you ten texts each of them يغاير other different or partial”([33]). This talk is a new release in the third millennium AD inaugurated a few years ago only.

It is clear that this type of regulation stems from the belief among many law scholars and legal scholars alike, that the difference between the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence and positive law is an exception, and that the origin of consensus and convergence between them, and then what the world of law - even if it is an individual- However, attention during the process of the survey conducted by the law to put his hand on dispute those positions, extensive modifications about them to become whole Islamic law([34]).

This belief does not deliver to the owners of the foundation, the rationing process is not that simple; does not fit as the starting of positive law is ready and make it the subject of rationing, and can not be doing this great work of one man. It also delve into the study of Islamic jurisprudence - whether codified or to make it a standard in my law review Ready- Requires considerable effort and time consuming.. So as well as the that the Criminal rationing Jurisprudence precisely - and crimes of the border of them especially- Do not conform to this description under any circumstances, except in Department Altaazer - somewhat- Considering that discretionary provisions.

3- Different legal systems in the Arab countries: This is mainly due to the historical factor that tore the Islamic world to countries subject to European countries, one of the colony, which has spared no effort in each of which transfer to the Muslim law to be in effect for each of the binding is under Tailth as a symbol of sovereignty. Vtaddt this situation multiple legal sources owners. Even after the defeat of colonialism after World War II by Avant youth colonizer and weakened his grip, the local elites that have moved to the supervisory authorities of the secular Tina West which أشربت laws and regulations in life apart from religious influence and gift and guidance. Says Dr. Mohamed Abdel Gawad Mohamed in the context of talking about the efforts of the Arab League in an effort rationing as one of the main entrances to the rapprochement between the countries to unite in the future: “The workflow in general, and especially rationing, the Arab League is slow, but more slowly. Because of the different legal systems, and even oppose, in the Arab countries. It is hoped the Cooperation Council for the Arab Gulf States, to perform while performing various acts of legalizing transactions in Islamic jurisprudence, in the various branches of law, and actually apply it, to be a model and transmitted by other Muslim countries that want it”([35]).

The man feels so frustrated by the slow pace of the process of codification, to the extent that the same hands of the Arab League, and remained hanging his hopes on the Gulf Cooperation Council alone.

* * *
The third topic: Efforts to codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence and its prospects

The first requirement: Practical efforts to codify Islamic criminal jurisprudence

There were many attempts to codify Islamic jurisprudence generally in Arab and Muslim countries are many, especially from the civil law; Unlike criminal jurisprudence, they have been few efforts to legalize it and slow, and often limited to non-border, which is the most sensitive section between sections of Islamic jurisprudence.

ومن ثَمَّ فقد تراوحت تلك المساعي بين شمول بعضها للمقدَّرة منها والتعازير، واقتصار بعضها الآخر -وهو الأغلب- على التعازير دون الحدود والقصاص.

ومن أهم تلك المحاولات ما يلي:

1- مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية: هناك إجماع بين أهل الاختصاص -من فقهاء الشريعة ورجال القانون على حد سواء- That “مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية” Is the first serious official rationing process emerged in the Muslim world, and enjoyed the practical application after the approval of its political authorities; says Dr. Mohamed Farouk Al Nabhan: “The importance of the emergence of this encyclopedia (مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية) In the late Ottoman era - such as civil law derived from Islamic jurisprudence- That this is the first event of the events organizer rationing jurisprudence, carried out by a scientific committee charged by an official. Then issued the will of the adoption of this bowl rationing as a law practice in civil courts”([36]).

They included “مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية” The general rules in the form of legal materials numbered 1851 article, was approved in the twenty-sixth of the month of Shaaban Year 1293 AH corresponding to the year 1876, which is related to different aspects of Islamic jurisprudence and doors, including those related crimes such as irregularity and destruction and coercion…

ومن موادها ذات الصلة بمجال الجرائم والعقوبات:

– Material “Main Disclaimers”.

– Material “A virtue of necessity”.

– Material “إذا زال المانع عاد الممنوع”.

– Material “Damage is still in kind”.

– Material “Having not invalidate the right of others”.

– Material “'s Not singled out governance”.

– Material “Be added to the actor does not act commanding unless forced”.

– Material “If you met the direct and causative sentence is added to direct”.

– Material “Direct underwriter though not deliberately”.

– Material “Causing does not guarantee only بالتعمد the the”.

– Material “The evidence on the plaintiff and to the right of the denied”.

– Material “Felony Ajme a mighty”.

– Material “A bit rushed prematurely punished by depriving”.

– Material “The disposal of the flock entrusted Imam interest”([37]).

It is noticeable from these materials and other materials contained in the legal “مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية” They learned the rules of jurisprudence known in Islamic law, and even some taken them Babartha the.

2- Kuwaiti version of the Penal Code of 1960 m: Stated in the introduction to the Kuwaiti Penal Code of 1960, said the legislator: “All the crimes mentioned in this law but is cruel ta'zeer, devoted guardian where the judiciary in terms of the subject, it is obligatory to be judged in these crimes without the other. And that the judge appointed sanctions has its limits not beyond. But it may come down on them to the extent that he sees, beholding to the circumstances of each case and the surrounding of the personal circumstances of the offender. وليس في كل ذلك إلا مسايرة للمبادئ المقررة في باب التعزير كما دوّنها فقهاء الشريعة”([38]).

وجاء عن اللجنة الاستشارية العليا للعمل على استكمال تطبيق أحكام الشريعة الإسلامية ما يلي: “About what the Law of Criminal Procedure of special importance, Bhspana law which regulates the activity that she exercises the public authorities in the country about what is of crimes to ensure that the true rule of law which, in terms of the setting, the investigation, trial, and execution of sentences issued by the.

وقد قامت اللجنة الفنية المختصة بمراجعة نصوص القانون رقم 17 For the year 1960 بإصدار قانون الإجراءات والمحاكمات الجزائية القائم البالغ عددها (304) Material, and concluded that the preparation of an integrated project agree what has been introduced from crimes in the draft Penal Code crimes border and retribution, and addresses the shortcomings revealed by the practical application of the existing law during the last forty years on its application, as well as cope legal theories in modern theme that does not contradict with .

وقد وقع المشروع في 306 Material dealt with all the substantive and procedural provisions from the control and habeas corpus, through inspection, investigation and trial, and the end of the implementation of the provisions and erase the effects that it. The project also includes the procedural rules for the implementation of the provisions of the boundaries that have been developed in the penalty bill ([39]).

3- Issuance of Islamic criminal law in Libya: Libya passed a law No. 148 1972 established a limit of theft and banditry, later amended by Law No. 8 Year 1995. The law also established a number 70 For the year 1973 end of adultery. And Law No. 52 For the year 1974, the campus alcohol, resided end abuse. These laws are established corporal punishment, while we do not find her impact on all contemporary laws, but singled out the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen, Qatar and Bahrain, where he still flogging list”([40]).

According to the explanatory memorandum of this law (Law alone, theft and banditry) What follows: “I have to like some of the skeptics and doubters to describe the death cutting (Any in myself theft and banditry) That it does not agree with the civil and progress, يرمونها the violence and cruelty. They are focused on considering the severity of the punishment, and forget the horror of the crime and its effects on society serious; they Atpacon at the hands of a thief and liar, cut, nor Tholhm crime of theft and serious complications. Km from crimes committed for the sake of stealing, how many crimes of assault on people and causing impairments grave and signed the innocent due to theft, how much money was raped and wealth looted and people displaced by the robbery of their money and their source of livelihood, all this does not occur to المشفقين on a few hands cut off in order to ”([41]).

4- Federal Penal Code in the United Arab Emirates: “Was the formation of a higher committee for legislation, which emerged sub-committees, tasked respective full-time responsibility for the preparation of a special law, and it was among these Committees criminal laws. Has been prepared by this Committee project to the Federal Penal Code is based on its architecture and the Mayor of the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, but suffered this project a lot of adjustments to be released in its current form in 1987, was confined to the provisions of the border and retribution and blood money for a single substance, left its details to the discretion of judges in the light of ”([42]).

وقد صدر قانون العقوبات الاتحادي في 8 ديسمبر سنة 1987م، وعُمل به بعد ثلاثة أشهر من تاريخ نشره في الجريدة الرسمية. وقد حرص في المادة الأولى من قانون إصداره على أن يعمل القانون المرفق في شأن الجرائم والعقوبات، ويُلغي كل نص مخالف أحكامه([43]).

وقد نصت المادة الخامسة (5) من مشروع قانون العقوبات الإماراتي على ما يلي: “Applies regarding the crimes of the border and retribution and blood money reportedly on them from the provisions of this Act, if there is no text dish famous in the view of Imam Malik, If there is no provision in the famous applied the provisions of the doors the first to tenth of this law, so as not inconsistent with the provisions relating to .

Commenting on the text of the article says Sheikh Wahba Zoheily: “Based upon the review of the provisions of its articles is Islamic law building, formality regulation in accordance with the laws of modern; because the penalties provided for either the limits are derived from religious texts, and either Tazirat or penalties authorized, delegated to consider the appreciation to the governor, has estimated the ruling these estimates, became what ”([44]).

5- Attempts to develop Egyptian criminal law in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia: Says Dr Ismail Mohamed Abdel-Shafi: “Egypt has taken a decisive plan in order to return to our legal heritage, which is Islamic law, stipulates Article II of the Constitution of the Permanent Arab Republic of Egypt for the year 1971, and amended in accordance with the result of the referendum, which took place on 22 مايو 1980م على أن “الإسلام دين الدولة، واللغة العربية لغتها الرسمية، ومبادئ الشريعة الإسلامية المصدر الرئيس للتشريع”. وإنفاذا لهذا التوجيه الدستوري، شكل مجلس الشعب -في ديسمبر سنة 1978م- A committee of council members and specialists in the law to legalize its provisions, the Committee has completed its tasks; work, however, has not yet seen the light, and hopefully be allowed to do so in the near future, God willing.

Dr Ismail Matouk God's mercy has submitted a project to amend the Egyptian penal code in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law, but the project fell introduction death according to the Rules of Procedure of Parliament. The Minister of Justice Counselor Adel Younes God's mercy has issued a decision to form a committee to amend the laws to fit with the Egyptian Islamic Sharia, in particular, the legal penalties and criminal proceedings.

On 01/07/1976 Tantawi issued at the time, Sheikh Abdul Halim Mahmoud Resolution No. 3 For the year 1976, the formation of a supreme committee to review the situation and amendment of legislation in accordance with the provisions of Islamic Sharia. The Commission has prepared a draft law the legitimate boundaries and presented to the Commission on the People's Assembly's proposals, but the council has not yet seen any of these projects”([45]).

6- Sudanese Penal Code: Came in the explanatory memorandum attached to the text of the Sudanese Penal Code of 1991 in reference to the assets which derived the following criminal law: “Adopted the project of Islamic law as a source of the President of the legislation so that it adopted its provisions on assets and general principles, including the provisions of the border and retribution and blood money, and took the project in terms of felonies and sanctions painstakingly takes into account the assets Shara The doctrines jurisprudence, and an estimated current developments and fits the circumstances of the country.

The term is also used to connect doctrinal law jurisprudence and Arab heritage as much as fits the modern term and ongoing in Sudan”([46]).

Came the Sudanese Penal Code of 1991 to cancel the Sudanese Penal Code of 1983, as stated in the مفتتحه following:

1- This law is called “Criminal Law for the year 1991 and shall come into force after one month from the date of its publication in the Official Gazette.

2- Repealed the Penal Code for the year 1983”([47]).

7- Arab draft criminal law: I “Justice ministers decided to Arabs in their second conference about himself later to the Council (1981) Mandate of the Commission([48]) To draft a unified criminal law according to Sharia, taking into account the circumstances of each Arab society in Qatar. وقد أتمت اللجنة أعمالها على مراحل فوضعت تحديدا للجرائم في المادة الأولى من المشروع مفاده “Criminal law defines the unified Arab acts prepared by the crimes because of what caused prejudice to the principles of Islamic law, and the security and safety of the community, and requires the imposition of sanctions or preventive measures on the perpetrators”. And Article XV (15) Sanctions as a reduction in parental and retribution: Parental executions and stoning and cutting and retribution, including without restraint and skin. The article identified the eighteenth (18) Originally criminal penalties death penalty and life imprisonment and imprisonment of five temporary (5) To twenty (20) Years, and house arrest and deprivation of civil rights. As defined in Article XIX (19) Him Originally sanctions in misdemeanor: الحبس من شهر إلى خمس سنوات والجلد والغرامة. That this law applies to all there is in the territory of one of the Arab countries and foreign nationals and stateless persons, taking into account the exceptions prescribed in the law, domestic or international (Article XI (11) من المشروع).

Since the year 1983, the project was presented to the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice in each of its sessions for approval, but the council was decided each time returned to the committee that put him to look at the notes, reservations, and requests for cancellation of some materials that were received from the Arab States; This is what . It seems to us that some Arab countries express reservations about some of what came in the project, particularly with attached penalties constitution, and to identify actions that criminalized; while did not want to criminalize them in the penal laws in force, as these countries Excellence in legislation penal between the concepts of legitimacy to the behavior of deviant ”([49]).

This did not prevent the marked slowdown and lag in permanent sent the upcoming Arab law of many men, especially law and others interested in Arab affairs in general to comment on this project high hopes, but remained with all that ink on paper.

The second requirement: The prospects for legalization of criminal jurisprudence and supplies success

With what marred the aforementioned processes rationing of obstacles and difficulties نغصت the effort rationing Fbtot his career or narrowed his constituency in some of those attempts, and vacationing completely paralyzed movement in some other attempts.. Nevertheless, these efforts are not without precedent interest and experience, it is worth investing in the future to enrich the efforts of rationing next. Perhaps the most important of those benefits and significant conclusions in the following:

1- The rationing منطلقها process works jurisprudential: May come to the minds of many that any field of Islamic law - and from criminal- For any Muslim country adopted is nothing more than a legally ضعيا in substance and drafted, يطوع somehow in line with the provisions of Islamic Sharia. The reason for this impression is simply a historical precedence for the situation in drafting laws traded today, which may be wrong impression that void and accelerate his companions in appreciation for the effort required in rationing([50]). وإنما الصواب هو أن اكتمال أي فرع من فروع القانون الإسلامي لا يتسنى له أن يتم ويكتمل إلى درجة النضج إلا داخل رحم الفقه الإسلامي، ولا يمكن له أن يخرج سليما معافى إلا من رحم المصنفات الفقهية ذاتها، بحيث تُدرس دراسة رصينة متأنية من قبل رجال يجمعون بين الكفاءة والإخلاص من خيرة علماء الفقه والقانون، يجعلون منطلقهم الأول هو كتب الفقه ولكن بطريقة القانون، وإلا يكون مجرد عمل متعجل لا يحقق غرضه وتلفظه الشريعة ذاتها قبل الواقع.

Says Prof. Abdul Razzaq Sanhoori: “… This limit is reached by the new rationing taking the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, except other issues that take particular of Islamic jurisprudence… The make Islamic Sharia is the first foundation that is built upon our civil legislation, there are still security of my dearest wishes تختلج by the breasts, and involved in الجوانح of. But before this security becomes a reality, you should strong scientific renaissance to study Islamic law in the light of comparative law. We hope to be behind the making of Islamic jurisprudence official source of the new law shall be assisted to do this renaissance”([51]).

It is no secret that Mr. Sanhoori words moving at that time sought to formulate an Islamic civil law from Asthoudarhm modern legal theories, a work easier than other sections of Principles of the other, let alone if it comes to codifying the criminal jurisprudence - more doors of Islamic jurisprudence sensitivity- By starting from a certain law and my!

2- The rationing سندها process jurisprudence: الناظر في حركة التقنين منذ ظهور مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية وإلى اليوم لا يفوته أن يلاحظ أن القوانين الإسلامية العصرية لم تستفد من القوانين الغربية التي غزت بلدان العالم الإسلامي وحكمتها لعقود طويلة، لا في مادتها التي جاءت أساسا لنقضها واستبدالها، ولا في طريقة صياغتها؛ بل إن مادتها مأخوذة من المصنفات الفقهية، أما صياغتها فيعود الفضل فيها إلى القواعد الفقهية التي ظهرت كتبها إلى الوجود قبل عصر التنوير الذي عرفته أوربا بفترة طويلة… يقول الشيخ مصطفى الزرقاء في سياق حديثه عن التطور التاريخي للقواعد الفقهية بعد ابن نجيم ومحمد أبو سعيد الخادمي: “… Then came the magazine judicial carry provisions in the chest a large group of these rules, the selection of the most important collected'm Najim Alkhadami, plus some other rules, amounted to ninety-nine in the base 99 Material (Article 2 Even Article 100) Initiated by the provisions of the magazine after the first article, which included the definition of doctrine and division مباحثه”([52]).

He has a contemporary researchers interested in the subject of rationing([53]) Study tracing the link between the material some Islamic laws, especially the ones Journal provisions of Justice and Sudanese law, and the rules of jurisprudence known, especially the ones rules Imam Suyuti in the ilk, and concluded funny summarized some of the shortcut and act, with Aqtsarna where the field of jurisprudence criminal as round :

First: Compared jurisprudence Sudanese Penal Law for the year 1983:

Mention Suyooti in book “Nazaa'im” Forty-Qaeda, which is: “If you met the direct cause or vanity, the direct”([54]), Said of its subsidiaries:

1- لو أكل المالك طعامه المغصوب جاهلا به، فلا ضمان على الغاصب في الأظهر.

2- لو أكل المالك طعامه المغصوب جاهلا به، فلا ضمان على الغاصب ويبرأ.

3- ولو حفر بئرا فأرداه فيها آخر، فالقصاص على المردي.

4- لو أمسكه فقتله آخر، فالقصاص على القاتل.

5- أو ألقاه من شاهق فتلقاه آخر فقدّه، فالقصاص على القاد.

Then excluded Suyooti images of al-Qaeda warned them, including:

1- إذا غصب شاة وأمر قصابا بذبحها، وهو جاهل بالحال، فالضمان على الغاصب قطعا.

2- And: If hired to carry food فسلمه plus, lessor's campaign ignorant, فتلفت the animal within the tenant rather.

3- And: If the people of the fatwa is following the destruction and then found his mistake, فالضمان on Mufti.

4- And: قتل الجلاد بأمر الإمام ظلما وهو جاهل، فالضمان على الإمام.

5- And: وقف ضيعة على قوم، فصرفت غلتها إليهم، فخرجت مستحقة ضمن الواقف لتغريره.

أ- قانون العقوبات السوداني لسنة 1983م:

1- المادة الثامنة والسبعون (78) Acts committed by several people to achieve a common purpose, including. If Subscribe several people actually criminal investigation for a common purpose all of them, each of whom was responsible for that act as if he had committed alone([55]).

2- Eighty Article (80) Contribution of committing an act of multi be a crime.

If you have committed a crime is made up of multiple acts, each of intentionally contribute to the commission of that crime in any of those acts, either individually or jointly with any other person shall be guilty of that crime([56]).

We notice is to a large extent congruence between what was written Suyuti and contained in articles of the Penal Code, the matter is due to the same rule. We also note that express Suyooti in direct provide more accurate with it is not required to understand it denied responsibility for causing indirect, but may understand that his punishment be less than who proceeded to work himself.

Secondly: Compared jurisprudence Sudanese Criminal Procedure Law for the year 1983:

A- Mentioned in the second book of semi-Suyuti fifth base (5): The disposal of the flock entrusted Imam interest. And its subsidiaries: It does not have free pardon for retribution; interest because otherwise, but if he sees an interest in retribution reprise, or blood money taken([57]).

With- As stated in the Sudanese Criminal Procedure Code, in Article (211): Authority to replace the death penalty again: The president may be replaced without the satisfaction sentenced to the death penalty to any other penalty permitted by law, or replaces jail time unless the death penalty is incompatible with the provisions of Islamic Sharia”([58]). We note congruence in a general sense with the difference in pronunciation.

Thirdly: Compared jurisprudence Sudanese criminal law of 1991:

Note when comparing criminal law of 1991 there is no conflict or disagreement for the examples contained in the earlier texts, while acknowledging the possibility of the existence of differences in the tab and punctuation and the tendency of the Criminal Code of 1991 for the shortcut, taking into account that both laws; Penal Code of 1983 and the Criminal Code of 1991 document ([59]).

3- Refer to all schools of Islamic jurisprudence, without exception: Valaqtsar jurisprudential doctrine and one is narrow does not support him and proceeded and reality; Fbmntq of Shara is all diligence and there is no particular doctrine has the right to monopolize or claim diligence right in it, and the logic of the mind and reality: Would inventory rationing in a particular doctrine that narrows legal scholars and those who process and prevents them from rationing elicit what they see as the most appropriate and low to bring widening the circle of interest penalties.. Says Prof. Abdul Razzaq Sanhoori: “In our opinion, where should refer to Islamic jurisprudence in his books adopted, whether this is the official source of jurisprudence from which derives its provisions or the source is historic interpreted in the light of legislative texts, must take into account are essential:

The first command: Is the lack of adherence to the doctrine of certain doctrines of Islamic jurisprudence, all the doctrines of jurisprudence may refer to them and taking them. No place to stand when the most likely words from the view of Abu Hanifa, but not to adhere to the Hanafi doctrine in its entirety. Let us go further, and say that it does not unduly restrict the doctrines of the four well-known, there are doctrines of other madhhabs of the Zaidi doctrine and Imami, can be utilized to a large extent.

The second thing: Is to take into account the introduction of the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence coordination between these provisions and the general principles underlying the civil legislation in its entirety. May not be taken by virtue of Islamic jurisprudence contrary to the principle of these principles, so as not to lose the codification of civil homogeneity and compatibility([60]).

Sheikh Mustafa says blue: “According to some thinkers of modern scientists that group doctrines discretionary must be regarded as a doctrine and a large one in the canon, and all the doctrine of individual ones Kalmzhb Hanafi, Maliki and Shafi'i and Hanbali and the other is in these doctrines general, Kalara and sayings different in doctrine singles one, are likely the nation's scientists and choose which of the rationing in ”([61]).

4- Refute the suspicion in the law of retribution, revenge: A suit made by some Orientalists soon circulated about them other scholars of the situation and some laws of Muslim children who received their studies at Western universities or universities in the country with Islamic secular curriculum. وقد رد عليهم الإمام محمد أبو زهرة في قوله: “تهجم بعض الكتاب على شريعة القصاص التي هي لب العقاب في الفقه الإسلامي بالنسبة للجرائم التي يكون فيها حق الأشخاص غالبا على حق المجتمع، فقالوا: This trend in the selection of revenge as a basis for punishment, and this of barbarism First, urbanization is not consistent with a paper and self thought, and considering punishment subtle and a fix for the same offender; we say: The distinction between revenge and retribution from two angles:

Face first: That revenge does not comply with when the Avenger equality between what he did to the offender, and the punishment of its downtrend. And revenge may turn to non-criminal punishment, as it was being in ignorance, as is happening now in the villages of Upper Egypt to the prevalence of revenge. As retribution, it tends to equality between crime and punishment equal minutes, if not equal, as in some wounds, it adjusts for retribution other to the death, and thus inseparable not يتلاقيان.

Second face: That revenge was located from the Kings on their subjects if forced their obedience stick, or kill one of the princes, the revenge was aiming to offenders, or those suspected of innocent ordered shall be taken unjustly sick.

As retribution, it would be by judge, which applies to the sponsor and the parish, it truncates the greatest ruler if it occurred requires retribution”([62]).

He says Dr. Mustafa العوجي, Professor of Criminal Law under the title “Mitigate the tendency for revenge determine individual reaction”: “Characterized by the provisions of Islamic law on crime bent towards mitigating the reaction to the crime, and mitigate the habits that were prevalent in those communities, including the need to take revenge on the aggressor and by any means whatsoever, even if it leads to murder. Provisions of retribution came to impose the death perfectly parallel to the harm caused to the victim it mildly thus tit-for-tat reaction which was sweeping the latter. And then the Quranic provisions included a call for continuing to forgiveness, making expiation amnesty for those who exempt for the damage suffered or committed a crime”([63]).

5- Infused Islamic culture community acceptor with its punitive: And working to instill the Islamic culture in the minds and hearts of individuals Muslim community بتنشئتهم the Islamic upbringing since childhood, and the use of the means of educational and public education, and educational curricula, media outlets and other. Prior to the announcement of the application of the border actually Atqubloha a conviction, and to work for their support and empowerment, as a religious duty, and as a real social benefit, not just a political decision on me by the parties access Mstalih on society.

In cases in which negated the requirement to know the community, which is the subject of the application of the provisions of the border by the fact that the provisions and objectives, work out the very serious dangers may turn on the progress of work by the invalidity and the society itself which aversion. He arrived apprehension of this forbidden one contemporary Islamic thinkers to appeal to those who made it to disable([64]).

6-Restrictions in the application of the border not to seek the culprit: The Prophet, peace be upon him had sought to conceal who commits a crime punishable by marginal, as evidenced by an incident goat in Khobar known, says Imam Muhammad Abu Zahra: “The Prophet e: «Aderúa suspicions, the border was a director فخلوا him, the Imam to err in pardon is better than to err in punishment». E said: «O people who committed any of these dirt Fasttr is the in Lester God, and yet we have built it showed reduction».

Although these modern demonstrate two things:

One: To pay to reduce all suspicion goes certainty in the positive command to reduce.

The second: That the crime if committed in non-declaration must continue to be covered, and Mnekhvha. In opening the door to a reduction in occult crimes, and to explore methods of proof, and announcing more damage than in establishing the limit in itself; since it is forbidden spy, saying the Almighty: ﴿… وَلاَ تَجَسَّسُوا﴾([65]), And saying e: «Do not spy and be servants of Allah brothers».

Although this undoubtedly narrowing of the punishment, and make it a viable symbol, rather than a year trip, and by the faithful that there will be severed hand of every year, to be that keep زاجرا, makes all awaiting the thief like what was revealed otherwise, so refrain from theft. According to the employers' desires to have their hands held for adultery extent, witnessed by a range of believers, even turn to marriage, and flee from the shame punishment to the security of innocence and the straight path”([66]).

7- Establish a system realized the principles of Islamic political and social: Of the terms of the success of the introduction of the Islamic Penal in the Muslim community is to establish a system of political and social realized the Islamic principles of justice and Shura and equality, so that those provisions are safe from the ill-employment and disregard for others or manipulate their application, and to be Muslim individual reassuring to achieve justice, safe . Unlike whether society laced appearances of favoritism and nepotism, where bribes are common manifestations of corruption and political, social, and spread septic foci and moral decay… The suspension of the provisions of the border and disable them first and assure enforcement and clinging to forms and manifestations, with the essence and missed goals. إذ في هذه الحالة كثيرا ما تُرتكب باسم أحكام الدين مظالم وخطايا تتجاوز في خطورتها الأخطاء التي يُعاقب الجناة لأجلها. It emphasize these principles today the principle of separation of powers, which provides for the judiciary independence of its decision in the sentencing, not turn into an instrument in the hands of the executive branch to liquidate liabilities on behalf of Islamic law, or abuse parish to intimidate and subject penalties constitution that turn into a tool of tyrants to tyranny society, no way .

يقول الدكتور الحسيني سليمان جاد: “Origin of corporal punishment in Islamic jurisprudence that it has made to implement when the state system based on the principles of Islam, and the life of the civilian people, socially and politically - a fortiori- On the situation of the foundations of Islam and platforms, and the illness in that holistic approach to Islam does not accept retail. For example, flogging or stoning or amputation of the sanctions, which almost of Islam on behalf of some ignorant, treacherous or hired, these sanctions close relationship with the social rules of Islam… In the sense that no place to stay fairly stoning or flogging a man or a woman in a society that laws do not prohibit nudity and sex novels Almrdhulh everywhere… Here, if the sentence was carried out the execution order goes against the wisdom of Shara; punishment because originally it a legitimate defense for the community, not to replace its legitimacy only in the Muslim community integrated in everything until you find a shop her punishment”([67]).

And the ultimate say: The penal system is another system is applied in Islam, it is not that start, but will be finished with him, do not get him, but at the end of the process of applying the provisions of other systems of social and political Islam. In case you find that the march in any phase of it, which in turn must be scalable, the phase of the application of Islamic criminal law certainly will be delayed, to be realized exactly conditions and social situation becomes appropriate to carry provisions, and in particular the provisions of which the border. Even other corporal punishment should not be relied upon only after preparing her Islamic society in all respects. وكما أن خطأ الإمام في العفو خير من خطئه في العقوبة، فإن خطأه في تأخير تطبيق الحدود خير من خطئه باستعجال العمل بها.

Third requirement: من مقتضيات القانون الجنائي في القضاء:

With the task of the justice sector is to apply the law in the courts and adjudicating disputes practice, which means that the task of the judge is limited to labor law after its drafting, nor is it in the process of codification itself, but it has a law ready and diligent in its implementation; However, the mission solemn Destiny . And so is the owner of real power in the report of the provisions of law which invests. Thus it was necessary to follow up the march of law with the judge after the stage rationing, providing what should be supplied from the success of the mission requirements of the judge, in order to culminate in a march to the success of law where the last stage, and do not bounce their wake or fail - even though the terms of the success achieved in the previous stages- Because of a lack of judicial conduct, or failure to take the causes and conditions of employment in an era in which the complicated criminal cases, and the owner of the mystery that can not be deciphered when clinging to certain provisions inherited or traditional means, which surpassed forms of crime in this day and age.

ومن أهم تلك المقتضيات التي تمس إليها الحاجة لضمان نجاح القانون الجنائي بين يدي القاضي ما يلي:

1- توسع القضاء في العمل بقاعدة درء الحدود بالشبهات: فدرء الحدود بالشبهات قاعدة ثابتة في مجال القضاء، ولا خلاف فيها لقوله e: «ادرؤوا الحدود بالشبهات»([68]). This rule has taken root in the minds of Muslims and the reality of the judicial practices since the time of the Holy Prophet and the Caliphs and the finest judges of Muslims across history. They are issues that are not fixed deterministic field to deny.

The talk was full of books and the functioning of the Caliphs and judges talented evidences hardly fall under the limit in the work to confirm this important rule; which reported the judge as saying in Abu Yousef: “If four of the witnesses saw a man of adultery and Ouktwa time obsolete, and did not prevent them from performing their distance from the Imam certificate; did not accept their testimony and limit him fend off the. وكذا إن شهدوا على رجل بسرقة تساوي عشرة دراهم أو أكثر ووقتوا وقتا متقادما دُرئ عنه الحد في ذلك أيضا، ولكن يضمن السرقة”([69]).

ومما ورد عن الإمام علي -كرم الله وجهه- “أنه أُتي برجل قد نقب وأُخذ على ذلك الحال، فلم يقطعه. Said (Abu Yousef): وحدثنا عاصم عن الشعبي قال: ليس عليه قطع حتى يخرج بالمتاع من البيت”([70]).

وجاء في الأشباه والنظائر قاعدة “الحدود تُدرَأ بالشبهات” من الفقه الحنفي ما نصه: “ومن الشبهة: وطء امرأة اختُلف في صحة نكاحها. And: شرب الخمر للتداوي وإن كان المعتمد تحريمه،.. Do not cut stealing money and Ola origin, and its branch, although wn, and a couple, and master and servant, and the house is not authorized by entering in what was originally permitted”([71]).

And ward off the border to those suspicions requires the judge to see objects that separates the facts and the like of the peculiarities, to allow him to detect any suspicion on emergency actions assigned to them, depending on what he can fend off the border from them in those facts.

It must be a defendant appearing before a judge in complete safety is not something scared him, is not permissible under any circumstances use any means of coercion, such as beatings, threats or insults. Abu Yusuf said: “It is thought by him or just steal or otherwise, should not be and should be punished with beatings and threats of intimidation, it is passed up or stealing or murder of which he did do, something that is not approved, it is not permissible piece does not take as acknowledged by the”([72]).

2- Use of Emirates and physiognomy in the judiciary: In many cases non-existent witnesses, nor acknowledge the defendant, the plaintiff could not evoke any proof of evidence, and the right is about to be lost only if the construction of the separation to the right of the defendant. And here comes the role of judge experience and skill in the use of methods of investigation and physiognomy and Emirates([73])والحيل، لكشف الحقائق الخفية وحماية حقوق الناس بتمكينهم من استرجاعها بواسطة تلك الطرق التي هي طرق شرعية، يجوز اعتمادُها في ممارسة القضاء سياسة لا نصا. يقول الإمام ابن القيم: “The ruling, if not Fakih self in the UAE and signs of the case and find corroborating reports, and evidence of current and essay, Kvqha in molecules and colleges provisions; missed many rights to their owners, and the rule of including people know nullity, not complaining, depending him on the type of phenomenon did not pay attention to the inwardly and evidence ”([74]).

The cited Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in his ways wisdom many stories about celebrity judges such as Muslims: Shurayh judge, and the judge Abu Hazem, Judge menopausal bin Muawiya; proved the feasibility of the use of Emirates, tricks and insight in the resolution of disputes and return rights to their owners without justice or adoption certificate.

He praised Imam Ibn al-Qayyim rulers who strive to return the rights to their owners using physiognomy and Emirates saying: “ولم يزل حذّاق الحكام والولاة يستخرجون الحقوق بالفراسة والأمارات، فإذا ظهرت لم يقدّموا عليها شهادة تخالفها ولا إقرارا. وصرّح الفقهاء بأن الحاكم إذا ارتاب بالشهود فرّقهم، وسألهم: كيف تحمّلوا الشهادة؟ وأين تحمّلوها؟ وذلك واجب عليه متى عدل عنه أثم وجار في الحكم. وكذلك إذا ارتاب بالدعوى سأل المدعي عن سبب الحق، وأين كان؟ ونظر في الحال: Is health requires it? . Say governor or so and took care of him and became the queen and only knew of the righteous rescinds, and brought the rights to their owners”([75]).

The scholars differed in regard to withdraw from the Principality on the defendant lied to the judge shall judge him, or it is not enough to eliminate Nkolh in the case, and should be referred to the prosecutor the right to support his claim before the resolution of the conflict. وممن كان يقضي بالنكول القاضي شريْح، فقد ورد عنه “أنه نكل عنده رجل عن اليمين فقضى عليه شريح. The man said: أنا أحلف، فقال شريح: قد مضى قضائي. دل الحديث على أن شريحا كان مِـمَّن يرى القضاء بالنكول لا رد اليمين. وهذه المسألة اختلف فيها السلف، قال بعضهم -فيهم شريح-: يقضي بالنكول وبه قال أصحابنا. وقال بعضهم -فيهم الشعبي-: يردّ اليمين على المدّعي. وبه قال أصحاب الشافعي ـ رحمه الله ـ “([76]).

3- Acceptance of women in the border certificate and retribution: Most scientists went to the old non-acceptance of women in the border certificate and retribution, not only violates the applicants some scholars, including tender and Hammad Ibn Hazm and the virtual, and the ratios of Imam Hasan al-Basri accepted testimony of a woman in adultery only([77]). ويبدو من عبارة الإمام ابن القيم أنه رجّح هذا الرأي عندما قال: “Some scholars said: تجوز شهادة النساء في الحدود. فالأقوال ثلاثة. أرجحها أنه تجوز شهادة النساء متفرقات فيما لا يطلع عليه الرجال غالبا”([78]).

There is no doubt that citizen For women without men on some of the issues in this day and age in many Muslim societies, in contrast to the above communities, but it went some contemporary scholars to this view([79]); Ssandem the lack of evidence of a text incised in preventing women from testimony in the border and retribution, and that the status of women has changed for the above times he decided to scholars veterans their sentences, a situation can not be where women usually found on those issues and crimes, for not coming into contact with the men in . Apart from this era has changed the situation of women; became contention as men in all their actions, and can be found on a lot of issues.

لذلك فإن التمسك بمذاهب غالب العلماء القدامى في عدم قبول شهادة المرأة في قضايا الحدود والقصاص في هذا العصر من شأنه أن يفوّت على كثير من الناس حقوقهم، ويتيح الفرصة للجناة والمجرمين للإفلات من العقاب، وخاصة في الأماكن المخصصة للنساء التي لا يوجد فيها رجال للقيام بواجب الشهادة، كالأماكن التيتخصصها بعض الشركات التجارية أو الصناعية لإقامة العاملات فيها، والأجنحة النسوية في المشافي والسجون وداخليات الطالبات… “If we assume that a man crept into a hidden internal female adult Aqlat - which prevents men approaching or entering at all- And a woman who committed adultery, and arrested a number of guards or female, is not ironic amid legal communities that Nabi modern application of Sharia punishment on them; witnesses because the women had they reach ten days or one hundred”([80]).

It tends more serious turn in this era regarding the crimes of rape, which has spread so much in some Muslim communities, would continue to reject the testimony of women in it that makes women - working or static present in some places that do not exist where men usually- Vulnerable to attack on the display without judicial accountability, if the criminal law of the State of Muslim non-sensitive factor times change, and change the status of women than it was the time of issuance of those old anti-women provisions of the certificate in the border.

4- قبول شهادة الصبيان في الدماء: إن المثول لدى القاضي للإدلاء بالشهادة مِمَّا يُشترط فيه تحقق البلوغ لدى الشاهد([81]) On various issues, but if it attaches where the blood does not claim the lives of children witness is present, the Maalikis had authorized the acceptance certificate boys to preserve the rights of the victim; Because adhere to this requirement in cases that do not usually attended by adults may lead to some of the spilled blood.

خلافا لجمهور العلماء القاضي بوجوب تحقق شرط البلوغ التابع لشرط العدالة. وفي تحقيق ذلك يقول الفقيه المالكي ابن رشد الحفيد: “والنظر في الشهود في ثلاثة أشياء: في الصفة، والجنس، والعدد. فأما عدد الصفات المعتبرة في قبول الشاهد بالجملة فهي خمسة: العدالة، والبلوغ، والإسلام، والحرية، ونفي التهمة… وأما البلوغ فإنهم اتفقوا على أَنَّهُ يُشترط حيث تُشترط العدالة. They differed in the certificate of boys on each other in a surgeon in murder. Returned that audience jurists Alomassar what we have said from the occurrence of a consensus that the certificate from the requirement of justice, justice is a condition of puberty; therefore is not really a certificate when the owner, but the presumption is the case, therefore, the condition in which not disperse lest Ajbnoa”([82]).

والذي دفع المالكية إلى مخالفة رأي الجمهور والتسامح في قبول رواية الصبيان، هو مسيس الحاجة إلى ذلك لكثرة وقوع الجنايات فيما بين الأطفال([83])، فهو رأي قائم على أصل المصلحة في السياسة الشرعية([84]). ولا يغيّر من حقيقة قبولهم لذلك كونها شهادة أم هي قرينة حال.

والمصلحة في هذا العصر تقتضي اتباع هذا الرأي وترجيحه على مذهب الجمهور. Especially in light of the prevalence and incidence of crimes among children in some Islamic societies annoyingly should not cling to him on condition of puberty, and only lost the rights of thousands of victims, and be so prohibitive - of the rulers of the laws and decisions of the judges in the courts- Of the season in those serious criminal cases, and keep track of its own merits, and the details of the facts of justice. It may be so strict in this condition for encouraging children to commit crimes, as long as it can not be adjudicated, and they can do so from Altfsa of judicial accountability. Especially that children today have become occasions of their meeting alone without the presence of an adult many, as in the golf ball types, swimming pools, bars and cafés electronic games, and other places that are not frequented by others, which is prevalent in cities and repeated occurrence unchecked including unmatched in times Vgahaúna old.

5- The use of scientific methods of proof in: لقد تطوّر العلم في هذا العصر، وتطوّرت معه الوسائل والأدوات المستعملة في مختلف الأغراض، ومن ضمنها وسائل الإثبات في الجرائم وسائر المخالفات القانونية، كاستعمال وسيلة أخْذ البصمات وفحص الدم والحمض النووي، وسبر آثار الجريمة على أجساد وأمتعة المتضررين بالمجاهر الدقيقة، لكشف المجرمين وإيقافهم، وكذلك وسائل التسجيل الصوتي والبصري لتعقّب المخالفين للقانون ومعاقبتهم، ووسيلة المورّثات لمعرفة نسَب المولود وحسْم النزاعات فيه…

There is no doubt that these methods are considered strong evidence, and may reach cut-off grade to grasp the facts and uncover the mysteries of the most complex criminal cases. Indeed, the means of modern scientific proof is certainly the most powerful and the most desirable of the testimony of witnesses who may be colluding on al-Zour, and the faith of the defendant that the alliance had deliberately false. بل هي أقوى حتى من إقرار المتّهم الذي قد تحيط به بعض الشبهات. فهي نوع من البيّنة الواردة في قوله e: «البينة على المدعي». يقول الإمام ابن قيم الجوزية: “The intended: That “البيّنة” في الشرع اسم لما يبيّن الحق ويظهره. وهي تارة تكون أربعة شهود، وتارة ثلاثة بالنص في بيّنة المفلس. وتارة شاهدين، وشاهدا واحدا، وامرأة واحدة، ونكولا ويمينا، أو خمسين يمينا، أو أربعة أيمان. وتكون شاهد الحال في الصور التي ذكرناها وغيرها، فقوله e «البيّنة على المدّعي»؛ أي: عليه أن يُظهر ما يبيّن صحة دعواه، فإذا ظهر صدْقه بطريق من الطرق حُكم له”([85]).

So it is not wise to ignore these scientific methods([86]) Issues and disputes between Muslims, with its unique ability to uncover the truth and identify the perpetrators whatever Ottawa of intelligence and wisdom in love with their crimes and mastery, thus introducing the hands of investigators, judges and put them on the keys difficult issues, thereby contributing effectively welcome to return the rights to their owners, and punish the perpetrators, criminals and beating .

And it is legitimate and that it did not Itaref ancient scientists - as one of the novelties- It is the means of bringing benefits and ward off evil in this day and age, the origin of which is absorbed by the reclamation guide, and the tolerance of Sharia as nine and sought other means to bring the interests of the people and achieve God's justice in the land.

The bottom line is in this area that the rulers of the Muslims in general and their judges, especially, should not their commitment in addressing the issues of the people and the separation of disputes due to excesses in the hedge from the use of the means of proof is Almansosp, and mortgage issues, people and interests of the presence of witnesses and the required number in normal cases. Otherwise, it led them to default to return the rights to their owners the right, and the slippage in the interests of the oppressed and the non-payment of tax them. Especially since the darkness, and the scammers have no qualms about riding the various means of cunning and sophistication in planning for their wrongdoing artfully without also subject to the hands of the law sometimes.

It should be a special judges use all what works in uncovering the facts of the means of proof whatever evolved and complicated, and died of evidence usual for our scholars veterans and our judges, as long as they are capable of achieving justice among people and pay injustice for the oppressed; because that is the destination of Forensic establish courts and the inauguration of the judges, the more . On the other hand, as far as the ruling trivializes those roads and Astt in limited ways to cling to the legal rules without goals and objectives, as far as Mulls slippage in the interests of the people and compromising their rights, and the empowerment of darkness and fraudsters, including. وفي ذلك من المفاسد ما لا تخفى عواقبه. يقول ابن القيم: “This position slip feet and perverse understandable, as it sits hardship and difficult arena, where hyper-range Ftaloa border and wasted rights, and the people of immorality Gerúa on corruption, and they made the law does not limited to the interests of its people, to other needy. وسدّوا على أنفسهم طرقا صحيحة من طرق معرفة الحق والتنفيذ له وعطّلوها، مع علمها وعلم غيرها قطعا أنها حق مطابق للواقع، ظنا منهم منافاتها لقواعد الشرع… والذي أوجب لهم ذلك: Type shortened to know the law and failure to see reality, and download one over the other”([87]).

* * *

Conclusion

The issue of legalization of the Islamic criminal jurisprudence may loom initially narrow-minded view of the limited scope of this part of every Islamic jurisprudence, but when investigating its issues seem far apart in some belongings, tangle in others, and clear-cut in the side of them, and complex problem in other aspects. It can be deduced from fought and follow other belongings following:

– That the process of codifying Islamic jurisprudence generally are definite necessity are needed to keep the Islamic jurisprudence alive in force in the lives of Muslims, given that rationing is the entrance or the entrance to the other in the application of doctrine and invoked in Islamic society, and without it remains jurisprudence unemployed in non obligations of individuals .

– Islamic jurisprudence that is part of Islamic law, and that the process of codification related to a portion of the Quran is a transaction, but is inclusive of all transactions doors of Islamic jurisprudence, and then the criminal jurisprudence embodied where it does not go out.

– أن الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي بالنظر إلى العقوبات المترتبة على الجرائم شامل لجانبين منه، هما: العقوبات المحدودة (أو المقدّرة)، وتشمل الحدود والقصاص والديات، والعقوبات غير المحدودة، وهي التعازير. وأن كلا الجانبيْن موضوع للتقنين.

– That the application of the provisions of the border is a topic of extreme sensitivity in this day and age, that can not be applied to the delay conditions or any objection to the inhibitions circumstantial does not necessarily mean turning away from the provisions of Islam criminal sentence, but the remaining provisions of the discretionary at least in place, because they are discretionary due to the attention of legislators in . Msag not to be regarded as unable to work the border as an excuse to disrupt the provisions Altaazer derived from Islamic jurisprudence.

– Legalization of criminal jurisprudence that the work required by the required number of reasons, and encourages the completion of several factors taken into account if Vtkacvt with the efforts of specialists, the effort rationing may have success, and perhaps including: الداعي الشرعي، والداعي العملي، ووحدة الهدف بين الفقه والقانون، واتفاقهما في مفهوم الجناية. فهي بالتأكيد من العوامل المساعدة على توفق مسيرة التقنين في بعض تجاربها.

– أن مسعى تقنين الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي يواجه مصاعب جمة تعيق مسيرة، بعضها ذاتية، من أهمها: جهل الكثيرين من رجال القانون بحقيقة الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي، واستعلاء البعض الآخر عليه. Some are objective, including: The difficulty of the process of codification itself, even with the availability of subjective factors to its success, as well as the difficulty of the process of the development of law and found ineffective, and the different legal systems in place in the Arab States, held by their owners in Vezadon disrupt the rationing.

– That some of the efforts that have worked on the legalization of criminal jurisprudence it is serious and realistic results achieved concrete, but it was hardly beyond the narrow circle of some GCC. While his career stalled in other countries, especially in Egypt and the Arab League. The majority of other Arab countries, particularly ones affected French law, no sooner had involved something in this endeavor, it is contributed to the further hampered.

– That the first formal process in earnest rationing jurisprudence generally fruit appeared in the Journal of the provisions of justice, has been a pioneer work of its time scales, but luck criminal jurisprudence which was negligible hardly exceed some punitive provisions.

– Generally, the process of rationing, and rationing criminal jurisprudence, including in particular; premise is correct but works with investigators jurisprudential scholars from various schools of jurisprudence, and the corroboration is Almkan jurisprudence has Mtachri fundamentalist scholars, Calceouti and Ibn Najim and Alkhadami. Unlike in starting the process of codification of ordinances Ready intentionally modified in the light of Islamic jurisprudence, it is the work of unsafe or useless.

– To refer to all the doctrines of Islamic jurisprudence, without exception, is to ensure that the guarantees of the success of the effort rationing, and done best; because it allows those in charge process rationing broader field to elicit provisions taking into account the circumstances of the time, and the specificities of Islamic societies without adherence to the doctrine of particular; because the restriction does not .

– Should work to spread the culture of Islamic people realize thanks fact the provisions of the border and its philosophy and objectives, and then its importance in protecting society from the evils of crime, before embarking on the application; to be their souls prepared her not deny, and Istohacunha, but accept them well received, and are working to support and empowerment.

– Should start establishing political and social system that achieves the principles of justice, equality, consultation, and freedom, and equal opportunities to compete in the work and earnings and use, without favoritism or unfairness to some without some.

– To emphasize that the border is not protective provisions for punitive retaliation and revenge from the offender, and that the purpose of the punishment of offenders scare before taking them, not stalking him to the rhythm. Hence the necessity of the expansion of prevention efforts, and not to seek the perpetrators if ran in non-Ballester rights of other people affected by the crime.

– It also supplies the success of the Penal Code in Islamic law not only patterns procedural ancient judges, and by expanding access to everything that would contribute to uncover the truth of the crime, and a review of some of the provisions discretionary inherited that stand in the sometimes prohibitive punish the perpetrators and aid victims restoration . ويتجلى ذلك بوضوح في المسائل التالية: التوسع في العمل بقاعدة درء الحدود بالشبهات، واستعمال الأمارات والفراسة في القضاء، وقبول شهادة النساء في الحدود، وقبول شهادة الصبيان في الدماء.

 

والله أعلم بالصواب

 

مراجع البحث

1. أحمد بن عمر، أبو بكر الخصاف، أدب القاضي، شرحه الإمام عمر بن عبد العزيز، تحقيق أبو الوفاء الأفغاني وأبو بكر محمد الهاشمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1994م.

2. أحمد محمد الزرقاء، شرح القواعد الفقهية، دمشق، دار القلم، ط6، 1422هـ، 2001م.

3. ابن تيمية، تقي الدين أحمد، مجموع الفتاوى. Collect and collate: عبد الرحمن النجدي وابنه محمد، 1399هـ.

4. جاسم علي جاسم الشامسي، النظرية العامة للقانون، جامعة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، 2000م.

5. الحسيني سليمان جاد، العقوبة البدنية في الفقه الإسلامي، دار الشروق، القاهرة، 1411هـ، 1991م.

6. Raef Mohammed Naeem, the general principles of Islamic criminal legislation, Juhaynah for publication and distribution, Jordan, i 1.1425 e 0.2005 m.

7. Zine El Abidine Ben Ibrahim bin Najim, likes and isotopes on the doctrine of Abu Hanifa Nu'man Scientific Library Beirut, i 1.1980 m.

8.Abdul Razzaq Sanhoori, the mediator to explain the new Civil Code, Dar revival of Arab heritage, Beirut.

9. عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط14، 1418هـ، 1997م.

10. عبلة جواد، بحث بعنوان: “شهادة المرأة في الإسلام”، مجلَّة الرسالة، العدد الثاني، ديسمبر 1999م.

11. Ali bin Mohammed bin Ali Jerjani, book definitions, achieving Ebiary Ibrahim, Arab Book House, Beirut, i 2.1413 e 0.1992 m.

12. Ali bin Mohammed bin Habib al-Mawardi, provisions Bowl and religious States, Scientific Library, Beirut, i 1.1405 e 0.1985 m.

13. عمر سالم دراسة نقدية لقانون العقوبات الاتحادي في دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، دار النهضة العربية، القاهرة، ط1، 2000م.

14. عوض أحمد الزعبي، المدخل إلى علم القانون، دار وائل للنشر، ط2، 2003م.

15. قانون الجزاء العماني، سلطنة عمان، شرطة عمان السلطانية.

16. القانون الجنائي لسنة 1991م، وزارة العدل، جمهورية السودان.

17. قطب مصطفى سانو، معجم مصطلحات أصول الفقه، دار الفكر المعاصر، بيروت، دار الفكر، دمشق، ط1، 2000م.

18. مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية، تنسيق نجيب هواويني، بيروت، مطبعة شعاركو، ط5، 1388هـ.

19. محمد بن علي بن محمد الشوكاني، إرشاد الفحول، دار الفكر، دت.

20. محمد بن أبي بكر بن عبد القادر الرازي، مختار الصحاح، دار البراعم للإنتاج الثقافي، ط1، دت.

21. Hosni, Ahmed Taha, corporal punishment legitimacy and its role in the protection of society, Al-Azhar University, 2nd Floor, in November 1996 AD.

22. محمد عبد الشافي إسماعيل، تطوير القانون الجنائي طبقا لأحكام الشريعة الإسلامية، دار النهضة العربية، القاهرة، 2000م، ط3.

23. محمود نجيب حسني، الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي، (Crime)، دار النهضة العربية، ط1، 1427هـ، 2007م.

24. Ismail Mohammed Abdel-Shafi, the development of criminal law in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, the Arab Renaissance House, 1st Floor, Cairo 0.2000 m.

25. محمد عبد الجواد محمد، بحوث في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون، تقنين الشريعة الإسلامية، منشأة المعارف، الإسكندرية، 1411هـ، 1991م.

26. محمد فاروق النبهان، المدخل للتشريع الإسلامي، دار القلم، ط2، 1981م.

27. محمد مصطفى القللي، المسئولية الجنائية في الفقه الإسلامي، لأحمد فتحي بهنسي، (Comparative Study)، بيروت، دار الشروق، ط3، 1404هـ، 1984م.

28. محمد بن أبي بكر الزرعي، (Jawziyah)، الطرق الحكمية في السياسة الشرعية، تحقيق محمد حامد الفقي، مطبعة السنة المحمدية، القاهرة، 1953م.

29. محمد بن أحمد بن رشد القرطبي (ابن رشد الحفيد)، بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد، دار الفكر، دت.

30. محمد أبو زهرة، الجريمة والعقوبة في الفقه الإسلامي، دار الفكر العربي، القاهرة، 2006م.

31. محمد خير حسب الرسول، دراسات في الاجتهاد والتقنين، بحث بعنوان: “أثر القواعد الفقهية في التشريع والتقنين الحديث”، دورية من إصدارات كلية الشريعة والقانون، بجامعة العلوم الإسلامية، ماليزيا، دار التجديد، كوالا لمبور، ط1، 1426هـ، 2005م.

32. محمود نجيب حسني، شرح قانون العقوبات اللبناني، دار النهضة العربية، بيروت، 1404هـ، 1984م.

33. مصطفى أحمد الزرقاء، المدخل الفقهي العام، دار الفكر، 1967م، ط9، دت.

34. مصطفى العوجي، القانون الجنائي العام، مؤسسة نوفل، بيروت، ط2، 1988م.

35. وهبة الزحيلي، جهود تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط1، 1408هـ، 1987م.

وهبة الزحيلي، الفقه الإسلامي وأدلته، دار الفكر، دمشق، ط3، 1409هـ، 1989م.


*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

** مدرس بمعهد العلوم الشرعية_ بسلطنة عمان

[1]) Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abd al-Qadir al-Razi, Mukhtar Asahah, Dar buds of cultural production, i 1, Dutt, p 482.

[2]) Sura Taha: 27.

[3]) Hud: 91.

[4]) علي بن محمد بن علي الجرجاني، كتاب التعريفات، تحقيق إبراهيم الأبياري، دار الكتاب العربي، بيروت، ط2، 1413هـ، 1992م، ص216.

[5]) ابن تيمية، تقي الدين أحمد، مجموع الفتاوى. Collect and collate: عبد الرحمن النجدي وابنه محمد، 1399هـ، ج19، ص306.

[6]) قطب مصطفى سانو، معجم مصطلحات أصول الفقه، دار الفكر المعاصر، بيروت، دار الفكر، دمشق، ط1، 2000م، ص249.

[7]) Look: عبارات الفصل الأولوالمادة الأولى (1) منه، والفصل الثاني والمواد (2) And(3) And(5) And(6) And(7) And(8) And(10) And(12) And(13). كما جاء في المادة (31) من الباب الثاني قول المشرّع العماني: “إذا انطبق على الفعل نصّ عام من الشريعة الجزائية ونص خاص، فيؤخذ بالنص الخاص”, See: قانون الجزاء العماني، سلطنة عمان، شرطة عمان السلطانية.

[8]) وهذا الاشتراك في لفظ “Sharia” بين المعنيين المذكورين يجدر تجنبه بإبقاء اللفظ دالا على المعنى الأول العام لمختلف جوانب الدين الإسلامي، واختصاص لفظ “Legislation” للدلالة على الأحكام الفقهية العملية، كما هو متعارف لدى الفقهاء.

[9]) الرازي، مختار الصحاح، ص120، 121.

[10]) رائف محمد النعيم، المبادئ العامة للتشريع الجنائي الإسلامي، جهينة للنشر والتوزيع، الأردن، ط1، 1425هـ، 2005، ص7.

[11]) علي بن محمد بن حبيب الماوردي، الأحكام السلطانية والولايات الدينية، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1405هـ، 1985م، ص273.

[12]) الجرجاني، كتاب التعريفات، ص107.

[13]) رائف محمد النعيم، المرجع نفسه.

[14]) محمود نجيب حسني، الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي، (Crime)، دار النهضة العربية، ط1، 1427هـ، 2007م، ص3.

[15]) محمد عبد الشافي إسماعيل، تطوير القانون الجنائي طبقا لأحكام الشريعة الإسلامية، دار النهضة العربية، القاهرة، 2000م، ط1، ص3.

[16]) مصطفى العوجي، القانون الجنائي العام، مؤسسة نوفل، بيروت، ط2، 1988م، ج1، ص19.

[17]) محمود نجيب حسني، شرح قانون العقوبات اللبناني، دار النهضة العربية، بيروت، 1404هـ، 1984م، ص4.

[18]) محمد عبد الشافي إسماعيل، تطوير القانون الجنائي طبقا لأحكام الشريعة الإسلامية، ص3.

[19]) جاسم علي جاسم الشامسي، النظرية العامة للقانون، جامعة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، 2000م، ص11، 12.

[20]) عوض أحمد الزعبي، المدخل إلى علم القانون، دار وائل للنشر، ط2، 2003م، ص8.

[21]) وهبة الزحيلي، جهود تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط1، 1408هـ، 1987م، ص26.

[22]) بحوث في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون، تقنين الشريعة الإسلامية، محمد عبد الجواد محمد، منشأة المعارف، الإسكندرية، 1411هـ، 1991م، ص12.

[23]) وهبة الزحيلي، جهود تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، ص28.

[24]) عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط14، 1418هـ، 1997م، ج1، ص24.

[25]) عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، ج1، ص26.

[26]) عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، ج1، ص8.

[27]) من مقدمة الدكتور محمد مصطفى القللي، المسئولية الجنائية في الفقه الإسلامي، لأحمد فتحي بهنسي، (Comparative Study)، بيروت، دار الشروق، ط3، 1404هـ، 1984م، ص7.

[28]) أحمد حسني أحمد طه، العقوبات البدنية شرعيتها ودورها في حماية المجتمع، جامعة الأزهر، ط2، نوفمبر 1996م، ص3.

[29]) عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، ج1، ص9.

[30]) محمود نجيب حسني، الفقه الجنائي الإسلامي، ص1.

[31]) مصطفى أحمد الزرقاء، المدخل الفقهي العام، دار الفكر، 1967م، ط9، ج1، ج1، ص48.

[32]) عبد القادر عودة، التشريع الجنائي الإسلامي مقارنا بالقانون الوضعي، ج1، ص10.

[33]) تطوير القانون الجنائي طبقا لأحكام الشريعة الإسلامية، محمد عبد الشافي إسماعيل، ص4.

[34]) يقول الأستاذ محمد عبدالجواد محمد: “In each committee to codify Islamic jurisprudence, we have participated in, or Houdrnaha, or heard about, the work begins with questions are sometimes innocent, sometimes Astinkaria, or interceptors, such as: القانون الساري لا يختلف مع الشريعة الإسلامية إلا في بعض المواضع التي يمكن تعديلها” ثم علق في الهامش بالقول: “ولذا فقد أنشئت لجان، في ليبيا، وفي السودان، لتعديل القوانين بما يرفع الخلاف مع الشريعة الإسلامية، كضرورة عاجلة، ومقدمة لتقنين الشريعة الإسلامية”, See: محمد عبدالجواد محمد، بحوث في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون، ص50.

[35]) محمد عبد الجواد محمد، بحوث في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون، ص30.

[36]) محمد فاروق النبهان، المدخل للتشريع الإسلامي، دار القلم، ط2، 1981م، ص351 بتصرف.

[37]) مجلة الأحكام العدلية، تنسيق نجيب هواويني، بيروت، مطبعة شعاركو، ط5، 1388هـ (هذه المواد منقولة من مواضع متعددة من المجلة).

[38]) العوْجي، القانون الجنائي العام، ص160.

[39]) www. sharea. gov. kw

[40]) مصطفى العوجي، القانون الجنائي العام، ج1، ص161.

[41]) نقلا عن وهبة الزحيلي، الفقه الإسلامي وأدلته، دار الفكر، دمشق، ط3، 1409هـ، 1989م، ج6، ص15.

[42]) عمر، سالم دراسة نقدية لقانون العقوبات الاتحادي في دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، دار النهضة العربية، القاهرة، ط1، 2000م، ص1، 2.

[43]) وقد علق الدكتور عمر سالم على هذا القانون بالقول: It is clear that this law is characterized by modernity compared to other punitive laws, but this modernity does not mean the abandonment of the provisions of Islamic law and norms prevailing in the state, which erupted in the spring of Islamic Sharia, the collection integrates elements of originality and other contemporary or modern, but with respect to . And a statement that when he referred to the Islamic Sharia only one substance is the first article, which states that apply to the border and retribution parental provisions of the Islamic Sharia, and define crimes and other punitive sanctions in accordance with the provisions of this Act and other penal laws. وعندما تعلق الأمر بالحداثة أو المعاصرة، وجدناه قد فصّل وأسهب، لتحتوي نصوصه على 333 Material. “, See: عمر سالم، المرجع السابق، ص3.

[44]) وهبة الزحيلي، جهود تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، ص88.

[45]) The development of criminal law in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, Ismail Mohamed Abdel Shafi, Dar Arab renaissance, i 1, Cairo, 2000, pp. 23, 24.

[46]) Article III of the memorandum attached to the Sudanese Penal Code of 1991, the military press (نقلا عن دراسات في الاجتهاد والتقنين، من إصدارات كلية الشريعة والقانون بجامعة العلوم الإسلامية بماليزيا، دار التجديد، ط1، 1426هـ، 2005م، ص92).

[47]) القانون الجنائي لسنة 1991م، وزارة العدل، جمهورية السودان.

[48]) وقد بدأت هذه اللجنة عملها.. في تقنين الفقه الإسلامي، بدءًا بالمعاملات المدنية وأتمت بالفعل أجزاء منه. وفي مؤتمر وزراء العدل العرب، الذي انعقد في صنعاء اليمن، سنة 1981م، صدر “إعلان صنعاء” Islamic law as the primary source of the laws of the only Arab countries, legislation and civil, commercial, criminal, and standardization on the basis that it is an important step on the road to Arab unity desired”, See: محمد عبد الجواد محمد، بحوث في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون، ص28 (Adapted).

[49]) Look: العوجي، القانون الجنائي العام، ص162، 163.

[50]) وكأننا بالأستاذ عبد الرزاق السنهوري يشير إلى هؤلاء المتعجلين عندما قال فيهم قبل نصف قرن: “Some men have tried to anticipate incidents that law, Islamic law Vdersoa superficial study of crude does not sing it, and provided a model incorporates some of the provisions in the contract theory, they claimed the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, which is not of Islamic law in something… It is obvious that Islamic law does not serve by attributing to them what not, but serve properly studied by a scientific study, and the first condition for this study is a scientific secretariat. Islamic law is not wrong it does not Ttaua in some theories reached what is known of the modern theories of law, but flawed distort its principles and provisions of denaturation. Look: عبد الرزاق السنهوري، الوسيط في شرح القانون المدني الجديد، دار إحياء التراث العربي، بيروت، ج1، هامش ص50.

[51]) عبد الرزاق السنهوري، الوسيط في شرح القانون المدني الجديد، ص48.

[52]) أحمد محمد الزرقاء، شرح القواعد الفقهية، دمشق، دار القلم، ط6، 1422هـ، 2001م، ص41، (من مقدمات الشيخ مصطفى أحمد الزرقاء، ص41).

[53]) Look: محمد خير حسب الرسول، بحث بعنوان: “أثر القواعد الفقهية في التشريع والتقنين الحديث” Periodic studies in diligence and rationing, versions of the Faculty of Sharia law, Islamic Science University of Malaysia, house renovation, Kuala Lumpur, i 1.1426 e 0.2005, p. 89 et seq.

[54]) جلال الدين السيوطي، الأشباه والنظائر، ص162، (نقلا عن المرجع السابق).

[55]) قانون العقوبات السوداني، لسنة 1983م، المطبعة العسكرية، ص24.

[56]) المرجع السابق، ص25.

[57]) جلال الدين السيوطي، الأشباه والنظائر، ص121.

[58]) قانون العقوبات السوداني، لسنة 1983م، ص103.

[59]) Look: محمد خير حسب الرسول، المرجع السابق، ص91.

[60]) عبد الرزاق السنهوري، الوسيط في شرح القانون المدني الجديد، دار إحياء التراث العربي، بيروت، ج1، 49، 50.

[61]) الزرقاء، المدخل الفقهي العام، ج1، ص209، 210.

[62]) محمد أبو زهرة، الجريمة والعقوبة في الفقه الإسلامي، ص54.

[63]) مصطفى العوجي، القانون الجنائي العام، ص148.

[64]) يقول الدكتور طارق رمضان: “We appeal to all who are committed to this call to line up with us and raise their voices demanding the immediate suspension of the application of the border in the Islamic world until they are laying the foundations for a serious discussion on this topic. Say the name of Islam and in the name and message texts of Justice, we can not continue to accept the vulnerability of women and men for the death penalty and, while we remain committed to silence, and to be partners in the process characterized Balkhsh. If communities will not fit through repressive means and sanctions, but by engaging in the process of establishment of the rule of law and the formation of the civil society and respect for the popular will, as well as fair legislation which provides the guarantee of equality between men and women, rich and poor before the law. It is necessary to inaugurate the democratic movement out masses of mania including punishable by law to what should be protected by law and is essentially their conscience and their freedom and their rights and dignity”: انظر موقع طارق رمضان، جنيف، بتاريخ 18 مارس 2005، http://www. tariqramadan. com/call. php 8

[65]) Al rooms: 12.

[66]) محمد أبو زهرة، الجريمة والعقوبة في الفقه الإسلامي، دار الفكر العربي، القاهرة، 2006م ص188.

[67]) الحسيني سليمان جاد، العقوبة البدنية في الفقه الإسلامي، دار الشروق، القاهرة، 1411هـ، 1991م، ص13-14.

[68]) رواه ابن عدي، وروي عن ابن مسعود موقوفا، وعن عمر بن عبد العزيز مرسلا.

[69]) أبو يوسف، كتاب الخراج، ص182. Abu Yusuf said: “Do not cut off the thief alcohol and pork, and all musical instruments, nor wine nor in anything from a bird or fishing, and in something of a monster, nor in the cores, dirt, plaster, lime and water. وقد كان أبو حنيفة رحمه الله تعالى يقول: “لا قطع في طعام يؤكل -يعني الخبز- Nor in the moist fruit nor firewood nor in the wood and in stone all the plaster and lime, arsenic, pottery, clay, ocher and pots and kohl and glass, and the fish salty him and mild, not in something of pulses and herbs nor lights nor in the hay is not in Altakhtj not in the Koran nor ”، المرجع السابق، ص187.

[70]) المرجع السابق، ص186.

[71]) زين العابدين بن إبراهيم بن نجيم، الأشباه والنظائر على مذهب أبي حنيفة النعمان، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1980، ص128.

[72]) أبو يوسف، كتاب الخراج، ص190.

[73]) من أقوى الأدلة على جواز استعمال الأمارات قوله تعالى: ﴿وشهد شاهد من أهلها إن كان قميصه قُد من قُبل فصدقت وهو من الكاذبين. وإن كان قميصه قُد من دبر فكذبت وهو من الصادقين﴾ (يوسف، 26، 27).

[74]) محمد بن أبي بكر الزرعي، (Jawziyah)، الطرق الحكمية في السياسة الشرعية، تحقيق محمد حامد الفقي، مطبعة السنة المحمدية، القاهرة، 1953، ص4. وأورد في موضع آخر قوله: “… He asked me about my brother, the governor, or the governor governs Balfrash and evidence which shows him the right inferences and Emirates. ولا يقف مع مجرد ظواهر البينات والأحوال، حتى إنه ربما يتهدد أحد المدعين إذا ظهر له أنه مبطل. وربما سأله عن أشياء تدله على بيان الحال. فهل ذلك صواب أم خطأ؟. (Ibn al-Qayyim) فهذه مسألة كبيرة، عظيمة النفع، جليلة القدر، إن أهملها الحاكم أو الوالي أضاع حقا كثيرا. وأقام باطلا كبيرا. وإن توسع وجعل معوّله عليها، دون الأوضاع الشرعية، وقع في أنواع من الظلم والفساد”. Look: الطرق الحكمية، ص3.

[75]) ابن القيم، الطرق الحكمية، ص24، 25.

[76]) Abu Bakr Ahmed bin Omar Alkhsaf, literature judge, explained Imam Omar bin Abdul Aziz, the achievement of the Afghan and Abu al-Wafa Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Hashemi, Dar scientific books, Beirut, i 1.1994, p. 17.

[77]) دليل المانعين ورود لفظ الشهداء في الآيتين (Noor 4 و13) بصيغة المذكر. ودليل المجيزين قياس الشهادة في الحدود والقصاص على الشهادة في الأموال (البقرة، 282).

[78]) ابن القيم، الطرق الحكمية، ص79.

[79]) انظر تفاصيل ذلك في: عبلة جواد، بحث بعنوان: “شهادة المرأة في الإسلام”، مجلة الرسالة، العدد الثاني، ديسمبر 1999، ص123 وما بعدها.

[80]) المرجع السابق، ص137. والرأي المذكور فيه للدكتور محمد عطا السيد، الحدود، ص146.

[81]) Look: محمد بن أحمد بن رشد القرطبي (ابن رشد الحفيد)، بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد، دار الفكر، دت، ج2، ص346.

[82]) ابن رشد، المرجع السابق.

[83]) يقول الإمام الشوكاني: “Group consensus people of the city have been told to accept the novel boys on each other in dire need of blood to that of the high incidence of felonies among them, if you did not bring them Nfrdoa of his testimony is valid, and not tied dispersed after the crime even perform certificate”, See: محمد بن علي بن محمد الشوكاني، إرشاد الفحول، دار الفكر، دت، ص50.

[84]) يقول ابن رشد: “وإجازة مالك لذلك هو من باب إجازته قياس المصلحة”, See: بداية المجتهد، ج2، ص347.

[85]) ابن القيم، الطرق الحكمية، ص24.

[86]) “Criminal Studies is no longer just a purely legal studies, ie, they are no longer limited to just explain the provisions of the law, scientific research has revealed the importance of empirical studies that are based on facts and extrapolated Note and draw scientific laws which govern… والعلوم المساعدة للقانون الجزائي عديدة، أهمها: علم الإجرام، وعلم العقاب، وعلم الإحصاء الجنائي، والبوليس الفني، والطب الشرعي. ولا تتعادل هذه العلوم من حيث أهميتها لرجل القانون ومقدرته على دراستها وفهم مشاكلها، وأهم العلوم وأقربها إليه منالا علمان: علم الإجرام وعلم العقاب”, See: محمد نجيب حسني، شرح قانون العقوبات اللبناني، القسم العام، ص10-11.

[87]) ابن القيم، الطرق الحكمية، ص13.

This article contains Comments (2)

2 Comments “Islamic criminal jurisprudence and attempts rationing”

  1. اسلام باشا says:

    الله يكرمك مجهود رائع

  2. جزاك الله خيرا على هذا البحث المتميز

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