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Critical study attempts to codify Islamic jurisprudence

Critical study attempts to codify Islamic jurisprudence *

Preparation: A. D. Mahmoud Sami Jamaluddin



Praise be to Allah who revealed book guidance for the righteous, did not make him crooked… And peace and blessings be called to Islam as a religion and religiously and approach… And upon his family and companions and follow the Straight Path.


Talking about ” Codification of Islamic jurisprudence ” Presupposes agreement on the meaning of many of the conventions, what is meant بالتقنين and its relationship to the law? .

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First: Meaning of the law and its relationship to rationing:

To codify meanings even if they are complementary, the one hand, called on all general legislation includes all the legal texts governing branch of entire branches of law or the question of the legal issues major in the field of social relations; so that they can work out and followed without there being a difference or conflict in the provisions .

On the other hand: يعتبر التقنين من أهم وسائل الصياغة القانونية التي تلجأ إليها الدولة لإلزام الناس بما في التقنين من أحكام أو قواعد كمصدر رسمي للقانون، وذلك من خلال تجميع وتبويب وترتيب القواعد القانونية الحاكمة لفرع من فروع القانون أو أحد موضوعاته بواسطة السلطة المختصة بالتقنين أو بإعداده، وفقا لخطة معينة يتحقق عن طريقها التنسيق والتوفيق بين الأصول والفروع، ويزيل شبهه التعارض بين أحكام هذه القواعد القانونية المقننة.

And it may not ever be described as a compilation of rules or texts done by one of the jurists or scientific bodies that regulate.

There is no doubt that the most important advantages of rationing is the unification of the law is the duty of the application, and then standardize the behavior of individuals in the community, especially in a country governed by different customary rules or legislation multi-source or variety.

The main disadvantages are that may lead to rationing of the rigidity of the law as if it was something constant does not change, including the effect the loss of its flexibility and its ability to develop and update, unless the judiciary with the help Jurisprudence flexible in its application; that the adapting the texts contained in the regulation, including .

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Secondly: The concept of Islamic jurisprudence and discrimination between him and the Islamic Sharia

Delivers the Association of Muslim Scholars generally that the provisions of Islamic Sharia are two:

1- Type received by the Qur'an and Sunnah as definitive permanence and definitively significance, and it is committed to the legislature in each era should fulfill; may not be raised or wasted, and equal footing in the provisions college or detailed therein; since the knowledge of God has already been in the stability of these provisions and united in various .

This type of legal provisions is the one who called in appreciation - and him alone- Islamic convention, and we all abide by it of particular interest and compassion all and the whole justice; because it is the judgment of God.

And it can be defined as Sharia as: Set of provisions prescribed by God for all people through the revelations to the Prophet Muhammad to fit the conditions of the people in this world and the Hereafter.

In other words, are: A set of commands and prohibitions and directives binding is characterized by stability and continuity; they favor applicable in every time and place because of the source of the divine, and then not be changed; since there is no need to call for change, as drafted provisions so as not to interfere with nature's original man and demands the core of human society in .

Hence, we find that it did not deal with its provisions, but the general principles of the issues that are affected by nature evolution of social to humans, thereby leaving room for change and modernization, which required time in the aspects of Sub These issues were not the issue, which is not affected by the change inevitably as a result of the development of social, كالعلاقات humanity among the people that move away

And limited sources of these provisions in the Quran and Sunnah, and therefore of the legislative constants.

2- The second type of Islamic legal provisions are those that استنبطها المجتهدون in the nation in any of elicitation methods through diligence and total inferred from the evidence or science, and these provisions are subject to the base: “Provisions climate change time, place and conditions”; To be able to consistently face the problems of realism, then they are flexible rules in nature - contrary to the provisions of Islamic Sharia -, are subject to change according to the requirement of interest so while is or a place or off, they changed with the change of interest, and these provisions is that they can be called alone . However confuses a large part of the religious scholars between the provisions and sources of Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic law; Some see the whole jurisprudence Islamic, and others see it all Sharia Islamic, along with the view that Islamic jurisprudence is a science Islamic rulings from whatever source, for when he sees another side of them that .

والحقيقة أن الفقه الإسلامي ليس كله مجرد نظريات وفروع؛ وإنما يتضمن كذلك أبنية تشريعية متكاملة مستنبطة بطريق الاجتهاد والنظر، فهي جميعها أحكام اجتهادية غير ملزمة، ومع ذلك فإنه يمكن للمشرع في كل عصر أن يختار منها ما يلزم به الناس، ولكن له كذلك أن يتجاوزها ويأتي بما هو أصلح لعصره وزمانه، تأسيسا على أن رأي أي مجتهد ليس حجة ملزمة على المسلمين، وأنه ليس على أي إنسان إلزام بأن يأخذ بمذهب معين من مذاهب المجتهدين، دون أن ينفي ذلك أن الفقه الإسلامي ـ بهذا المعنى ـ هو تراث وتجارب وعقول تضاف إلى أعمارنا وعقولنا وتجاربنا. It is our duty to work to take advantage of it and inspired, but without the denial of mind and Brahinh of.

There is no doubt that the oaths to the provisions of Islamic Sharia does not Atjavy taking into account the interests of renewable and advanced renewed life and evolution; because they are infallible. As the provisions of the human beings they are not well, Humans are taken from the words and leaves, and accept their views and refuse, and discuss what they say and do, and delivery them without discussion . And understand each Ahdmanma Ola of potentially right and wrong; because it is infallible, and Altaktih here GOES to understand the jurist to the forensic text.

The right to know that the Muslim texts that comprise Islamic law did not address in detail everything, and God between us wisdom in things and mercy of us silent about other things. وهذا السلوك تفويض لنا بالاجتهاد، ودعوة إلى استعمال العقول واستجلاء وجوه المصالح والمفاضلة بين الحلول والبدائل؛ فكيف يتسنى القول بأن باب الاجتهاد قد قفل؟ صحيح إن فقهاء الإسلام قد خلّفوا لنا تراثًا عظيمًا من الأحكام الشرعية التي كانت أثرًا لاجتهادهم، وروعيت فيها مصالح الناس وعرفهم في الوقت الذي استنبطت فيه؛ ولكن دعونا نسأل كيف نقنن هذه الآراء الفقهية الاجتهادية، هل نقيم التقنين على مذهب واحد كما فعلت الدولة العثمانية في مجلَّة الأحكام العدلية؟ أم يتم التقنين على المختار من المذاهب كلها؟ ومن سيختار؟ وهل سيتم ذلك من بين مذاهب السنة فقط أم الشيعة فقط أم الإباضية وحدها؟ أليس من شأن ذلك المزيد من التعصّب الفقهي بين البلدان الإسلامية؟

In our view that Islamic Sharia unite peoples and Muslim countries where there is a dispute over its provisions, while Islamic jurisprudence distinguishes them is a source of contention and perhaps intolerance, therefore uphold sharia is by maintaining Islam in the legislative field. We therefore call for the legalization of Islamic law and Islamic jurisprudence is not, not in that landed to the law or to its wasted. And try to raise sedition by saying that the law may not be a tributary of the law is to try to corrupt the foundation; Sharia is the essence of the law, and the law is an instrument and the application of Sharia along with the judiciary in the modern world.

If the law is the past, present and future, they first بالتقنين and efforts to put into practice through legislation binding. The doctrine is past if codified, a confirmation to lock the door of ijtihad, and disable the rule of God and revealed to the Muslims of the need to be ordered Shura them; since it will not be our only tradition instead of diligence, and Ajtra views of scholars veterans even diverged from contemporary life .

Hence, we see that the shop rationing may never be Islamic jurisprudence, but we must act to codify Islamic law, and then we will naturally legislator that if he wants to benefit from the great heritage of the legal provisions that behind us Islamic jurisprudence. In all cases, whether to take any of them or legislator did not take what comes out of his legislation could be described as an Islamic legislation is derived, either from the law Islamic book Bmusdriha and year, or Islamic jurisprudence, which also includes the sources of ijtihad: Consensus, measurement and sending and interests plaudits, Alastsahab and the custom, to deduce from what he sees is right and appropriate legislator if people and circumstances, without being contradictory to the text or violates the tenet of religion necessarily.

إن تقنين الشريعة الإسلامية دون الفقه الإسلامي سيؤدي إلى وجود قانون أعلى في كل دولة إسلامية يعلو على كافة القوانين الوضعية بما فيها الدستور، ولن يختلف هذا القانون الأعلى من دولة لأخرى، ولسنا في حاجة إلى تدخل سلطة لإقرارها، ولن تقدر دولة إسلامية على إنكاره أو رفض إعماله، مادام بعيدًا عن اجتهاد البشر؛ ولذلك ستكون الشريعة الإسلامية حاكمة بحق على حين أن الفقه محكوم بكل ما يحكم عمل الفقهاء وسلوكهم في الجماعة. And Due Obedience to a Muslim but are obeying the law and not obedience to doctrine and his men. Let's leave all except the Islamic Sharia jurisprudence idiosyncratic free with respect for the opinions of others and refrain from kaafir. Valajthad grace mandated by God to all Muslims not inconceivable that violates human beings God's judgment in the legalization of diligence whatever ills so; they wasted what Allah has revealed, Fbalqta means Shura diligence and lead him inevitably; فالشورى means not only having the views of consulted, but also means that . What matters is what we have means of thinking, creativity and diligence so as not to lost so أجرنا and our lives.

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Thirdly: The position of the Islamic State of rationing:

Gold legislator in many Arab and Islamic countries to invoke Islamic law or its main source of legislation (Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates), Or his main source (Egypt), Or as the basis for legislation (Oman). Did not adopt the Constitution of any Arab or Islamic country - as far as we know- Islamic jurisprudence, or recognizes his role in legislation or sources of law, except as provided in the explanatory note to the Kuwaiti constitution of confusion between the law and jurisprudence.

Has embraced the constitutional judiciary in Egypt referred to segregation, and the Supreme Constitutional Court has established its position in favor of the above displayed in this regard Vqdt including the following:

Meets all the conditions legitimacy- For Islamic law are under the legislative authority must commitment, “It is not permissible legislative text that is contrary to the legal provisions in the deterministic proved, and significance given that these provisions alone is where diligence is declining; because they represent of the Islamic Sharia principles of the college and its fixed assets that can not be interpreted or any change in. It is inconceivable, therefore, that changes the concept according to the change of time and place; because it is the bacillus to the amendment, and may not get out or sprains with meaning. And the limited mandate of the Supreme Constitutional Court will monitor compliance with them, and they favor on every legal norm contradicts. That Article II of the Constitution provides to these rules the provisions of Islamic Sharia in its origins and principles of the college; because it is the general framework and pillars of origin which imposes requirements always, as to prevent the adoption of any rule of law to the dispute, and only considered it Tshahya and a denial of what science of religion necessarily”.

With- As for the diligence or Islamic jurisprudence, it does not have the same binding force enjoyed by the peremptory provisions of the Islamic Sharia, and therefore confined to the Department of diligence in the presumptive provisions is broken Bthbutea or Bdalaltha or both, does not extend to others, “وهي بطبيعتها متطورة وتتغير بتغير الزمان والمكان، لضمان مرونتها وحيويتها، ولمواجهة النوازل على اختلافها، تنظيما لشؤون العباد بما يكفل مصالحهم المعتبرة شرعا، ولا يعطل بالتالي حركتهم في الحياة، على أن يكون الاجتهاد دوما واقعا في إطار الأصول الكلية للشريعة بما لا يجاوزها، ملتزما ضوابطها الثابتة، متحريا مناهج الاستدلال على الأحكام العملية، والقواعد الضابطة لفروعها، كافلا صون المقاصد العامة للشريعة بما تقوم عليه من حفاظ على الدين والنفس والعقل والعرض والمال… And not only diligence effort mentally envisages the development of the legal rulings process of detailed evidence, which may thus not be purely a tradition for Olin, or slur on God falsely analysis or prohibition in non Modaehma, or reluctant to get off on the conditions of the people and the common good of the customs.

And the realization of the rule of reason with no text in it, reached to determine the rules of the process required by God's justice and mercy among the slaves, due to these rules تسعها Islamic Shariah; It is not closed on itself, does not confer the sanctity of the words of one of the scholars regarding the affairs, does not preclude . فالآراء discretionary do not have - in itself- Translational binding force for non-those who say. May not therefore be considered legally fixed Mottagrra may not be broken, otherwise it forbid about meditation and insight into the religion of God, and a denial of the fact that the error is possible in all diligence; but that of the companions of the frequency in the fatwas Thaba, and then it is true that the jurisprudence of a ”.

Jhlan عدون- According to the provisions of the Supreme Constitutional Court, it “While Jazz say that diligence in the presumptive provisions linked to the interests of the people - through forensic evidence for transport as well as mental - the right of the people of diligence, nearer that this will be an inalienable right guardian uses it - in every issue about them, including matching- The people consider public affairs, Akhmada the rebellious and including raising tension and rivalry and invalidate the rivalry. على أن يكون مفهوما أن اجتهادات السابقين لا يجوز أن تكون مصدرا نهائيا أو مرجعا وحيدا لاستمداد الأحكام العملية منها، بل يجوز لولي الأمر أن يشرع على خلافها، وأن ينظم شؤون العباد في بيئة بذاتها تستقل بأوضاعها وظروفها الخاصة بما يرد الأمر المتنازع عليه إلى الله ورسوله، مستلهما في ذلك حقيقة أن المصالح المعتبرة هي تلك التي تكون مناسبة لمقاصد الشريعة، متلاقية معها، وهي بعد مصالح لا تتناهى جزئياتها أو تنحصر تطبيقاتها، ولكنها تتجدد تبعا لما يطرأ عليها من تغيير وتطور؛ ومن ثم كان حقا عند الخيار بين أمرين مراعاة أيسرهما ما لم يكن إثما، وكان واجبا كذلك ألا يشرع ولي الأمر حكما يضيق على الناس أويرهقهم من أمرهم عسرا، وإلا كان مصادما لقوله تعالى: ﴿مَا يُرِيدُ اللهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ﴾. And necessary that the right of diligence guardian in the department initiated, to be كافلا the sharia unit, allowing it to its rules; always بإمدادها including appoints the completeness نمائها”.

D- Accordingly, the ” Any rule of law, even if the job has stabilized the term, do not carry the same what Aasmha of rescinding them, and replaced base new no collision judgment legitimate categorically, and Rhoda and significance, and be in the content posted by slaves, and Ahvl their affairs and vouch for the interests of the real, which may be initiated provisions . And then ساغ the diligence in issues Alachtlavih that may not be rigid provisions including invalidate Kamal Sharia and flexibility… And change the time calls to abandon this endeavor, pursuant to the flexibility تسعها Islamic law in the provisions of Sub-responsive development, in order to link the interests of the people and their needs, renewable and customs changing that do not clash judgment categorically, a flexible Enaweha adhere to the guardian's views alone does not Yarim them, or . That is the Islamic law in assets and Mnaptha, not necessarily sophisticated, Centrifuge inertia, does not comply with diligence - not the text therein- Otherwise controls the college and that does not disrupt the purposes”.


*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

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