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Rapprochement between sects and rationing idiosyncratic

Rapprochement between sects and rationing idiosyncratic *

Preparation Sheikh / Ali Abdel Baki Shehata **

 

 

In the name of God the Merciful

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“The concept of convergence and achievable approach between doctrines”

If lexical significance of vocabulary and phrases need scientific methodology to identify concepts and meanings Article (Near) To sense linguistically denotes the closeness of thing, and if double act was meaning to try proximity.

The convergence or convergence between schools of Islamic jurisprudence and in accordance with the linguistic meaning means: Attempt to have them long relationship and convergence, and this beckons to them from the time the case of التنافر والتباعد، وَإِلاَّ لَما كان لإطلاق لفظ التقارب معنى، فالتقارب من ثمّ وسيلة لجمع الشمل ورأب الصدع، وتبادل حسن الظنّ، والتقدير من أجل صيانة وحدة الأمَّة، ولهذا لا يراد به إلغاء أصل الخلاف بين المذاهب، فما كان لأحد أن يحجر على عقول دعاها الله إلى النظر في ملكوته، أو يقصر الناس على إحدى طرائق الفهم أو بعض وسائل النظر، ولا يعني هذا تحبيذا للاختلاف، أو دعوة إليه، وَإِنَّمَا كُلّ ما يشير إليه أن الاختلاف في مجال الدراسات الفقهية لا يعدّ قدحا، وأن الفقهاء في اجتهادهم لم يخرجوا على أصول دينهم؛ فقد نهى الكتاب العزيز عن التفرّق والاختلاف في قول الله تعالى: ﴿وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُواْ وَاخْتَلَفُواْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَأُوْلَئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ﴾([1])If we knew that this prohibition to disperse position in the origin of religion and standardization, and asking that without cutting probably realized that doctrinal differences - which is orbiting the presumptive provisions have nothing to do with the origin of religion and uniformity - do not pull it signify that it is forbidden.

كذلك لا يعني التقارب إلغاء المذاهب، أو دمج بعضها في بعض، أو تغليب مذهب على آخر، فهذا ما لا سبيل إليه، ولا جدوى منه؛ لأَنَّ بقاء المذاهب في إطار المفهوم الإسلامي للاختلاف في الرأي من عوامل ازدهار الحياة الفقهية ونموها، وتقديم الكثير من وجهات النظر التي ترى فيها الأمَّة سعة ويسراً في الأخذ والتطبيق بما يتلاءم مع ظروف الزمان والمكان، وما دام التقريب لا يراد به إلغاء الخلاف بين المذاهب أو إلغاء المذاهب ذاتها، أو إدماج بعضها في بعض؛ فإن الغاية منه تنحصر في أن يسود بين المذاهب المعتبرة تعاون وثيق، وتفاهم عميق، وتقارب يزيل الشك ويؤكد صدق النوايا، ويعبر عن الأخوة الإسلامية([2]).

Achieving this concept of rapprochement between sects and make it a practical reality can in what I believe to be the following:

First: The origins of Islam which is no difference between all Muslims, the Muslim should not be granted unless the flag is certainty: Faith in God the One Lord, and Muhammad e prophet and messenger of all people, and the Holy book a house, the Ka'bah kiss and beta Mahjoja, and the pillars of Islam five known, and all that is known of the religion, and that he is not yet Islam is a religion, nor after messenger prophet, and that everything sent .

These assets compound between the nation represents the essence of Islam or أساسياته, and all those who believe it is a Muslim, had taken place between him and other Muslims everywhere brothers in the faith no matter what denomination to which he belongs, and these brothers deprives them to let down the Muslim Muslim or يعاديه or .

إن تأكيد أَنَّهُ لا اختلاف بين المسلمين في الأصول هو المنطلق لتحقيق مفهوم التقارب، فقد وقر في الأذهان والمشاعر بسبب العزلة الطويلة التي فرضها تبادل العداوات من قديم، وما نجم عن هذا من جهل أتباع المذاهب بعضهم بعضاً، وتصديق ما شاع عنهم من أراجيف وترَّهات أعطت انطباعاً غريباً منفّراً حمل على الخيفة والتوجس، فإذا ما أدرك الجميع أَنَّهُم لا يختلفون حول أصول العقيدة، التي يؤمنون بها، فإن تلك المشاعر الموروثة التي غذاها الجهل ومكن لها طول الزمن ستخف حدتها، وتتواري شيئاً فشيئاً، ومن ثَمَّ تصبح النفوس مهيأة للتآلف والتعارف، ويصبح لصوت التقريب صدى طيب في كل ديار الإسلام.

Secondly: وإذا كان الإيمان بأنه لا اختلاف بين المسلمين على تعدد مذاهبهم الفقهية في الأصول يعد البداية الصحيحة للتقارب، فإن الاختلاف في الفروع يجب أن يدرس دراسة علمية تبتغي الوقوف على أسباب هذا الاختلاف وطبيعته، فهذه الدراسة هي الوسيلة العملية لجعل التقارب حقيقة واقعية؛ وذلك لأن الاختلاف في الفروع كان مصدر التعصّب والتباين والعداء، وكان عدم الوقوف على أسبابه العلمية وموقف الأئمة منه يحول بين أتباع المذاهب والنظرة الموضوعية إليه، ويتخذون منه ذريعة للتعصّب، والاتهام بالمروق من الدين أو الابتداع فيه.

The study of doctrinal differences in sub-issues achieved its purpose in bringing if I got up on the following three pillars:

A - recognizing that the jurisprudence scholars and their opinions are not legally the duty of followers, but they are human understanding of the provisions of law and rules, but this bear right and wrong, not her recipe stability and immortality.

With- It was behind the differences jurists in sections scientific reasons witnessing of Imams diligence of the investigation of truth and righteousness, as evidenced by their mentality viewfinder and insight and understanding of conscious Hanifah tolerant, and knowing these reasons, in the study of differences in branches serving the calendar substantive who does not know excessive or compromised.

جـ – The conviction that the imams jurists did not Atasbwa for a review, and did not call one of them that diligence is the right thing alone, and so it was all of them respect the opinion of others and apply it, although he has not said by the dam to the door of difference, and confirmation that all opinions must be received appreciation of the degree of both.

Thirdly: If the ruling on the section on the thing conceivable, if the exact path of Islam in scientific knowledge is based on the verification of all the news, and every phenomenon and every movement before judging them, true to the verse: ﴿وَلاَ تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولـئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُولاً﴾([3])، فإن كثيراً من مظاهر التعصّب والآراء بين أتباع المذاهب مردها إلى أن أتباع كُلّ مذهب جهلوا ما لدى غيرهم بوجه عام، وحصروا أنفسهم في دائرة المؤلفات المذهبية الخاصة يدرسونها، ويرونها وحدها الزاد الفقهي الذي يغني، والنتيجة الحتمية لهذا الانكماش الفقهي الاقتناع بأن ما لدى المذهب من آراء هي الدين الذي لا يجوز لأحد أن يفرط فيه أو يخالفه، ويترتب على هذا تبادل التهم بين أتباع المذاهب، وزعم كل طائفة أَنَّهَا على الْـحَقّ دون سواها.

Fourth: And helps to remove the acrimony and ignorance among the followers of sects and poring over books doctrine without the other, and stand on the opinions and interpretations in doctrinal heritage of the whole into account the following:

أ- التوسع في الدراسة الفقهية المقارنة خاصة في الجامعات وكليات الشريعة.

B - the multiplicity of meetings and seminars between contemporary scholars.

V.: On jurists and scholars to pay attention to sensitize public opinion constants which combines the Islamic nation, and to explain to them that the rule of convergence between the schools of Islamic jurisprudence petition, and the manifestations of the agreement more than a manifestation of the difference that these manifestations should not differentiate between the sons of one nation, they have mercy and to facilitate . Ibn Wahab al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said: Like the words of Omar bin Abdul-Aziz (ت 101هـ): “What I love that the owners of Mohammed e do not differ”; Because if it were one word to the people in distress, and they follow their example, imams, Flo took a man saying someone was years; attached Imam Shaatibi on this by saying: This means that they opened the door of ijtihad people and the difference passport; because they if it were Afathoh for was المجتهدون in tight, and then said: “Vusa God to the nation the existence of differences among them, was groundbreaking for the nation to enter into this mercy…”([4]). Since no difference is found interaction.

VI: In order to succeed those steps in achieving convergence between the sects should stop pens, stop tongues from the language of industrialization and provocation and prejudice, stir emotions and thoughts in a way to deepen mistrust and aversion and the spacing between the followers of the doctrines, and so repeating what implicit in his jurisprudence heritage, especially in times of weakness and tradition of the provisions .

The scientists and thinkers to stop ruminate about these stories and opinions that do not reflect only intolerance distasteful and the jurisprudence of puny, do not save me from behind the revival, but more disperse and conflicts and go the wind, and the nation in the era of dire where to reunification, and stand as one for those who are waiting for .

As for what happened from a dispute between the Muslims in the first century, and the resulting emergence of the difference should be taught in the context of scientific research and the lesson of historical and are not allowed Bamtdadeh to present Muslims and their future, but freezes in terms of scientific freeze completely, leaving his account to God, according to verse : ) That nation hath her what they earned and you what كسبتم do not ask what they were working (([5]).

After; the Islamic Unity governing idiosyncratic due religiously, فليست pursuant Trgbea called him, but it is something the duty required of every Muslim testifies that God is one, one that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and this duty encircles the neck of every Muslim man and ask him the day of judgment, and finally: The responsibility rests with the convergence scholars Fama people followed them, walking according to what they say, and are taking, including Lifton, if he got up these scholars their responsibility in charity and mastery goes the nation rapidly towards Islamic unity University to ensure strength in all fields([6]).

The study, the oldest convergence between the schools of Islamic jurisprudence is an attempt to overcome the all disperse factors, and absorption energies is what will benefit the nation, but increases the Blaúha of. فالأمة في عصر تداعت عليها فيه الذئاب من كُلّ باب، وهي ذئاب لا تفرّق بين أتباع مذهب وآخر، إِنَّهَا تحارب الإسلام تحت أي لواء، وتسلك في هذه الحرب سبلاً شتى، منها تأجيج نار الخلاف، وإذاعة الأراجيف التي تبلبل الأفكار، وتضاعف من إساءة الظنّ، وتشغل الأمَّة بكل ما يرتد عليها بالبوار، ومن ثمّ وجب علينا أن يعمل كُلّ منا بقدر ما يسر الله له، حتى نحمي وحدتنا من كل ما يتهددها بالذبول، فهي مناط حياتنا وعزتنا، وبها نظل بحق خير أمة أخرجت للناس.

The approach of this study it after this boot is based on four topics and Conclusion.

Addresses The first topic: Talk about the schools of Islamic jurisprudence and origins and evolution.

And comes The second topic: For displays of religious intolerance and its effects on the Muslim community.

And displays The third topic: Convergence of the relationship between religious and Islamic unity.

Addresses The fourth topic: Al-Azhar's efforts to codify Islamic Sharia.

– Included Conclusion: The most important results of the study and some recommendations.

The field can not extend to say in every Study of these detectives, or displayed in the coverage and detail, and that is to introduce issues in total and, I hope, will claim bankruptcy in the provision of study contribute to the work of a positive return on the nation well and benefit.

 

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The first topic: Schools of Islamic jurisprudence, origins and evolution

Jurisprudence before the emergence of doctrines:

Nodded in the past that the provisions of Islam are two: نوع لا مجال للاجتهاد فيه؛ لأَنَّهُ قطعي لا يحتمل شكاً ولا تأويلاً، وبعبارة أخرى لا يحتمل أكثر من رأي، ونوع يجوز الاجتهاد فيه، بل يجب عند الضرورة، وهو الأحكام الظنية، فهي لم تثبت بالدليل القطعي، فتحتمل أكثر من رأي، ويدخل تحت هذه الأحكام كل القضايا التي تجد في حياة الناس، وليس لها دليل مباشر أو صريح من كتاب أو سنَّة، وهذه تخضع في بيان حكمها للقواعد الكلية والمقاصد العامة للشريعة، وهي ميدان فسيح للاجتهاد واختلاف الآراء.

And jurisprudence scope presumptive provisions scientific, and then called on the development of these provisions detailed evidence. The peremptory provisions do not interfere in the field of jurisprudence, they do not need mental effort to disclose.

Is not included in the field of jurisprudence also provisions presumptive non-operation, as some of the related provisions of belief like seeing God on the Day of Resurrection and about this.. Jurisprudence did not take such significance that limited means to process only provisions in the era of the emergence of doctrines, but before that it was called on all legal provisions, and to understand these provisions, and to this evidence suggests modern Messenger of Allah e: «Lord, to the jurisprudence of the holder is the horizon it»([7]).

And jurisprudence in this sense was called the comprehensive self-knowledge what her and them, whether from matters of belief or process, which this launch represents the true nature of Islamic thinking([8]).

That is one of the jurisprudence of Science cherished Islamic civilization, he who controls human behavior, according to the law of God, and this alone humanitarian and happy to win okay world and the Hereafter.

This doctrine, which represents a scientifically شاهقا the edifice began with the beginning of the call, and completed its origins and principles of the college in the era of the mission, and the right of the Holy Prophet Comrade top, having left the nation what Asthompskt do YOU'LL NEVER LOSE beyond: The Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger e.

The era of the Mission era of incorporation so edifice legislature, which penalized for raising rules generations of scholars, since that time and even now, and will continue every generation is trying to add to the edifice of brick, confirms that the legislation does not know the deadlock, and it alone, I treat both problems of life no matter how .

وبعد عصر البعثة جاء عصر الصحابة، وفيه انتشر الإسلام خارج الجزيرة ودخلت في هذا الدين أمم كثيرة تختلف من حيث الأعراف واللغات والأجناس، ولذا عرف عصر الصحابة من النوازل والمشكلات ما لم يعرفه عصر البعثة، وكان على فقهاء الصحابة أن يجتهدوا لاستنباط الأحكام الشرعية لتلك المشكلات والنوازل، فلم يدع أحد أن القرآن والسنة نصا في كُلّ المسائل الجزئية على كل ما كان وما هو كائن، ومن هنا كان عصر الصحابة بداية التوسع في الاجتهاد والاستنباط، فقد شمل كثيراً من القضايا الخاصة والعامة والإدارية والمالية([9]), And so became the third origin after the book of the year, and it was for the following eras good example, and the lighthouse guiding Vajtahadat companions have a special status among the majority of scholars, but that some of them went to that companions كالحديث statements ascribed to the Messenger of Allah e([10])، وفي عصر التابعين شرق الإسلام وغرب، ولهذا اتَّسعت رقعة الدولة الإسلامية كثيراً، فأصبحت حدود المسلمين تمتد من نهر السند والصين شرقاً إلى المحيط الأطلسي غرباً، ومن البحر العربي والصحراء الإفريقية جنوباً إلى جبال طورس شمالاً، وكان للبلاد المفتوحة حظها من الحضارة والثقافة، ولها أيضاً أعرافها وتقاليدها الخاصة، وكان من ذلك ونحوه تفاعل العقليات وظهور كثير من المشكلات التي لم تكن معروفة من قبل، ومن ثم كثرت الاجتهاد ات والآراء في مختلف أبواب الفقه، ونما بهذا الفقه نمواً عظيماً وأصبح هذا الفقه الحلقة الذهبية بين عصر الصحابة وعصر نشأة المذاهب، لقد نقل إلى فقهاء هذا العصر تراث عصر النبوة والصحابة وكذلك تراث التابعين، بما تميز به من تجديد وحيوية, Guided by the purposes of the law, and provisions to climate change ills without the rigidity of the literal text, taking into account the renewed interest and norms climate change time and place, but this was a follower jurisprudence, paving the way to the discretion of the imams and the emergence of schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

وبين عصر الصحابة والتابعين في الفقه أوجه التقاء وافتراق، فالعصران يلتقيان في وحدة المصادر، وإن لم يعرف عصر التابعين الإجماع والشورى، لاتساع الدولة وظهور الفرق، كما يلتقيان في عدم تدوين الآراء الفقهية، وعدم الأخذ بقواعد أصولية مدونة، وظلت السنة في العصرين غير مدونة، وإن انتشر التحديث في عصر التابعين، كما عرفت نهاية هذا العصر محاولات فردية في تدوين السنَّة، ومحاولات رسمية في عهد الخليفة الراشد عمر بن عبد العزيز (ت 101هـ), But did not reach us something which was ordered by the Caliph([11]).

Differs Alasran in that era companions did not know the situation in the year, and was Jurisprudence whole in this era realistic, while the cover of some scholars in the era of belonging to the imposition and appreciation, and showed signs of the situation in the year in this era at the hands of the disease in their hearts of the enemies of Islam .

Differs Alasran also in terms of that era follower known trends or schools of law, unless he knows the era of the companions, and science of jurisprudence in the era of followers became jurisdiction scientifically goes out to him by going out of those followers, and so parted in this day and age the term science for the term of jurisprudence in significance, ([12]).

In spite of this disparity between the eras in some features, emphasizes aspects of convergence between them they represent one stage in the history of Islamic jurisprudence, a growth phase and amplitude, and the emergence of trends or schools of law, which is the vanguard of jurisprudence doctrine mature, who knew him centuries II and III, which were in them .

The emergence of schools of Islamic jurisprudence:

The second and third centuries are Growing era of jurisprudential doctrines as I indicated earlier, this era of brighter times diligence in Islamic jurisprudence, the so-called era of perfection and maturity, the Renaissance and major schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and the era of blogging and authoring.

This era is not an era of prosperity and Renaissance jurisprudence, but is an era of intellectual and scientific renaissance in the Muslim world, although this renaissance was the bedrock of Islamic culture in different eras, those were the Renaissance various factors including what is due to the time factor([13]), Adtradh, and Asta urbanization and the introduction of the causes of civilization more than before, and which is attributed to the impact of foreign cultures in Islamic thought.

There is no way to tailor say those factors, and suffice to note that the search idiosyncratic particularly in this era, he lived most fertile and brighter days through, and that it resulted from the views in all matters of life unless up legal thinking positive to the tip of it, but in the present era.

Facts have resulted in frequent and chaos, And the large number of scholars to the renaissance of doctrinal wonderful renaissance made this era more times active in the diligence and deduction, an activity that characterized the nature of coverage and scrutiny, accuracy and subsidiarity issues, and assumed, as well as a search rules idiosyncratic and recorded, and this was the beginning of the formation of fundamentalist, which is the pride of the feats of Islamic Thought .

Because the Renaissance era was comprehensive, Fruit multiple jurisprudential doctrines of thirteen famous doctrine. Including what books survive his followers remained until now, and from what did not survive Vandther.

The reasons for the emergence of doctrines:

Was the emergence and spread some doctrines and survival yet different reasons can be summarized as follows:

First: Weakness of the Abbasid state, and the division of the Muslim world to countries rival forces and Mtdibrh, has rebounded this weakness and division on the intellectual life of weakness and lack of innovation, It was not limited to jurisprudence, it has included all aspects of intellectual life in general, and then the cover of jurists to the tradition doctrine of special.

Secondly: Effort pupils imams in the codification and dissemination of doctrines among the people, making souls Tstrouh to this enormous wealth jurisprudence, and the phasing out of research and eduction([14]), And it became difficult after that that the new doctrine based; because of this act prepared people out of the group, working in to disperse her speech, and increasing controversy factors, including.

And emphasizes the impact of pupils and their effort in spreading what the doctrines of Imam Shafi'i: “Laith bin Saad horizon, from the owner, but the owners did not do it”([15]).

And not least the impact of pupils imams to spread their doctrines of the prevalence of certain sects in the country did not enter the imam of the doctrine, but the disciples are the bearers views of Imam them, they are people who gathered around it, and then wrote the doctrine of Imam Malik and spread in Egypt and the Maghreb.

Thirdly: Embrace some referees some doctrines, and make the judiciary([16]) Limited to Vgahaúh, has reportedly مذهبين انتشرا in the first commanded Sultan: Mashreq Hanafi, Maliki Andalusia.

Has been added to these reasons, the desire of the people of each region or those who excelled in them diameter of scholars and reluctance from other.

This is the most important reasons for the emergence of doctrines, and it is clear that the spread of sects and the survival of some of them is not due to that doctrine stronger scientifically than others, but due to what outlined to say it above.

According to these reasons that follow the doctrine of what now could be to follow the doctrine of another; because they did not choose to follow, but created the causes and conditions varied to imitate the doctrine certain, and inherited generations doctrines, and ascertains the followers of all the doctrine that what they are is right alone.

And its worth noting that the schools did not arise in the life of the Imams, what was spins بخلد and one of them that nation Sttafrq to multiple communities, each community chosing to Emam Taatasb him and to hold opinions and to bear his name, Abu Talib al-Makki said the profiteers hearts([17]): “The updated books and collections, and people say articles, fatwas doctrine of one of the people and take him, and his story of everything, and AlTafaqah on doctrine, ancient people were not on it in the first and second centuries”.

And the prestigious schools of Islamic jurisprudence that has spread and remained until modern times, are the four schools of Sunni famous, المذهبان intertwined Jafari (Imami) Zaidi, then doctrine Ibadhi, and this doctrine Some historians attribute to outsiders, though followers now do not believe that they belong to this band, and they go to be the oldest schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

The doctrines المندثرة the فكثيرة, some famous and has practical implications remain virtual Kalmzhb, and others are not known, and has no practical implications, though he had some opinions and interpretations recorded by mothers fiqh books and others, such as books and explain the interpretation totals for the year.

Jurisprudential evolution of doctrines:

Schools after having passed and crystallized their curricula in the second half of the third century in three stages:

First phase began after the establishment of schools, and remained nearly three centuries, ie, to the fall of Baghdad in 656 AH, and the second phase began after the fall of Baghdad, has been the emergence of Journal provisions judicial year 1293 AH, and started the third phase after the appearance of the magazine and still so far.

في المرحلة الأولى نَما الفقه وتطور، وعرف لوناً من الاجتهاد، ولكنه اجتهاد في نطاق المذهب، وليس اجتهاداً في نطاق الشرع، ولهذا انحصر نشاط الفقهاء، أو اجتهادهم في هذه المرحلة في إظهار علل الأحكام التي قال بها الأئمة، والترجيح بين الآراء في المذهب الواحد، والاهتمام بدراسة علم الخلاف بين الفقهاء، كما تضاعف الاهتمام بعلم أصول الفقه، فكتبت فيه مؤلفات كثيرة بعضها موجز وبعضها مطوّل، وبرزت العناية بوضع قواعد كلية تندرج تحتها الأحكام الفقهية.

The most important advantage of by this stage is to organize and arrange the Islamic sectarian, it has been the impact of defense doctrines and publicize the work for publication, writing books that combine diaspora issues in the schools with the reasoning and externalized on the assets of credit taken out, and support for, the evidence, and mentioned the contentious issues with .

The Activity scholars in this field colors of race science who served Jurisprudence and arranged its doors and its chapters, at the same time was of the reasons that kept us jurisprudence imams hardworking, and worked on the development and frequent writing it, writing an encyclopedic and concise at the same time.

In the second phase dominated tradition on idiosyncratic activity, and was one of the most important factors that helped on this, intuitive weakness among the general Arab scholars, And neglect of the study of Arabic science, literary, and only this is something that needs to Faqih for upright language and expanding horizon, and added to the rupture of the Islamic world and weaknesses, and the tyranny of rulers and Tillshm for influence and power has resulted from all this collapse of mental life and jurisprudence, and the spread of fads and delusions and the keenness of jurists on the positions ([18]).

Manifested tradition at this stage in rumination Heritage idiosyncratic in the era of codification and prosperity of authoring it, and through his explanation and shortening, or organized without the addition of a new, as reflected in the tyranny of detective verbal and issues default illegally mentality, but after this doctrine about life, did not care what was introduced .

However this did not prejudice the jurisprudence in the second phase of some scientific interest, but it was fraught with much of the analysis and scrutiny, how to save the doctrinal heritage of the Imams and their students and transferred to future generations, and that it was dominated by the figure on the substance.

The emergence of judicial judgments magazine([19]) بداية لمرحلة جديدة في البحث الفقهي ما زالت قائمة حتى الآن؛ فقد أخذت الدراسات الفقهية بعد ظهور هذه المجلة تشق طريقها رويداً رويداً نحو التجديد والتطوير ومواكبة العصر ومشكلاته المختلفة، وكانت العوامل التي هيأت لهذه الدراسات أن تتطور مادة وأسلوباً متنوعا، منها ظهور عدد من المصلحين الذين قادوا حركة التجديد، وحذروا من الجمود والركود، ومنها التطور الزمني، ونمو المعارف البشرية، والاحتكاك بين الحضارات، وتيسر سبل الاتصال بين الأمم، وانتشار التعليم وظهور الصحافة والمجلات. ولكن الفقه الإسلامي اليوم، على الرغم من كثرة معاهده ومؤسساته ومؤتمراته وندواته ومؤلفاته، ما زال يعيش في دائرة النظر أكثر من دائرة التطبيق، وهو إلى هذا يعاني من متطفلين وأدعياء يحسبون أنفسهم من أهل الاجتهاد، فيقولون في قضايا خطيرة أقوالاً ينقصها العمق والدقة، ومعرفة أصول البحث، ويشغل هؤلاء غيرهم بالرد عليهم ومناقشتهم، وبذلك تبذل جهود لا جدوى منها في الأخذ والرد، كما أن الفقه المعاصر ما زال يعاني من آثار التقليد والتعصّب، وما زالت هناك هوة بين أتباع بعض المذاهب تؤثر في وحدة الأمة، كما تعوق التعاون من أجل تطبيق الشريعة في مختلف مجالات الحياة.

The second topic: Fanaticism and its effects in the Muslim community

بعد نشأة المذاهب للأسباب التي أوجزت القول فيها فيما سلف، عرفت الحياة الفقهية ظاهرة التقليد للأئمة، ثم التعصّب للمذاهب، وأضحى هذا التعصّب مصدرًا لِما عرفه تاريخ الفقه، منذ نحو عشرة قرون وحتى العصر الحاضر، من تحامل وخصام وصراع بين الفقهاء، لقد أضفى التعصّب على آراء المذاهب صفة القداسة، وصارت كأنها شرع ملزم تحرم مخالفته، فلا غرو أن تبارى أتباع كُلّ مذهب في الذود عن مذهبهم، ولم يكن دفاعهم علميًّا يَتَغيَّا احترام الْـحَقّ ونصرته، وَإِنَّمَا كان دفاعًا تسوده روح المكابرة والمباهاة والغلبة، ولهذا تبادل الفقهاء في دفاعهم عن مذاهبهم عبارات السخرية والازدراء، والعداوة والبغضاء، وزعموا أنهم بهذا ينصرون الدين، بيد أنهم كانوا يخذلونه بتفريق كلمة الأمَّة.

And helped to fanaticism unit ethnic and regional tendencies, it also helped the whims of some rulers, those who have taken the controversy and disperse way to protect استبدادهم and Georhm.

Imam Mohammad Abdo says (T.: 1323E): “The reason for the survival of power of Sultan dispute and conflict is the spread of ignorance, and intolerance of people of the prestige of scientists to their doctrines to which they belong, and Bjahaa live and honor. And the support of princes and sultans them, their use of the general subject, and cut through the mental independence to the nation; because this is aware of them on tyranny, and more to enable them than they love corruption and corruption”([20]).

History has known idiosyncratic colors of hateful intolerance among the followers of the doctrines manifested some pictures below:

First: Non-scientific debates: كانت المناظرات في عصر أئمة المذاهب تتخذ طابع البحث العلمي الذي يتغيَّا استخلاص النتائج من مقدمات منطقية، فهى مناظرات موضوعية لا تعرف الفَلَج بِالْـحَقِّ أو الباطل، وَإِنَّمَا تعرف الأمانة والصدق، والتعاون العلمي الصحيح، ولذلك عادت هذه المناظرات على الفقه في عصر الأئمة بفوائد جمة، منها أَنَّهَا عمقت الأفكار، وأدت إلى بلورة الآراء وتمحيصها، وكانت من عوامل الازدهار والدقة في التأليف الفقهي.

But in the era of debates pupils imams, especially in times of weakness and tradition, as it was no longer in the era of the imams of doctrines, it was not intended to examine the issues and show the right, but try إفحام the right opponent or vanities, narrated some of them as saying: The talk going on in the debate on ختل discount and pay and Mgalapth, we are not talking to the face of God pure, even if we wanted to was we have taken to silence faster than Ttaulna to speak, though in many of these Nbu wrath of God, I am, however, our desire is in the capacity of God's mercy([21]).

Imam Ghazali says (T.: 505E): “See today to Mnazera Zmanc how prevalent the face of one of them if it turns out right on the lips of a debate, and how diligent in Mkabernh as hard as he could, and an anger that attends challenge one who Avhmh of longevity”([22]).

The intolerance that is transmitted Debates jurists to the conflict dialectic does not know the objective or scientific integrity, but knows in order to prevail and pretend science and credited, ففقدت these debates, so its mission in the refinement of consensus and deepening and development of ideas and development, and eventually become factors of weak scientific life, and to deepen the rift between the sects .

Secondly: Corrupt views: It was the sins of fanaticism that the exchange of the followers of sects phrases slander and ridicule, and issue for everyone statements and opinions corrupt should not for a Muslim to utter them, or to qualify their Muslim brother, or claims by that is the case of his doctrines is right alone, including : Thrown to a dog or Hanafi.

This compares to say what the Hanafi corrupt Asked: Is it permissible for a Hanafi to marry women Shaafa'is? : That may not be; because they suspect their faith([23]), And faith is not valid unless the lump.

Lefty Hanafi last that may Hanafi to marry Shaafa'is of not as secure but measured on Biblical Judaism or Christianity which is permissible for a Muslim to agreement([24]).

According to the Encyclopedia “Jewels speech” It is in Imami jurisprudence about the pending divorce, and one of the Imami see that this divorce is located, that the author of this response encyclopedia opinion and then said: It is as you can see, due to the collector applies to assets Imami, but it is suitable for public myths, So Otabqgua on the passport, and filled their books with the branches and Praise be to Allah who has recovered from much of what plagued by his creation, even willing to do([25]).

Such a victory that disdains the views of the Sunnis in the pending divorce and he describes بالعامة, and goes to the attitude of this divorce scourge of God عافى him Imami a scientific approach to talk about something controversial, he holds the Sunnis respond it بنحوه or the most of it.

He said some of the Maalikis: The NATO at all in the book Muwatta owner of the conversations true unkept. As of NATO that all is in Bukhari and Muslim from the conversations it true unkept in his right hand([26]).

And goes Abu al-Hasan al-Karkhi was President Hanafi Iraq, and died in 340 AH that every modern verse or contrary to what it is the imam it Múl or abrogated([27]).

Such statements and opinions that were often conducted by the tongues of the imams of jurists, which vilified by followers of the doctrines of each other, or put them all doctrine above the level of criticism and review was express the amount of the influence of tradition and intolerance, and fueled the fire of discord among Muslims.

Thirdly: Fight the way advances in diligence: The scholars and imams Ancestors of the nation, their views do not see His Holiness, they are susceptible of right and wrong, and they foment takes them that walketh released in diligence, said Muzani in the first shortcuts: This shortened aware Shafei and meaning of the words, to Oqrabh wanted, with informed prohibitions emulate and imitate others, for the consideration of religion, and precautions for himself, ie, with the media wanted the knowledge of Shafi'i Shafi'i forbade emulate and imitate other([28]).

Came from Imam Ahmad said: No one with God and His Messenger, the words. He also said to a man: No Tqldni no Tqldn owner nor Awzaa'i nor Nakha'i not others, and take in terms of the provisions taken from the Quran and Sunnah([29]).

But the followers of sects, especially the latecomers of them, photographed doctrinal commitment to the doctrine of a particular is not permissible for one that works without, and he has to accept the views of doctrine without discussing it, or trap them, have stated that some of them that may not move from doctrine to another and who did this ([30]).

We pay fanaticism to getting down to tradition doctrines and defense, and not go out on them, and that included some of the opinions weak or contrary to the Quran and Sunnah, but it was the followers of sects circumvent to pay the phenomena of the texts, and they carry on is her right, supporting the doctrine and the imam.

Says Sheikh Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam (T.: 660E) About the intolerance of the people of the tradition of the views of imams: Ironically, the scholars imitators stand someone twice socket imam, so you do not find a weakness cannon, which, however, imitate it, and leaves from the saw and Sunnah and الأقيسة right to their beliefs, rigid on the tradition of the imam, but circumvent to pay the phenomena of the Quran and Sunnah, and Ataolha Baltoalat remote pretentious, .

He also: The saw them meet in councils, if mention of someone other than what the homeland itself it marveled at him very exclamation is pneumothorax to a directory, but written tradition imam even thought that the right confined in the doctrine of the imam, even managing to the likes of the doctrine of the imam first of likes of doctrine ([31]).

ولم يقف التعصّب المذهبي عند الجمود على آراء الأئمة ومن اتبعهم وتوطين النفس عليها، وعدم النظر العقلى فيها، أو عرضها على النصوص وموازنتها بغيرها من الآراء، وَإِنَّمَا أضاف إلى هذا المناهضة والمقاومة لِكُلِّ من يخرج على آراء السابقين، كان له من العامة سند في النيل من كُلّ عالم يتمتَّع بدرجة من الاستقلال في التفكير، حتى أثر بعض العلماء الذين كانوا يضيقون، وينفرون من التعصّب السكوت على إنكار مواقف المقلدين الجامدين، تقية وخوفًا من آذاهم، يقول الشوكاني: (T.: 1250E): فإذا تكلم عالم من علماء الاجتهاد بشيء يخالف ما يعتقده المقلدة قاموا عليه قومة جاهلية، ووافقهم على ذلك أهل الدنيا وأرباب السلطان فإذا قدروا على الإضرار به في بدنه وماله فعلوا ذلك، وهم بفعلهم مشكورون عند أبناء جنسهم من العامة والمقلدة؛ لأنهم قاموا بنصرة الدين بزعمهم، وذبوا عن الأئمة المتبوعين، وعن مذاهبهم التي قد اعتقدها أتباعهم، فيكون لهم بهذه الأفعال التي هي عين الجهل والضلال، من الجاه والرفعة عند أبناء جنسهم ما لم يكن في حساب.

As the world's investigator speaker rightly, فالأحرى not escape from their evil and delivers Dharhm, and the display Faiser prone to cursing and Altbdia and neglect and misinformation, it is this view set himself up to deny this heresy, and is based in people Ptbtal this Aelchenah?!.

Then he says: Is Scott scientists diligence on the denial of a fad with the tradition of these things to her family approval permissible? (T.: 702E) He asked him paper and by his death, disease, and bring them under his bed, and when he died, dropped her If imitation is the prohibition never([32]).

ويبدو من مجموع ما أوردته من نصوص وآراء حول التعصّب المذهبي، وموقفه من اجتهادات السلف، أن هذا التعصّب كان قذى في عيون المجتهدين، وَأَنَّهُ عاق حركة الاجتهاد والتجديد التي حاول بعض الأعلام الذين ظهروا في عصور الضعف والركود أن ينهضوا بها عن الانطلاق، وكسر طوق المذهبية الذي خنق الحرية الفكرية، وأكره الأمَّة ـ دون وعي منها ـ على أن تسير في ركب التبعية المطلقة للآراء والاجتهادات التي خلت، التي إن صلحت لعصر فلن تصلح بالضرورة لغيره، الأمر الذي أطال أمد تخلفها، وكسوف شمس نهضتها، وفرق بين أبنائها، وأعطى للدخلاء فرصة للسيطرة عليها والسعى لغزوها عسكريًا وفكريًا.

IV: Bloody conflict: That was unfortunate images of religious intolerance in a circle to say, and were Geraúrha to Acer signed and lighter than this sad picture marked by the bloody conflict between the followers of sects, even in mosques without regard for the sanctity.

Story goes that in the year 326 AH happened in Egypt fighting between followers of the Shafi'i and Maliki and Hanafi in the mosque old, has arrived is this fight to Ikhshid who was it at the time, intervened to resolve the dispute, not able to do so only after sending a squad of soldiers ([33]).

A glossary of sapphire countries when talking about the city of Isfahan: The فشا devastation in its environs; so many temptations and intolerance among Shaafa'is and tap, and related to the wars between the two parties, the more range appeared other locality were looted and burned, and do not take them ravaged the only nor edema([34]).

Son speaks a lot about what occurred strife between employers doctrines and beliefs in Baghdad, he recalled that in the year 414 AH Karkh happened between the people and the people of Basra door countless mesmerized, where he got the killing and looting and absurdity is not confined nor ينضبط([35]).

He also says: In the year 422 AH closure of markets Shiites and hanging out surveys and came out crying in the alleys, they turned to the Sunnis in iron and battled اقتتالا of severe, and the forces of them Sunnis, killing them created much([36]).

Came at the beginning and the end also: The Hanbali in Baghdad in 447 AH strong on their side on Ash'aris and prevented them from witnesses Friday, and groups, also tried Hanbali prevent Shaafa'is of pronouncing b «In the name of God the Merciful», and rewind in the ears and qunoot, and almost get mesmerized large nor carried on silence eventually([37]).

This bloody conflict remained until the present era, the newspapers published in 1382 that police in the city of Karachi, declared that 120 Muslim people have been killed and wounded 16 Others following the bloody battles erupted between Sunnis and Shiites in Thari village, which lies 25 Miles from the Pakistani capital, and caught fire in the village where the fighting took place, and a similar clash occurred in Lahore killed two people([38]).

The fruits of that conflict is regrettable multiplicity of groups in the mosque one, especially in large mosques, Umayyad Kgama Damascus, and Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, it has become the followers of every doctrine niche and Imam, as multiplicity judges, so that each doctrine was represented by judge.

ولا مراء في أن ما كان يجري بين أتباع المذاهب من فتن تراق فيها الدماء يعبر عن تعصّب أرعن، وجهل أحمق مكَّن للكراهية والتفرق بين المسلمين، وأن هؤلاء الأتباع بما كانوا يفعلون وإن ظنوا ـ وهو ظن باطل ـ أَنَّهُم يجاهدون في سبيل الْـحَقّ، قد أتوا أمرًا إدًّا، وارتكبوا جريمة منكرة، وأساءوا إلى العقيدة التي استظلوا جميعًا بلوائها، وفتحوا ثغرة دخل منها أعداء الإسلام لمحاربته وتشويه مبادئه والمؤمنين به، في محاولة لزعزعة ثقة المسلمين بدينهم، ولتنفير غير المسلمين من الإيمان به.

The effects of fanaticism in the Muslim community:

I within talk about the manifestations of intolerance to the tip of its effects, and these effects are almost meet at the community rupture and differentiate his speech, then disable mind about considering the independent, has resulted in this and that dissipated energies in various fields, Vtkhalaft nation and went Rihha.

The United Nations does not promote only on the foundations of thinking mature and freedom wise, and make room for all the capabilities and capacities for innovation and tender, and control concepts of positive cooperation and altruism on the activity of individuals and groups, not negative or individual, but it is working at a charity for the benefit of the public and private alike.

It was fanaticism from behind the killing of freedom mental and differentiate one nation, and the tyranny of some governors and rulers, thus spent by the weakness and backwardness several centuries, has allowed this to its enemies the opportunity to ينقضوا them, and Ateroa them, they did not forget جراحاتهم in “Hittin” And other battles, but it robbed of Andalusia and Sicily and the Mediterranean islands and Palestine, occupied much of diameters, and imposed by the laws and customs of spacing between them and originality, and going little by little to the total alienation of their religion and heritage.

وإذا كانت الأمَّة الإسلامية تنعم في حاضرها بالاستقلال والحرية فهى ما زالت تعاني من تلك الآثار، وليس أدلَّ على ذلك من أَنَّهَا تملك كل أسباب القوة والنهضة، ومع هذا تصنف ضمن الأمم الضعيفة المتخلفة، أو الأمم النامية، لأنها مازالت تجتر تاريخًا بغيضًا يمنعها من الوحدة والتعاون، والانتفاع بما تملك من إمكانيات هائلة؛ ولأنها في الوقت نفسه ـ بسبب تفرقها، واهتمامها بما لا ينبغى أن تهتم به أو تصرف جهودها إليه ـ لم تبلغ في ثقافتها وعلمها مبلغًا يؤهلها لأن تلحق بالأمم التي سبقتها في مضمار الحضارة والتقدم.

 

* * *

The third topic: Rapprochement between sects and Islamic unity

Enjoy the Islamic nation a set of properties that are not enjoyed by other nation, which is obvious characteristics for those who understands the doctrine of this nation and read history, and examines its present, it occupies a geographically distinct, in terms of climate and soil fertility, and the diversity of the environment, a site that occupies the center of the world, and connects .

In addition to this unique location, representing the Islamic nation in terms of population density is about one fifth of the world, they are enormous wealth of mankind, human beings of all times and ages are the makers of progress and civilization.

And to this nation enjoys huge material wealth, it possesses vast lands cultivated arable, and in the country's most important rivers, under the soil of other rivers of oil, and in the mountains and desert all the minerals that are essential to people about.

In addition, the characteristics of the site and the wealth of human and material wealth, I have this nation's creed that protect humanity from the delusions of idolatry, and the legislation which guarantees justice for all, and settled among the people in rights and duties, and saves human societies from the chaos of experiments legal, looks and doctrines situation.

But what about this nation on what the enjoyment of those characteristics, and others may be resolved by the weakness, and lost status which Boaha God them, and subjected to aggression from different nations?!

What made this nation that possesses all power sources in its comprehensive concept weak nation does not reside with the world and weight, and was by Her leadership and sovereignty, and everyone was preaching and son, and seeks to take them?!

Different explanations researchers and thinkers in the outgrowth of the case of this nation, and with the differences and diversity of persuasions intellectual and political hardly agree that disperse among the sons of this nation and its people, then what's planned enemies in order not to rise from كبوتها, or relive its most important causes weakness and backwardness.

And who does not doubt that the dispersions and the resulting weakness and go Wind was the result of the weakness of faith, and the leakage of fantasies and ideas corrupt the hearts and feelings, and then it becomes hard drive in order to have faith in the soul suzerainty actor and impact of full, it is the Right Start to get rid of ideas corrupt .

The rapprochement between the sects is in essence an attempt to break the backbone of intolerance, and plural nation on the assets of its faith and the basic principles of their religion.

The unity of intellectual introduction necessary for the unity of the political, and the Islamic nation unites them intellectually eternal values ​​of religion, and the underlying assets of the faith, but fanaticism made between the sons of this nation and the assets of its ideology and values ​​of religion as a cover thick of ignorance and oblivion, no distinction between what needs to be faith and the knowledge of intellectual ([39]), So dispersed and fought and became severely shares, including ancient and modern, intellectual unity will not be achieved without a rapprochement between sects canceled hateful intolerance on the one hand, and leads to the University of unity on the other..

وإذا كانت الأصوات ترتفع الآن تطالب بتطبيق أحكام الشريعة كلها، والتحرّر من القوانين الوضعية فإنَّ التعصّب المذهبي ساعد على دخول هذه القوانين إلى الديار الإسلامية؛ لأَنَّ الفقهاء اختلفوا، وحاول أتباع كُلّ مذهب أن يكون لفقه مذهبه الكلمة الأولى في تطبيق هذه الأحكام، مِمَّا حمل الحكام على أن يستوردوا القوانين الأجنبية، ما دام الفقهاء لم يتفقوا ويتعاونوا في تقديم قانون التقارب بين المذاهب إن كان سبيلاً للوحدة بين أبناء الأمَّة فهو أيضًا سبيل للتطبيق الكامل لأحكام الشريعة؛ لأَنَّ الشباب في كُلّ أمة هم رجال مستقبلها وطليعة نهضتها يجب أن يوجّهوا الوجهة السديدة التي تنير أمامهم الطريق نحو غد مشرق بالخير والعزّ والحضارة والتقدم، وهذا التوجيه في أمتنا أساسه الإسلام عقيدة وشريعة، غير أننا إذا أمعنا النظر في واقعنا المعاصر، وحاولنا أن نعرف المسار الفكرى لشباب الأمَّة فإننا نلاحظ أن هذا الشباب، بوجه عام، لم يجد من يقدم له التراث الفقهي نقيًا من شوائب الآراء الفاسدة والمواقف الجائزة، ومن هنا ولّى وجهه نحو الثقافات الأجنبية دون تمييز بين غثها وسمينها، ونظر إلى التراث الإسلامي كله نظرة امتعاض وامتهان، فلم يقبل عليه، أو يهتم به، وقد ترتب على هذا أن هان على الشباب تاريخهم، وصغر في أعينهم عطاء حضارتهم وتراثهم، بل كاد أن يصبح الدين غير عزيز عليهم، ولا أثيرًا لديهم وهذا أخطر ما منيت به الأمَّة بسبب التعصّب المذهبي، وما جرّه عليها من التفرق والتنازع.

It was the invasion of the Islamic world, and the imposition of educational systems exotic, as well as customs and traditions and laws that deny the Islamic faith, of the factors that helped to Weird young people about their religion and their history, and the emergence of bilateral cultural rights; due to duplication of education, divided into religious and civil.

وكان ردّ الفعل لهذه الغربة، ومحاولة الغرب طمس معالم الأصالة الإسلامية في شتى المجالات هو العمل للعودة إلى هذه الأصالة، فظهر عدد من الدعاة والمصلحين الذين حذَّروا الأمَّة من مغبَّة تَمزّقها الفكري، وخصامها غير العقلى لتراثها وتاريخها، وبينوا لها أن سبيل نهضتها يكمن في الاعتصام بدينها اعتصامًا يحقق معنى الأخوّة الإسلامية تحقيقًا كاملاً، وأثمرت جهود هؤلاء الدعاة فعرفت الأمَّة ما يسمَّى بالصحوة الإسلامية، والمطالبة بأن يكون التشريع الإسلامي هو وحده القانون الذي نتحاكم إليه في كل شَيْء، ولكن هذه الصحوة تتعرض الآن لخطر لا يقل ضررًا عن خطر التعصّب المذهبي، ويتمثل هذا الخطر في الجماعات الإسلامية، فكل جماعة تعمل لصالحها، والصراعات بينها عنيفة، وبخاصة في بلاد الغرب مِمَّا يشوه صورة الإسلام أمام غير المؤمنين به.

والأمَّة إلى هذا تعاني من مشكلات جمة، فهى تعاني من حرب ضروس يشنها عليها الأعداء بأسلحة، متنوعة من أحداثها هذا الغزو الفكري الذي تحمله إليها الأقمار الصناعية، وهذا التخطيط المتآمر الذي يسعى لوأد كل جهد إسلامي يستعلى على مباذل الحضارة المعاصرة، ويثبت كيانه ووجوده أمام الغطرسة الصليبية الحاقدة، كما يجري الآن بالنسبة للمسلمين في مختلف دول أوروبا وآسيا وأمريكا وبخاصة في فلسطين، فهناك حرب إبادة لشعب مسلم دون أن تتحرك المنظمات الدولية تحركًا إيجابيًا لمنع هذه الحرب ودون أن تعمل الدول التي ترفع شعار الحرية والحقوق الإنسانية على وقف المذابح وانتهاك الحقوق.

إن الصهيونية العالمية تسعى لإنهاء الوجود الإسلامي كقوة فاعلة ومؤثرة؛ لأَنَّها تدرك أن هذه القوة هي وحدها التي تقف ضد أطماعها التوسعية، وأهدافها العدوانية في العالم وبخاصة في العالم الإسلامي، وفضلاً عن هذه الأخطار الخارجية تعاني الأمَّة من أخطار داخلية تمثلها تلك النزاعات والخلافات المزمنة حول المشكلات الثقافية والاجتماعية والحدودية بين شعوبها، ثم تيارات الإلحاد الوافدة، واندفاعها الخبيث لزعزعة العقيدة وبلبلة الأمَّة فكريًا، حتى لا تلتقى على كلمة سواء.

وَكُلُّ ما تعاني منه الأمَّة من غربة فكرية، ومشكلات متعددة، وتخطيط من قبل أعدائها لجعلها أمة مستهلكة لا منتجة، ومتخلفة لا متقدمة، ومتخاصمة لا متحابة، مرده إلى التفرق والتدابر الذي شغلنا عما يجب أن نقوم به ونسعى إليه، فأمست الطاقات والإمكانات التي منحها الله للأمَّة سلاحا للتدمير لا للتعمير، وللتفريق لا للتجميع، وأصبح مثل المسلمين الذين احتفظوا بخلافاتهم، وأنصتوا لداعى الفرقة كمثل شعب قامت فيه حرب أهلية طاحنة، فهي تشغل أبناءه وتستنفد قواهم، وتضيع جهودهم، وتلهيهم عن إصلاح أحوالهم وتقويم معوجهم، وتعين عليهم أعداءهم، وتكون سببا دائما في إثقال كواهلهم بما لا يحتملون من الأعباء، وفي إلباسهم لباس الذل والخوف والشقاء..

Sheikh Abdul Majid says Saleem (ت 1374هـ) Sheikh of Al-Azhar Mosque: “I've lived my life concerned about the Muslims, thinking with يصلحهم and save them, which involved the weakness and cowardice and deviation from the normal path, in education and employment, and found not a matter of only two things:

The first: To believe in faith for evidence and insight that Salah them not only this religion Magistrate by the first of them, and they are according to deviate from the teachings and principles of the injured in their country and themselves and other their Baldhara conditions and misery colors.

The second: To forget أحقادهم and legacy عداواتهم which أورثتهم him of vulnerability factors and covenants humiliation and fear, and shed enemies, Faaudoa also left the Messenger of Allah e one nation dear decent feel Bazatha and dignity, and the purpose of her only uphold the word of God and dissemination of religion, and the defense on the right, where they found a way”.

Then he says, stressing on the necessity of the Union and a coalition of hearts and fresh all what interests hatchet and Lenka wounds; war because the band had insisted on the nation for centuries cut with them, and ruined a lot of plans to reform their authors: Fletdber Muslims their position, especially in this difficult time that Vgrt the ambitions mouths to Aptlallm, which has become a force in which the bloc is the language of communication prevailing, and the method of understanding is useful, but forget what some of them the differences that Ohunthm and damper than their own, and to stand as one to save themselves and their religion, but to save ([40]).

After; these Islamic unity idiosyncratic governance([41]) واجبة شرعًا، فليست عملاً ترغيبًا يُدعى إليه، وَإِنَّمَا هي أمر واجب يلزم كُلّ مسلم يشهد بأن الله واحد، وأن محمدًا عبده ورسوله، وهذا الواجب يطوق عنق كُلّ مسلم وسيسأل عنه يوم الدين، ولهذا كان كُلّ ما يؤدى إلى الوحدة فهو واجب؛ لأَنَّ ما لا يتم الواجب إِلاَّ به فهو واجب، والتقارب بين المذاهب يجمع الأمَّة على الأصول الكلية، ولا يجعل للاختلافات الجزئية أثرًا في الوحدة، فهو بهذا يكون أمرًا مطلوبًا شرعًا؛ لأَنَّهُ وسيلة إلى غاية مفروضة، والوسيلة تأخذ حكم الغاية ما دامت تنتهى إليها.

Finally; the responsibility of rapprochement between the schools located on the barrier scholars, Fama people followed them, walking according to what they say, and take what Lifton If realized these jurists responsibility as carried out by the ancestors of goes the nation rapidly towards the brotherhood and unity of Islamic ensure strength in all fields.

لقد آمن بفكرة التقريب كوكبة من كبار العلماء والمفكرين، أمثال الشيخ عبد المجيد سليم والشيخ مُـحَمَّد تقي القمّي والشيخ محمود شلتوت والشيخ عبد الحليم كاشف الغطاء والشيخ محمد المدني والشيخ محمد رضا الشبيني والشيخ محمد أبو زهرة والسيد مُـحَمَّد صدر الدين شرف الدين والدكتور محمد البهي والشيخ هبة الدين الشهرستاني والأستاذ محمود فياضي والسيد محمد صادق الصدر والشيخ محمد على علوبة باشا والشيخ مُـحَمَّد عبد الله دراز والشيخ عبد المتعال الصعيدي والأستاذ محمد فريد وجدي والأستاذ احمد أمين والأستاذ على عبد الواحد وافي والأستاذ عباس محمود العقاد والأستاذ الشيخ على الخفيف والشيخ سيد سابق والشيخ عبد العزيز عيسي والشيخ أقا حسين البروجدي والسيد محمد جواد مغنية… And many others.

We paint the Grand Imam Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout efforts leading scientists who preceded him in this regard, such as Sheikh Mohammed Mustafa Maraghi and Sheikh Mustafa Abdel Razek and Sheikh Abdul Majid Salim, who laid the idea of ​​rounding him, and found them similar to the example and help in achieving the hoped desired for the unity of Muslims, and to reject .

It was found the idea of ​​bringing in the same hue and a desire to his heart, Fbzl the effort in this regard with enthusiasm and dedication, and considered that this call is a call unification and unity, Islam and peace.

In this says God's mercy: “The doctrinal and went to my best and I know that I do not permissible for a funky and my followers without being seen and knows where I said what I said, the directory if unbend it deliberately to me, talk If it is true it is doctrinal, I believe in the idea of ​​convergence as a way of orthodox and contributed since the first day in her community and in ”([42])

In support of the idea of ​​rounding, the Grand Imam Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout after the took over Al-Azhar issued his fatwa famous worship passport on Islamic sects fixed assets, known sources followed the path of the believers, including the Twelver Shia doctrine as it came attached fatwa.

 

The fourth topic: Al-Azhar's efforts to codify Islamic sects

In this section I am trying to decide the effort of Al-Azhar on the subject of legalization of Islamic law, which illustrated introduction virtue of the late Dr. / Mohamed Abdel Rahman Bisar (Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy, former) In the initial editions released to codify the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence Shafi'i, Hanafi, Maliki, Hanbali, as follows:

Secretariat is pleased to Islamic Research Academy to provide this preliminary edition of the draft codification of Islamic law on the doctrine of Imam Muhammad bin Idris Shafi'i t.

The Islamic Research Academy as presents this edition as a step on the road in order to reach to highlight the Islamic Sharia in its original, easy handling, suitable for application in this era, he finds them responsible for legislation and the judiciary in the country's various Islamic rich resort to legislation and laws, they are in the process …

Wishes to express its appreciation for it entails the task of accurate and Jalal, both from a purely practical point of view, or from the social and historical side through which the Islamic peoples in this era…

لذلك فَإِنَّهُ إذ يقدّم هذه الطبعة التمهيدية كمشروع تحضيري، يؤكد أن الذين قاموا بإعدادها هم نخبة من كبار علماء الشريعة الإسلامية بالأزهر، وكبار رجال القانون، ذوي الحرص الشديد على أن تأخذ الشريعة الإسلامية مكانتها الجديرة بها في حياتنا التشريعية والقانونية، وأنهم قد يذلوا من الجهد ـ وما يزالون يبذلون ـ الكثير المحمود، من أجل الخروج بهذا المشروع إلى حياتنا العامة، ليكون دليلاً عملياً على صلاحية الشريعة الإسلامية للتطبيق في كل زمان ومكان، ووثيقة يستعين بها المشرعون والمسئولون في البلاد الإسلامية على تنفيذ ما جاء في دساتيرهم من أن تكون الشريعة الإسلامية مصدراً رئيسياً للقانون.

كما يؤكِّد أن البحث ما يزال جارياً للوصول بهذا المشروع إلى درجة الكمال أو ما يقرب منه، ولذا فإن المجمع يتقبل بكلّ ترحيب ما يبديه المتخصصون من إسهام بالرأي، وعلى أيَّة صورة من صور هذا الإسهام، وأن ذلك كله سوف يكون موضع الدرس المستفيض والبحث الدقيق، والعناية الكاملة من أعضاء اللجنة العامة لتقنين الشريعة الإسلامية، التي تقرر تأليفها من بين أعضاء مجمع البحوث الإسلامية، ومن ينضم إليهم، مِـمَّن ترى الاستعانة بخبرتهم.

It was thus surprising, and surprising, and hurts at the same every Muslim jealous, to resort Islamic nation, and use the provisions of the law and my put human beings, even though the bearing had belonged to our Islamic nation to Han it, because it inevitably had to resort to its Constitution Islamic extrapolates .

Some may think or believe that Islamic law does not meet the Bhajiat era in which it appeared new transactions were not present in the first Islamic era. In fact, those in their expectations are wrong, and the history of their nation's Islamic heedless, if traced the history of this nation throughout the ages and times of the era of Islam first that the penetration of Islam in Persia and the Romans, and some European countries to show them how they govern this country in this religion of Islam.

I've fought Islamic Sharia field experiment successfully for hundreds of years in conditions of varying degrees and experiences severe and emerged victorious after he excelled in a different atmosphere and the ages and volatility. فمن المؤكد الذي لا مراء فيه أن نظام الإسلام قد عالج بنجاح تام مصالح الدولة الإسلامية في أوج توسعاتها مئات السنين، وأقامت الشريعة صرح نظام ومؤسسات تجارية وبحرية ومصرفية، ومصالح ثقافية وعمرانية واجتماعية متينة البنيان ولا يكون ذلك ـ بطبيعة الحال ـ إلا لمتانة أصولها وأحكام أسسها، فإن الشريعة الإسلامية التي ظهرت في مجتمع بدائي منحصر في صحراء الجزيرة، قد واجهت بكل كفاية وثبات احتياجات سكان الإمبراطوريتين الفارسية والرومانية الشرقية، وأثبتت علوها وتفوقها على نظمهم القديمة، عندما زادت بها المعاملات رقياً، والحضارة تقدما وازدهاراً، ثم إن هذه الشرعية حكمت التجارة البحرية المزدهرة بين الشرق وجمهوريات ايطاليا عبر البحار، ووضعت أسس القانونين التجاري والبحري الحديث، واستوفت احتياجات الحضارة الزراعية، والصناعية والتجارية في بلاد الإسلام المختلفة. We do not find in modern types of transactions and the contemporary needs can Lindh about the origins of Islam, only to be looked down upon in itself is OK for such virtuous and undesirable in approval, at which time it should be treated with Shara drug and rid society of evil and Opalh.

A quick look at the foundations upon which other legislative systems, we find that it does not call for enough to boost confidence in them. For example, systems of capitalism is based on the theories of the individual, which made it the basis of life is to benefit the individual and the pursuit of every human being to attain منفعته, and in light of these theories interrupted connection handle conscience, and became exploitation projects for strong guaranteed to him and led to the control of capital in vulnerable. The systems of collective extremist has led to harness the individual for the benefit of the group تسخيرا fully and dropped into account sufficiently the entity singles, impulses personal, human made Tersa in a big machine Livni them, and led to dispel the trust and confidence Faculty of Joe deal, and dyed dye anxiety, fear and instability.

This was not innovations to be approved by the Synod Council at its No. (27) 03/08/1967 AD that it was important to work on the complex to find a comprehensive bill of civil status, criminal and other, if it is decided in the constitution making Islamic law the basis for rationing.

Then I recommend the Fourth Conference held on 27/09/1968 Complex, including the following:

“Recommend to the Conference of the Islamic Research Academy authored a committee of men of Islamic jurisprudence and positive law, to undertake the development of studies and projects the laws that make it easier for officials in the country taking to the provisions of Islamic Sharia in the country's laws into law sanctions and commercial law, maritime law and other”.

The Council also approved the complex decisions 62 01.07.1970 on the interim plan for complex work of the committees, including the “Codification of Islamic law” Contained in the plan of the Research Committee jurisprudence, as proposed by بجلستها the No. (20) Dated 10/11/1969.

The research committee held several meetings jurisprudence developed the Action Plan in the draft regulation. And settled to walk in the opinion of this project are as follows:

(1) Rationing schools of Islamic jurisprudence in which it operates in the Islamic country, it starts at the current stage codifying the four schools: Faucet - Shaafa'is - Maaliki - Hanbali. And codify the doctrine basis, and formulated its provisions in the articles, to be worded opinion from every doctrine correct it, and to be attached to each article explanatory note stating other opinions, as stating opinion which believes that best suited for the application in the present era.

(2) After the completion of the legalization of all the doctrine of the unit, starts to work in a law selected between the sects all, and so can the complex that offers each environment of environments Islamic associated with the doctrine of a particular Islamic law images that doctrine in the Secretariat, and can provide Islamic law chosen from .

Views on the approach to walk to codify Islamic law:

Draw views that revolve around this topic and their respective grounds, and objections made against them, and the records and discussions basic and sub-committees as follows:

(1) The view that the only review of statutory law to approve what is not different with Islamic law, and one amendment be contrary, and add money to be included in this law has a provision in the law. And based on this viewpoint to what comes:

(A) This approach achieves the desired speed.

(With) Many of the ordinances adapted from Islamic law and confined to the differences in specific positions.

Opposes this view, including the following:

(A) The terms of the positive law in a sense different from the terminology of Islamic law and agreed with them in sometimes ألفاظها.

(With) The positive law like any other law issued by a special custom, private environment, philosophy differ as much or as little about the Islamic Spirit, and then the adoption of what it seems on the face consistent with Islamic law inevitably been recognition of the spirit of Western issued by statutory law.

It was a signal Sheikh Yassin Swelam at a meeting of the Research Committee jurisprudence saying Nineteenth: “We want to make the law of Islamic spirit and body”.

For example: أن مراجعة بعض مواد القانون الجنائي قد تسفر –حسب هذا المنهج عن اتفاقها مع ما يقتضيه مبدأ التعزير في الإسلام من سعة ومرونة–، لكنه إذا نظر إلى أن هذا القانون الوضعي يعبر عن قيم أخلاقية معينة سادت في المجتمع الغربي في عصر من العصور، وأن مبدأ التعذير في الإسلام ينبغي أن يكون مرتبطاً بالقيم الأخلاقية الخاصة بالمجتمع الإسلامي، ونظرة الإسلام إلى الثواب والعقاب فَإِنَّهُ يصبح من الواجب تجنب القانون الجنائي الوضعي، والاتجاه إلى صياغته من واقع الشريعة الإسلامية والفقه الإسلامي على هدي قيم الإسلام ومثله العليا…

(C) This trend differs with the decision of the Conference of the compound and his jurisprudential and Research Committee, where it was decided (Codification of Islamic law) Do not see the positive law.

(2) The view: To codify Islamic law on the basis that resulted - the principle of it - and according to the order of positive law and doors.

And based on this point of view that this is a trend that achieves ease of application of sharia law in the modern era, and the expeditious completion of the required. Opposes this view including Aourdt and first view of the difference between the two terms, and the release of all their own philosophy.

For example: That positive law has been collecting various types of contracts under one door and was influenced by his theory in the contract and will launch contractors while Islamic law does not go this doctrine.

That who يسوقون this opposition does not rule out the possibility of rapprochement between the order in which they are doing here is taken, and the order in which they take him there, in the second stage of the work, after the materials are formulated from the Islamic Shariah directly, فتتوفر the Islamic spirit exclusive.

(3) The view that codified Islamic law principle of command in a selected uniform law of the Islamic schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

And oppose them and see the other point of view: To codify the first different Islamic schools of Islamic jurisprudence, each separately, and then secondly seen in the development of the common law chosen.

Based on the first point of view to:

(A) That it achieves the desired speed.

(With) It achieves the desired Islamic unity, and away Muslims from raising ideological differences.

(C) Islamic schools of Islamic jurisprudence are almost codified in ancient متونها the, and does not need to show in the form of legal materials, but to separate the syntax of each other will, and put numbers each as a separate article.

Based on the second point of view to:

(A) The speed can be compensated with more effort and further work.

(With) The different doctrines and reality can not be ignored, and can not be bypassed and the Islamic unity is not affected by the existence of these doctrines based on the Quran and Sunnah as much as it affected the blind intolerance to each.

(C) The development of the common law chosen must be preceded by - practically - prepares its articles of various sects, the weighting is then choose from them and hence it was necessary to prepare these materials from the first doctrines: Was invited to the omission of rationing doctrines invitation to wasted effort not necessarily been invited to codified before starting the development of the common law chosen an invitation to keep this effort and organization, and submit it to the country that requested or submitted in the development of the common law chosen as the search.

(D) The phrases far largely to fulfill the purposes of rationing is not correct to say they turn to legal materials just separated and numbered, for the following reasons:

(1) The mysterious texts or phrases shortcuts to some extent, it became the cause of the different commentators and owners of footnotes, not fit to be a legal substance before clarified, and تجلية ambiguity.

(2) The texts may combine views correct and is the correct view, and regulation takes including seen Rgehana of the.

(3) The texts may be carried on the statement likely commentator dispute, and rationing takes the words of commentator in some cases, it may take what came in the footnotes and reports.

(4) The provisions of the texts mostly part-time, and make the rules of the Faculty of rationing can be applied to many of the molecules.

(5) The texts include on devotional provisions, usually does not display on litigation, it is not true mentioned in the articles of the law.

(6) The texts, like other methods of speech humanitarian, subject to the rule of the environment and time, it was then seen as and to the extent of perfection, and become worthy of immortality with nature, and had to be a method of drafting new each time again, take into account the needs in terms of brevity and redundancy and overall and detail .

(7) Codification process is not limited to the formulation of the material, but goes beyond to develop as required to explain, or an explanatory note.

And finally: فلقد سار العمل في لِجان التقنين، وفقاً لوجهة النظر التي ذهبت إلى تقنين المذاهب الفقهية كُلّ على حدة، بعيداً عن التأثر بروح القانون الوضعي ونظرياته كمرحلة أولى، تتلوها مراحل التقريب والاختيار، والمجمع في المرحلة الراهنة بصدد استكمال خطوات هذا المشروع، ووضع القانون الموحد من بين أحكام المذاهب، وقد ألفت اللجنة المسئولة عن ذلك وباشرت مهمَّتها، ونرجو أن تفرغ منه في وقت يناسب أهمية هذا العمل، كما يناسب الحاجة الملحة إلى إصداره في أقرب فرصة. Mohammed Abdel-Rahman Bisar”([43]).

As I decide here, that the committees jurisprudential Islamic Research Academy, has completed the draft codification of Islamic law. Where all were printed in several doctrine numbers were as follows:

Shafei: Sections. الحنفي: Four sections.

Maliki: Sections. Hanbali: Five sections.

This has included a monumental work all doors Principles, next to the explanatory memorandum for each article of the project, to simplify the information and confirm it.

Conclusion

It can be said after talking about convergence in the approach of those detectives that the most important findings of the study summarized are as follows:

First: Islamic jurisprudence legislative revolution did not know her human counterpart in its long history, and schools of Islamic jurisprudence manifestation of intellectual freedom in Islam.

Secondly: No difference between the Muslims as a whole in assets that can not be recognized as a Muslim only, and the difference in his branches scientific reasons, a verse of the legislation and its flexibility is pleased.

Thirdly: Fanaticism difference between the sons of the nation, and it was behind the record date for the followers of the doctrines of the corrupt exchange of views, and false judgments, sad and bloody conflicts.

IV: Rapprochement between sects and religious necessity of life, and the way to meet about what we agreed upon, and excuse each other in what our differences, and subject our judgments and our views for scientific study, discussion and quiet spirit of tolerance and fairness.

V.: Exposed the nation in its present many challenges and seriously threaten its future, not its Monologues these serious challenges only to return to their religion, and cooperation between the peoples on the basis of the Islamic Unity.

Sixthly: Islamic unity and legally due, and rapprochement between the doctrines of the most important means to it, it is then a religious duty, and the scientists to do it, and lead the nation to the public.

 

Findings and recommendations

The recommendations that guide the study including the following: –

First: Expansion in the comparative study jurisprudence, holding seminars and conferences which combine scholars doctrines to know each other on a guidance and insight.

Secondly: Rid the schools of Islamic jurisprudence of the intruder that would spoil these doctrines or يشوهها.

Thirdly: Avoid controversial issues and forget about it, and take into account when discussing the dialogue literature or disagree.

IV: Concern for the community and the warning of the band, and to address the treatment of the problems facing the nation's Islamic values, and to prevail relations between the peoples of this nation until we reach the fraternity and integration and cooperation.

V.: Vigilance because Abdhirh the enemies of Islam from the seeds of division and discord among the Muslims in the name of scientific research and the revival of old books, etc. of deceiving glamorous names of and behind poison.

The God of the intent behind the Guide to the Straight Path.

 

Sources and references

(1) أبو حنيفة النعمان ومذهبه في الفقه، للدكتور محمد يوسف موسي، ط. Cairo.

(2) الاجتهاد في الفقه الإسلامي، للدكتور محمد الدسوقى. Ø. Cairo.

(3) إحياء علوم الدين، ط. Dar soapy.

(4) أسباب الاختلاف بين الفقهاء، للشيخ على الخفيف.

(5) الإسلام والحضارة العربية، للأستاذ محمد كرد علي. I Dar al-Kutub.

(6) الاعتصام، للشاطبي. Ø. Dar thought. Beirut.

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(8) أعمال ندوة الفقه الإسلامي المنعقدة بجامعة السلطان قابوس، شعبان سنة 1804 ص 864. ط عمان.

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(12) تفسير المنار، ط. Cairo.

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(14) جواهر الكلام، للشيخ محمد حسين النجفي. Ø. Beirut.

(15) حجة الله البالغة، للدهلوي. I Cairo.

(16) D. Mohammed ElDesoki, Al-Ahram newspaper.

(17) D. Mohammed ElDesoki, Journal of the Faculty of Islamic Call Libya (X number).

(18) الدر المختار، المطبوع على هامش رد المحتار لابن عابدين.

(19) دستور الوحدة الثقافية بين المسلمين، للشيخ محمد الغزالي. Ø. Cairo.

(20) الرد على من أخلد إلى الأرض وجهل أن الاجتهاد في كُلّ عصر فرض، للسيوطي.

(21) رسالة الإسلام، المجلد الأول.

(22) رسالة الإسلام، المجلد الثالث عشر.

(23) رسالة الإسلام، المجلد التاسع.

(24) رسالة الإسلام، المجلد الخامس.

(25) رفع الملام عن الأئمَّة الأعلام، لابن تيمية.

(26) السنة قبل التدوين، للدكتور محمد عجاج الخطيب. Ø. Cairo.

(27) غاية الإنصاف في أسباب الاختلاف، للدهلوي.

(28) القول المفيد في أدلة الاجتهاد والتقليد للإمام الشوكاني. Ø. Cairo.

(29) الليث بن سعد فقيه مصر، للدكتور السيد أحمد خليل.

(30) ما لا يجوز الخلاف فيه بين المسلمين، للشيخ عبد الجليل عيسى. Ø. Pen House in Cairo.

(31) مجلة الأحكام العدلية، صدرت في تركيا في سنة 1293هـ، وهي أول عمل علمي في مجال تقنين الفقه.

(32) Journal of the message of Islam, Vol 14 PO 130, which was issued by the magazine rounding House in Cairo.

(33) المدخل الفقهي العام للأستاذ مصطفي الزرقا. Ø. Damascus.

(34) المدخل إلى علم أصول الفقه، للدكتور محمد معورف الدواليبي ط. Damascus.

(35) المدخل لدراسة الشريعة الإسلامية، للدكتور عبد الكريم زيدان. Ø. Baghdad.

(36) مشيخة الأزهر، الأستاذ علي عبد العظيم.

(37) معالم التقريب بين المذاهب الإسلامية، للأستاذ مُـحَمَّد عبد الله مُـحَمَّد، ص7. Ø. Crescent House in Cairo.

(38) معجم البلدان لابن خلكان. Ø. Beirut.

(39) مقدمة كتاب الأحوال الشخصية، للشيخ محمد أبو زهرة. Ø. Cairo Arab Thought House.

(40) مقدمة مشروع تقنين الشريعة الإسلامية، للأمين العام لمجمع البحوث الإسلامية الأسبق.

(41) مناهج الاجتهاد في الإسلام للأستاذ محمد سلام مد كور جامعة الكويت.

(42) الموافقات، ط. Munir Damascene. Cairo.

(43) وفيات الأعيان، لابن خلكان. Ø. Cairo.


([1]) Imran: 105.

([2]) D. Mohammed ElDesoki,… Al-Ahram newspaper.

([3]) Isra: 36.

([4]) Sit-in, 2, p 146.

([5]) Cow: 134.

([6]) D. Mohammed ElDesoki,… Journal of the Faculty of Islamic Call Libya (X number).

([7] ) Narrated by Ibn Majah.

([8] ) Look: Curricula of jurisprudence in Islam, Professor Mohamed Madkour peace, pp. 23, Kuwait University.

([9] ) Look: The entrance to the science of jurisprudence, to Dr. Mohamed Maourv, Dawalibi, PO Box 13, i Damascus.

([10] ) Look: Inform the signatories, to the son of values, vol. 1, p 248, i. الكليات الأزهرية, القاهرة.

([11] ) Look: The year before blogging, Dr. Mohammed Ajaj Al Khatib, i. Cairo.

([12] ) Look: Entrance idiosyncratic year, Professor Mustafa Zarqa, vol. 1, p 166, i. Damascus.

([13] ) Look: Abu Hanifa and his doctrine in the doctrine of Dr. Mohamed Youssef Moussa, p 11 i. Cairo.

([14] ) Look: Entrance to the study of Islamic law, Dr. Abdul Karim Zidane p 157 i. Baghdad.

([15] ) Look: Senate mortality for Ibn Khalkan part 1, p 455 i. Cairo, Laith bin Saad Faqih, Egypt, in front in the second century, died in 175 E, and it was between him and Imam Malik ( T.: 971E ) Faqih, the city and the doctrine of correspondence indicate the scientific capacity and the abundance of scientific doctrine, with its virtues and dart in dialogue and debate (Look: Layth ibn Saad Faqih Egypt, Dr. Ahmed Khalil).

([16] ) Look: Personal Status introduction to the book of Sheikh Muhammad Abu Zahra, p i 8.7. Arab Thought House in Cairo, and Iran from the inside, a professor Fahmi Huwaidi am 57 i. Ahram third.

([17] ) Vol. 1, p 324 i. Halaby in Cairo.

 

([18] ) Look: Islam and Arab civilization, Professor Mohammad Kurd Ali, 13, m Dar al-Kutub.

([19] ) Judicial judgments magazine: Issued in Turkey in the year 1293 AH, the first scientific work in the field of regulation of jurisprudence, albeit this rationing within the scope of the Hanafi school, but it was the beginning of the expansion in the codification of jurisprudence in all Islamic countries without being bound by the doctrine of a special, albeit a shadow of the confessional in this regulation, and there is.

([20]) Interpretation of Al-Manar, 2, p 254, i. Cairo.

([21]) Look: History of Islamic legislation, Sheikh Mohammed vegetative, p 431. I Cairo.

([22]) The revival of the science of religion, vol. 1, p 45, i. Dar soapy.

([23]) This indicates that the Shafi'i allow Muslim to say: I am a believer, God willing, and instead to carry Mufti Hanafi said Shafi'i: “God willing” With intent to be blessed as stated by the campaign, is to doubt his fatwa issued stamped millions of Muslims.

([24]) What it may not be disagreement among Muslims, Sheikh Abdul Jalil Isa, PO Box 65, i. Pen House in Cairo.

([25]) Jewels speech, Sheikh Mohammed Hussein al-Najafi, vol 32, p 79, i. Beirut.

([26]) What it may not be disagreement among Muslims, p 67.

([27]) History of Islamic legislation, p 325.

([28]) God amounting argument, Dahlawi, vol. 1, p 327, i Cairo.

([29]) Ibid, p 332.

([30]) Look: Durr al-Mukhtar printed on the sidelines Radd, Ibn 'Abdin, vol 3, p 702. And discretionary: Death is the ability must be really God or human being in every sin do not have a limit or expiation.

([31]) Look: Refutation of those who went to the ground and ignorance that diligence in every age, the imposition of Imam Suyuti, p 135.

([32]) Look: Qawl in evidence diligence and tradition, for شوكاني, p 20, i. Cairo.

([33]) Look: Diligence in Islamic jurisprudence, by Dr. Mohamed Desouky, p 123, i. Cairo.

([34]) Look: Lexicon countries, vol. 1, p 209, i. Beirut.

([35]) Look: Beginning and the End, C 12, p 58, i. Cairo.

([36]) Ibid, p 31.

([37]) Ibid, p 66.

([38]) Look: Journal of the message of Islam, Vol 14 PO 130, which was spearheaded by the magazine rounding House, Cairo.

([39]) Look: The message of Islam, Vol I, p 93.

([40]) Look: Ibid, Volume III, pp. 22, 25.

([41]) Look: The work of Islamic Jurisprudence Seminar held at Sultan Qaboos University in August 1804, p 864. ط عمان.

([42]) Al-Azhar, Professor Abdel Azim, p 119.

([43]) Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy former.. Introduction of the draft codification of Islamic law, p 5.

 

* Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

** Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy in the Egyptian Republic

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