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Vision of verbal references to devise idiosyncratic

Vision of verbal references to devise idiosyncratic *

Preparation: D. Abdul-Jabbar Rifai **

 

In the name of God the Merciful

Permeated ideological visions in various Islamic sciences, and ideological concepts that has been crystallized in the categories of speakers after one of the most prominent and references Mfiraudhat commentators and fundamentalists and scholars in formulating their opinions, and was based on a lot of differences in reasoning to the diversity of attitudes of belief. And surpassed impact statements verbal these areas, and extended to seal choices linguists of the meanings of words in their blogs sometimes; were likely a linguists specific meaning to the word of several meanings traded him, when that meaning close to the views of words, while excludes everything that is not approaching the network views doctrinal.

Notwithstanding bestowed Speakers of reverence and respect in the early centuries, especially when the Caliph Mamoun in the Abbasid era, is to engage with the knowledge of speech has become Adventure after the ordeal, Vanhsr influential speakers in the Abbasid court, and went to scholars of jurisprudence, as the difference in opinions and jurisprudence is not conducive to the prosecution or exit”Belief Qadri” Which was fenced belief within the closed not true bypassed or thinking outside the orbits([1]).

However remained theology is alive, and continued growth and development, and intensified Onsagah known after the ordeal; فالنسق Isolationist knew senior Mtkelmah, and recorded the most important his works in the period subsequent to the ordeal, during which time integrated and crystallized the system verbal to retire at the hands of Abu Hussein Khayat (T. 300-913), And Abu Ali tax (T. 303-915) And his son Abu Hashem (T. 321-933), And Abu al-Qasim al-Balkhi (T. 319-931), And Abu Bakr bin Ikhshid (T. 326-938), And Abu Abdullah al-Basri (T. 369-980), Abu Ishaaq ibn Ayyash (T. 386-996)And Abu Rashid Alnisabure (T. 400-1009), Judge Abdul Jabbar bin Ahmed (T. 415-1025), Visual and Abu Hussein (T. 436-1044), And Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Mtwe (T. 469-1076)… And others.

Also produced Imami Shi'ism leading Mtkelmah in this period, such as the: Abi easy Nawbakhti (T. 311-924), And Sheikh useful (T. 413-1022), And Sharif Murtada (436-1045), And Sheikh Tusi (T. 460-1067), And Nasir al-Din Tusi (672/1252), And jewelery brand (726/1306).

He knew Zaydi Shi'ism senior Mtkelmah time and after the ordeal, such as: Bin Qasim Ibrahim Alrsa (T. 246-860), And Hassan bin Zaid (T. 270-884), And Yahya bin Al-Hussein Hadi to the right (T. 298-911).

The Altsenn has emerged Band verbal The Mtkelmah highlighted that day, such as Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (T. 324-935)And Abu Mansour Almetrada (T. 333-944), And Abu Bakr Albaqlani (T. 403-1012), And Abu Bakr bin Fork (T. 406-1015), And Dad Excellencies Jouini (T. 478-1085), And Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (T. 606-1209), The Aegean and the sails of religion (T. 756-1355)([2]).

I hid Speakers attendance in slabs sultans and corridors of palaces caliphs, and took some scholars and orators privileges and favored high in those places, and left most of the students to learn the doctrine and indulge in his doctrines, and to identify the citizen dispute among scholars, and learn techniques reasoning and methods deduction generally accepted to have, and introductions of Science .

However, the verbal arguments and continued presence in the idiosyncratic thinking, and gradually established Comerdjaaat it passes this thinking, through the metaphor of jurisprudence for these statements, and the formation of rules devised legal provisions in the light of. Concepts continued to influence theology always fundamentalist thinking, and continued dominant pathways that thinking, and addressed him, though it does not clearly manifested in the broad areas of it, but we found them hidden behind jurisprudence.

For example, we note in the book “Message” للإمام للشافعي، وهو الكتاب الأول الذي وصلنا في أصول الفقه، والأهم في صياغته لقضايا ومنطلقات هذا الفن؛ أن المباحث التي بنى على أساسها قواعده وترسيماته هي مرتكزات عقائدية، كالبحث في مفهوم الحكم، وتصور الله سيدا ونحن عبيده، وافتراض وجود أحكام وأوامر ونواه صادرة من الله إلى عبيده، وأن الإنسان إذا علم بأمر صادر من الله تجب عليه طاعته، باعتبار الله سيدا والإنسان عبدا، والسيد هو من تجب طاعته على العبد؛ أي: That human motivation that makes obeys command is to acknowledge God sovereignty, and acknowledge the sovereignty issue verbal.

When purists base decides: «It indicates that it is obligatory» Tptna this rule to the rule of reason the necessity for compliance order that was issued from a peak high point of disrespectful, any of the sire, as make up the ancients, and the content of Dervishes is due obedience, assuming the Mevlevi means assuming the right of obedience, and the presumption should be compliance, . In the sense that it just learned the issuance of Almighty Allah; mean: That argument, and authentic is the necessity to comply. Once assuming the issuance of sire means and must comply with in previous rank. This is a matter of words Aatviadeh derive significant tribal formula is that it is obligatory([3]).

The most prominent fundamentalists Kaharif Murtaza Sheikh Tusi and pride Razi prominent theologians, but the detectives of words that led them to invent science assets, and the views of the speakers included in early writings fundamentalists, under the title “Said speakers at issue”([4]).

In an urgent review of the writings of late in assets when Imami note intensity to rely on verbal rules, issues and concepts derived fundamentalism; example, has become a set of verbal statements and rules central pillars in building hypotheses and theories and rules fundamentalists, such as: Base (Kindness) And(Hassan and mental ugliness And n) And(Nastiness punishment without statement) And(The right of obedience) And(Non-commissioning including unendurable) And(Absence of ugly Hakim)([5]).

He also drew on concepts fundamentalists of other rules, such as: (Formative of duty will not be contrary to the voluntary actions of man)([6]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Will be taught the system and better interest)([7]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Murad retardation due for his formative stores will not legislative)([8]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Possible without bug occurs shops)([9]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Recipes be heterogeneous understood and united illustration)([10]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Necessary incompetence and ignorance right to be impossible)([11]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(Maintha do not have a choice, it is not optional)([12]), And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi(And must pay the damage)([13]).

The production idiosyncratic is archaeological and wider among all modes of production of knowledge for Muslims, it is production which involved the most interested in Islamic studies in recent decades, as the knowledge that gives legitimacy to its students and professors, and put them in order of grant authorization to other students in other fields of knowledge religious. مضافا إلى ما يحصل عليه المشتغلون في الفقه من امتيازات ومكاسب من الأوقاف والفرائض المالية؛ لذلك اضمحلت دراسة المعقول في القرون الأخيرة، ولم يتفرغ التلامذة لدراسة المنطق والفلسفة وعلم الكلام، فضلا عن التصوف الفلسفي والعرفان النظري، واضطر المهتمون بهذه المعارف إلى الاختباء والتكتم في تعلمها أحيانا، أو دراستها على هامش دراستهم للفقه وأصوله في بعض الحواضر العلمية المعروفة، التي عادة ما تغض النظر عن التعاطي معها.

The accumulation of doctrinal heritage and expanded horizontally, Vdont lot of jurisprudential texts in every doctrine, rolled annotations and footnotes and comments on each board, sometimes exceeding ten thousand pages in more than forty volumes.

The jurisprudence Aatral and tyrannize chronic problems constantly re-configured, and in turn increase its tools and methods inherited in the elicitation, and constantly repeats itself without broad open spaces, gives him the ability to cope with life, and listening to the rhythm of the highly complex variables and diversity.

Although the calls for the reopening of ijtihad, rebuilding Blog jurisprudence began more than two centuries; However, most of these calls lack diagnose real dilemma and clogging prospects who ended them Jurisprudence, and still interpretations simplistic, emphasizes sent jurisprudence and employ traditional elements of reasoning .

And ماخلا direction, which is concerned to revive the purposes of Shariah, not we found serious attempts to diagnose obstructive idiosyncratic, and the discovery ranges alternative judgment, but that trend Makassed the modern nose mired in visions purposes Shatby, could not escape from tradition, and won a another approach to renew curricula diligence. The attempt Sheikh Mohammed Tahar Ben Achour in his speech on the lessons students Zitouna Mosque, and then published in his book “Purposes of Islamic law” In 1947, one of the best serious attempt in modern thinking Makassed. However, they stand at the borders of the formal change in the method of legislative practice, it is also a hostage classic cognitive frameworks, and values, including([14]).

The problem of Jurisprudence falling in problematic heritage as a whole; from here should be reconsidered in the fabric of knowledge inherited generating jurisprudence, and are screened and tested its validity, and see its potential and its ability to cross time and place special, and responsiveness to meet the legislative requirements every time and place. Is not correct to exclude rules fundamentalism from being knowledge produced mind living in historical contexts, cultural and religious specific, but we must deal with it in the light of those contexts; any they see historical is not available on the potential for exceptional resound with the fact produced inside, and the pattern of thinking that penned . And that does not make sense to renew the doctrine without renewal of the body of knowledge and tools producing.

Can not be renewed doctrine unless we resume consideration of the pattern approaches inherent in our study of religion, and the phenomena and knowledge associated with it, and manifestations of religion in life; Instead of that religion is Mufsralchaml of things and the universe and the world, must become a phenomenon subject to subject him any phenomenon in terms of the possibility of ([15]). The recent studies of religion is not a standard in the process of research or talk about truth and lies, health and nullification; Researcher finds even in the same direction in front of a unique phenomenon, is religion, Uwenhmk in understanding and discovery.

The description and interpretation of religious phenomena of the most important aims of the research in the new vision of religious studies; whereas in the traditional view that religious research aimed at understanding and interpretation of the teachings of the religion, and justified, and to demonstrate its sincerity([16]).

And not the goal of this vision denial of religion, or deny its functions spiritual and moral, psychological and aesthetic and symbolic, social, but its employment gains current science in the study, analysis and accountability manifestations and expressions and religious phenomena in the life of the individual and society, and the discovery of their headwaters and its borders and its implications and its data. وتحليل طبيعة المعرفة الدينية، وتشخيص مصادر تشكيلها، وكيفية تكونها، والعلاقة بينها وبين مختلف المعارف العلمية والإنسانية، وكيف أن تطور العلوم الطبيعية والإنسانية يقود إلى تحولات هامة في المعرفة الدينية، ويفضي إلى نمو وتكامل التفكير الفقهي؛ فإن فهم الشريعة ليس مستقلا عن فهم الطبيعة، بمعنى أن للفهم والمعرفة في كل عصر هندسة خاصة، والفهم الديني ابن عصره، وإن اضافة ضلع أو إنقاص ضلع من هندسة المعرفة البشرية المتعددة الأضلاع يغيّران شكل هذه المعرفة؛ ذلك أن العلوم الجديدة حين تجتاح عالمنا لا تترك معارفنا السابقة على حالها، وإنما تتصرف في مضمونها، بحيث تسلحنا بمنظار بديل يعطيها صورة متجددة.

The religious knowledge as any other knowledge, is the result of an effort humans and Tamlathm, it is always a combination of presumptive consensus and certainty, and right and wrong. There is no doubt that the human consciousness whenever growing and relied on introductions and valid scientific tools has expanded space and shrinking wrongs. This does not mean that the revelation brought that prophets complemented by humans, but means that the human understanding of the contents of revelation and integrates words depending on the development of science and human knowledge; any Bible is full of revelation, but human understanding him it is not complete nor sacred([17]).

The religion is the one who's perfect, but religious thought and understood by humans of religion in different cultural and social environments is not well. والقراءة المتأنية العميقة للميراث الفقهي والأصولي ترينا أن ما تراكم من قواعد أصولية وفقهية وفتاوى إنما هي معطيات معرفية منجزة في سياقات تاريخية وثقافية واجتماعية خاصة، ولا يمكن تجريدها من بصمات العصر المنبثقة فيه، مثلما لا يصح فصلها عن المشروطية الزمانية والمكانية والثقافية لمن أنتجها، فهي منخرطة في تاريخ أصحابها، وليست حقائق أو جواهر مثالية متسامية على الواقع، كما أنها ليست عابرة للمحددات والظروف والمحيط الذي تبلورت في داخله؛ إنها مرتهنة بالفضاء الخاص وخلفيات الفقيه والأصولي الذي قالها أو دوّنها، فالقبليات و«المسبقات الفكرية لكل فقيه، ونمط معرفته بالعالم الخارجي المحيط به تؤثر في فتاواه؛ بحيث إن فتوى العربي تفوح منها رائحة العرب، وفتوى الأعجمي رائحة العجم، وفتوى القروي رائحة القرية، وفتوى المدني رائحة المدينة»([18]) In the words of Sheikh Morteza Mutehri.

The jurist and fundamentalist usually issued in the findings of the prevailing cognitive order in his own time, and on the needs and necessities and interests that they impose themselves at that age([19]). Vincent is currently human theories and the requirements and conditions of the day, and yesterday's man is a human being and theories requirements and conditions of yesterday, and rights can not free himself or thinking outside without be affected to some degree.

The verbal system are determined by human perception of the world, and formulate cosmic vision; attitudes toward divinity do not match when speakers, philosophers and mystics, Sergeants and other. Thus the concept of rights and the pattern of his relationship with God is formed within the framework of their cosmic vision; For example, it is based on the premises of Aristotle to prove the existence of God can not understand God in the Koran about not consistent with those buildings([20]), And so leaning on the perspective of the Sufis and Sergeants in proving the existence of God and man's relationship can not understand the text differently for that perspective. Thus draws understand texts and interpreting Mnzawrath of worldview, and is determined in فضائها and lays theology Jurisprudence and Islamic vision and levies that constitute his point of view about the areas of jurisprudence and boundaries, and the potential extension of the provisions legitimacy temporally, and in different circumstances and events, or what is termed release Alozamani and Alahwala provisions.

ويشدد أصول الفقه على أن إطلاق الأحكام وشمولها لكافة العصور ومختلف الظروف والحالات مستفاد من الأدلة اللفظية الواردة في الكتاب والسنة؛ إذ إن عدم تقييد الأدلة وتخصيصها يدل على استيعابها وعمومها، بناءً على ما يعرف لدى الأصوليين في هذا العصر بقرينة الحكمة، وهي قرينة عامة يفصح عنها حال المتكلم، في أنه في مقام بيان تمام مراده بخطابه، فما لم يقله لم يرده، ولما لم يقيد ما نطق به إذن هو لا يريد المقيد، وإنما مراده المطلق؛ بمعنى أن الظهور الحالي الذي تعتمد عليه قرينة الحكمة مفاده هو أن لا يكون هناك قيد من القيود دخيلا في المراد الجِدّي للمتكلم إلا ويبينه ويذكره في خطابه، ذلك أن ظاهر حال المتكلم هو أنه في مقام بيان تمام مراده الجِدِّي بكلامه، فالمعاني التي يريدها يفصح عنها في حديثه، بينما ما لا يقوله في حديثه لا يريده؛ أي: All that will be a constraint in unintended usually what he says in terms of him, he did not say he is not a constraint in unintended. Thus prove assimilation and all through denied enrollment presumed wisdom, so that the denial of registration means prove abstract nature of the topics provisions that are valid for the applicability of any of their situations, or individual members, in every time and place. In other words jurisprudence be topics provisions taken about real issues overall, when the available that fact at any time or any case prove her judgment, not subjects taken about foreign issues of one's time certain, and so just used the eternal judgments and is predominantly for all times and conditions([21]).

لكن هذا التصور غير مكتمل، ذلك أن ما يقرر شمول الأحكام وإطلاقها الأزماني والأحوالي أبعد مدى مِمَّا تكشف عنه الأدلة اللفظية، فإنه يحيل إلى أن ذهنية الفقيه مشبعة بمجموعة مسلمات ومفروضات، تشكل بأسرها خلفيات ومسبقات خفية وغير معلنة، لم يلتفت إليها الفقيه حينما يمارس عملية الاستنباط، فهو لا يستخلص فتاواه وآراءه من تلك النصوص المتاحة له، بل إن ضيق وسعة معاني ومضامين النصوص، واستيعابها أو اقتصارها على موارد محددة، تنتجه عدة مقولات كلامية يعتبرها مسلمات، وتؤطر فهمه للإنسان وطبيعة علاقته بالله، والوحي والنبوة وختم النبوة، والأحكام الشرعية. Vibdah provisions and extension issued by the positions of words indirectly, but directly the preliminary outlook seems to be comes from Mdalal evidence verbal.

When supposed Muhammad Iqbal a certain concept of prophecy and stamped, that concept led to a different result in the launch and eternal provisions for all ages; In a quick flash outlines his vision for the turnout Flashes, format does not match the concept rolling in theology, saying : «The prophet in Islam the last to reach perfection in the need to abolish the prophecy itself, which involves a deep awareness of the impossibility of survival exist forever dependent on a leash led him. The rights in order to receive the same Kamal know, should be left to ultimately depends on the means is([22]). The concept for the Flashes assumed that the need for prophecy is concerned with childhood human, before mature mind and blooming Queen his cash, a concept based on the «understanding Flashes they seal from the outside, that this seal puts a definitive end to the need to adopt human source of knowledge . It marks the opening of a new era in the face of the entire human race, he inaugurated a new phase in the history of man does not need - has reached the age of majority - led by, and reclines in both large and small. And the job of the prophet of Islam in this case instruct rights to responsibility new, downloading consequences choices, like ear like the closed door of his house - which is for him the house of prophecy, house all the prophets - and sealed from the outside, it was left prisoner to him, and ساح in the land of God wide ([23]).

The draw to see Muhammad Iqbal for the application of Sharia on subsequent generations of imagined this revelation and Khatami, he analyzes the way of the Prophet and his style in the application of the provisions of the nation in the age of the mission, and mind is a typical example of what comes; intended - as seen- Is not the application of the provisions, but what can be deduced from general ad valorem indicators, and advancing the development of transcendent feelings, experience and religious experience, writes Iqbal: «The Koran is not written in the law of, Vgrdah President is to send a human at the same highest ranks including feeling between him and God and between him and the universe of links. The way in which the Prophet is to teach a particular nation, and take the nucleus to build a global law. Which in this case confirms the principles that promote the social life of all human beings, and applies them to specific situations in the light of the distinctive habits of the nation which is where. Sharia resulting from this application - such as provisions for penalties crimes- Are provisions can be said to be: They belong to this nation. As these provisions are not intended to itself can not impose literally on future generations »([24]).

Mohammed Iqbal stresses the esoteric religious experience, and considers it one of the three sources of knowledge parallel nature and history. And refers to dispense with human in the modern era of immediate need to the teachings of the prophets, as if the human gradually dispense the Prophet also dispense patient for the doctor, and a child from parental custody. فالإنسانية تتكامل تدريجيا، وتجتاز مرحلة عقيب أخرى، كيما تنتهي إلى مرحلة لا تحتاج معها تعاليم الأنبياء؛ ذلك أن الأنبياء بشروا بتعاليمهم ونشروها بين الناس، وأضحت متاحة كالماء والهواء في متناول الجميع، فانتشرت وترسخت تلك التعاليم بنحو صارت حياة الإنسان مهتدية بهدي الأنبياء؛ إنها بمثابة المؤشرات والمنطلقات العامة التي أنضجت الوعي، فبلغ العقل من خلالها مرتبة الرشد، وتحررت معها إرادة الإنسان([25]).

From here reflected that say بأبدية provisions and is predominantly for all ages, based on the Muslim jurist and Qublyate mental implicit, in the sense that Alamadmrat verbal the jurist or ideology and vision cosmic, and his view of man, and cultural space and social, political and economic Almnkrt it, all this contributes to determine the choices in the advisory opinion, and calls .

ويرتبط نمط فهم النصوص بتطلعات الإنسان وما يترقبه من الدين؛ فالإنسان الذي يتوقع من النص استيعابه للنظم الاجتماعية والمعارف والعلوم الطبيعية والإنسانية نراه ينشد انتزاع كافة النظم والمعارف والعلوم من الكتاب والسنة، خلافا لمن لا يترقب ذلك، ويفترض أن النص يستوعب مايرتبط بهداية الإنسان وسعادته الأخروية فقط، وأن الدين ليس بديلا عن العقل أو التجربة البشرية، وأن العقل وما يتراكم من خبرات عبر التاريخ هو ما يتكفل إدارة وتدبير وتنمية الحياة البشرية. For example, goes one of the owners of this position that «what is in the Quran and Sunnah on family relations, governmental and judicial and penal and transactions, etc., that signatures purely or Thvebat and guidance, not intended to codify family relationships, social or about state affairs laws fixed and does not change; Valthabt . It is intended target of the adjustment process that has been through the Quran and Sunnah, which is the standard and inspiring for such actions. These values ​​are not separate things, but is derived from the imperatives of behavior Tawhidi, Vtvsr next, and gaining value([26]). Did not come down Koran costing on Human Civilizations and Cultures, but came to confer on what is new character walking him towards unification, and the divine guidance for Athblg to humans through the prophets and by, but humanitarian solutions to dilemmas of life and arrange their affairs are other Hidayat divine. Was the rapid spread of Islam, and covered a wide swath stretching from Andalusia to China, after less than a century on debut but because of his confession diverse cultural expressions of communities, and acceptance of the disparate styles of human life among the people. The lack of insistence on obliterating or oppose, and only on the rationalization and straightened enough to ensure that no incompatibility with the values ​​of Islam and monotheism([27]).

Islam has been able to absorb and digest a variety of forms of urbanization, regulations and demographics, knowledge, literature and arts prevailing in these societies, and يسكبها in one frame, and formulates a global model of urbanization and urbanization.

Based on the above it can be said: The elicitation idiosyncratic rules-based fundamentalism that pave the way for this process, and are introductions and tools necessary to formulate opinions; not devise the legal provisions without relying on assets, and the rules of jurisprudence issued by the Muslim and views Aatviadeh, formed in the field of verbal. And a brief word: The jurisprudence based on fundamentalist diligence, diligence in jurisprudence unless renewed theology;: It makes no sense to update jurisprudence without updating its terms of reference of words.

It should be noted that this paper does not talk about the history of the emergence of jurisprudence or jurisprudence or theology, nor chronicling the birth of any of this knowledge, or looking one who is earlier or later in the codification of others; but is an attempt to reveal something of Alamadmrat and tribal and Almspqat and Muslim , Which is usually determined in the framework of the rhetorical vision of Fakih.


 

[1]) Jawzi. Regular in the history of the Kings and the United. Beirut: Dar Sader, c 7: P 287, c 8:, Pp. 109-110, c 9:, P 124.

[2]) Mohammed Bouhlal: Islam speakers. Beirut: Vanguard House, 2006, pp. 20-22.

[3]) Abdul Jabbar Al Rifai: Lectures on Jurisprudence, c 1, Baghdad: Center for Philosophy of Religion Studies, i 4, 2007, p 55 56.

[4]) Ibid, p 346.

[5]) Tusi. Preparing in jurisprudence. Then: Mission Foundation, 1417, p 194.

Detective ornaments. Qubool assets. Investigation: Mohammad Hossein Razavi. Then: Al al-Bayt Foundation, 1403, p 112.

Tag ornaments. Ultimate requirement. Tabriz: 1333, C 1: P 148.

Mr. Tuni. Adequate. Investigation: Mohammad Hossein Razavi. Then: Complex Islamic Thought, 1412, p 88.

Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr. Research in the science of assets. Formulated: Mahmoud Hashemi. Then: Vol 4, p 28 29.

[6]) Mohammad Kazem Khorasani. Adequacy of assets. Then: Islamic Foundation Publishing, 1415, p 89. Mohammed Hussein Isfahani. The end of the know-how. Then: Aal al-Bayt Foundation, c 1:, P 167.

[7]) Mohammad Kazem Khorasani. Cit, pp. 319-320.

[8]) Ibid, p 88. The end of the know-how. C 1: P 165.

[9]) Ibid, p 145.

[10]) Ibid, pp. 76-78. The end of the know-how. C 1:, P 143.

[11]) Ibid, p 342, 91.

[12]) Ibid, pp. 88-90, 300.

[13]) Sharif Murtada. Ammunition in theology. Investigation: Mr. Ahmed al-Husseini. Then: Islamic Foundation Publishing, pp. 223.

[14]) Noureddine Buthaura, the purposes of Shariah: Contemporary Islamic legislation between industrious and ambitious lack of diligence. Beirut: Vanguard House, 2000, p 36.

[15]) Muhammad Hamza. Islam innovators. Beirut: Vanguard House, 2007, p 46.

[16]) A Faramarz Aqral. Research Methods in Religious Studies. Translation: Sarmad al-Tai. Beirut: Institute knowledge wisdom, 2004, p 85.

[17]) Abdul Karim Soroush. Arrest and rugs in the canon. Translation: D. Dalal Abbas. Beirut: New House, 2002, pp. 96, 102, 119 and 124.

[18]) Murtaza Mutehri. Ijtihad in Islam. Translation: Jafar Sadiq al-Khalili. Tehran: Mission Foundation, p 27.

[19]) Mohammed Abed al-Jabri. Point of view toward rebuilding Contemporary Arab Thought. Casablanca: Arab Cultural Center, 1992, p 66.

[20]) Abdul Karim Soroush. Cit, pp. 198-199 and 203-204.

[21]) Abdul-Jabbar Rifai. Lectures on Jurisprudence. Op c 1: P 207 210.

[22]) Muhammad Iqbal. Renewal of religious thought in Islam. Translation: Mahmoud Abbas. Cairo: 1955, P 144.

[23]) Abdul Majid al-Sharafi. Islam between the message and the date. Beirut: Vanguard House, 2001, p 91.

[24]) Muhammad Iqbal. Cit, pp. 190, 197.

[25]) Abdul Karim Soroush. Orbits and Mdirit. Tehran: Way, 408-412.

[26]) Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestari. Hermontek, writers and cents. Tehran: Ask Nu, p 87.

[27]) Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestari. Ibid, pp. 210-215.

 

*Rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence held during the period (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008 – Lectures Hall Sultan Qaboos Mosque.

**Professor and Director of the Center for Philosophy of Religion Studies in Baghdad, and a magazine editor contemporary Islamic issues, Baghdad and Beirut

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