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Close the door of ijtihad, and open the door of ijtihad meaning and connotations

Close the door of ijtihad, and open the door of ijtihad

Meaning and connotations *

Preparation: Sheikh Mohammad Mehdi Najaf

(Adviser of the Secretary-General of the World Academy for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought)



Praise be to Allah, and peace and blessings of sent a mercy to the worlds Mohammed Mustafa and his family imams remission in Miami, his family and those who followed him until the Day of Judgment.

After; Nations has prevailed centuries ago ignorance ignorant, and wisdom dynamics shameful, and was Ttramy their delusion waves, until noon, including the Noble (God bless him and his family) Hadia, a missionary, and a warner, carrying the banner of guidance, including phone repair human, was the Koran to explain something, which the Constitution المتكفل systems for the life of nations immortal splendor and happiness.

The Noble Prophet orders (God bless him and his family) And prohibitions, and his work in the presence of his companions, intending thereby paving Avenue leading to the pleasure of Allah Almighty, as was his for companions Bhoudrth work Kketab Majid in telecom is important; because he does not speak about passion that is only revelation revealed.

Not يحالف stay any call depends on the internal belief or emotion, but it must be practical commitment to certain duties, to be honest evidence of the health belief.

Can not be regulating the affairs of life properly without solid principles, and comprehensive systems put an end to an individual in himself, and in Sarah Alanath, to live in security and stability.

As the science jurisprudence addresses the facts and incidents that are connected by the life of the individual provisions of the divine, which is variable according to the time and place, was not bound to refine accountability minds, and revise demands ideas, and bestowed the development which receives all knowledge of science that have this matter.

He remained companions after the Prophet (God bless him and his family) As well as Affiliates of Sharia after them يستقون the issues of the Sunnah, but the year remained a long period of time between the issuance of keeping maintaining, and between codification lost a lot of them, Woods not one of them.

The branches have proliferated due to mixing with other Muslims, not to those branches plain text, some scientists inclined to the opinion and approval, measurement and other. So we can say that the most important topics that relate to living Islamic jurisprudence today a practical subject of legislation and diligence and advisory in telecom branches, and the importance of this issue lies in the validity to ensure a happy life for all the nation.

Had the provisions of the law have given all through the book the Quran and the Sunnah within formulas and clear phrases not marred by any doubt or ambiguity; to the process of extracting the ruling of Mysore for many people.

But did not give this picture, but give scattered in the grand total of the book and the Sunnah, and has imposed the need for a scientific effort to study and compare them and extract conclusions from them.

This, in addition to the evolution of life requires a large number of emerging facts and incidents did not want the text particularly evident, we must devise its judgment in the light of the general rules, and a given set of assets and legislation.

This effort increases the need for more scientific person moved away from the time of issuance of the text, and extended the time interval between him and the era with all its mission this stretch of complications long talk about it, which requires great care in scrutiny and audit.

All that and the other, which can not be referred to the urgency in this paper, making recognize the legitimate government in many cases pursuant to scientifically complex requires great effort and trouble, although not as well as in a number of other cases in which the judgment is clear.

Hence, everyone found that it can not alone bear the responsibility of scientific research and effort, and lets his depth in all these respects, primarily large.

Which stabilized it is that human societies regard to a number of people for each of the areas of knowledge and research, blaming them responsibility to assess the situation.

Since the Islamic jurisprudence good image of the process for all mankind, for RPR its principles of true faith, worship sound, and treatment straight targeting in fact achieve the purposes Thvebah for souls lead to correct transactions, and social behavior, was the development of the science Jurisprudence development time, and regeneration renewal of events is .

God did not cost - the Almighty- Everyone diligence, and the suffering of scientific research and effort, in order to identify the ruling, but urged the application of science, the study of law, saying Sciences: ﴿فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ﴾([1]), But enjoined on some of them who has the ability to do so.

He also urged to adhere to scientists and question them, saying the Almighty: ﴿… Male ask the people if you do not know (([2]).

He also described the Holy Prophet scientists that they are the heirs of the prophets, in irrigated impact of him (God bless him and his family) He said: «Scientists and heirs of the prophets»([3]), In addition to other conversations and news that long the Bzla place.

The Commander of the Faithful Ali u preferred science and words of his campaign for Camille Son of Ziad Nakha'i, where he said: Oh Camille perished money tank alive, and scientists are staying what remains forever. Oaaanam missing, and their ilk in the hearts exist. Ha, that here a note of JAMA – He pointed to his chest – If I was his campaign, Yes, I got to Qena([4]) It is not safe, using machine debt to a minimum, and Mstzara yes to worship God, and بحججه to his heirs, or guided to the right campaign, has no insight in Ahnaúh, Enqdh doubt in his heart for the first exhibitors from suspicion. Not neither this nor that, or Mnhoma a pleasure, smooth Leadership lust, or fond combining and savings are not sponsors of religion in something. The closest thing their resemblance cattle السائمة, as well as science die the death of حامليه O Yes, it is not without ground of God based on the pretext. Either visible Gladiator or submerged afraid lest invalidate the arguments of God and Binath. How long does this? ([5]).

So talk about diligence is calling us to stand vigilantly that he did not underestimate the provisions, but also help us to walk in a straight path, and this leads us to question:

Why close the door of ijtihad, and if scientists do not ex-instance of them in the world of science and piety and met?!.

Why close this door and age differed completely from the previous eras?.

The painful reality of Muslims now calls our scientists to rush and the advancement of the recession to the diligence, and ease the burden them with emerging issues, and the conclusion of the theories, to prove to the world that Islam is valid for every time and place, and it survived until the Hour.

Before talking about bridging the door of ijtihad, and open the door of ijtihad, or the possibility of diligence in doctrinal matters developed, or be impossible and stand at the words of a certain imam, first one may devise legal judgment without those people who stood a convoy of Islamic legislation have, they became the source of legislation, and the supreme authority in religion, close the door of ijtihad in the faces of some Muslims, and stayed open when others, improves us know the meaning of diligence language and idiomatically, and its divisions and types, and then we learn later the importance of diligence, and to bridge the door rigidity of legislation, and stand in front of the evolution of the nation's life,ar.


Side door of ijtihad, open the door of ijtihad

Meaning and connotations

The meaning of ijtihad:

The people spoke the language and long scholars and purists in the sense of diligence in research relating thereto, as all Muslim scholars agreed that their respective fields diligence provisions in the branches of such debt: Provisions of worship, transactions, and related social things, on the topics of privacy provisions and adornments, or mustahabb and hatred, and sometimes they are permitted, which termed the purists to five التكليفية provisions.

The scholars differed in the curricula of elicitation and branches provisions and doctrinal base- No discretion in the text against- According to the inadmissibility of the development of the rule of discretionary abuse of the text, and this is self-evident. Nor may diligence with which the text was indicative of his peremptory manner.

The mission of the diligent search for text in terms of mind evidence or non-evidence, and have it in the Sunnah, where is the difference in how to judge the narrators in terms of justice and seizures, can not be imagined diligence in the area of ​​the Quran in terms of permanence, because the Qur'an categorically permanence.

They differed in diligence and tradition in theology there are two views, and the right to prevent counterfeiting of the assets of beliefs, to the verse in the book arbitrator Aziz: ﴿وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ قَالُواْ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ﴾([6]), And says: ﴿قَالَ أَوَلَوْ جِئْتُكُم بِأَهْدَى مِمَّا وَجَدتُّمْ عَلَيْهِ آبَاءكُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلْتُم بِهِ كَافِرُونَ﴾([7]), Which according to the majority of scholars of Islam, and we do not need to search and lengthening the two.

Definition language diligence and idiomatically

Diligence in language: Taken from ” Voltage ” Annexation sense of energy, or”Voltage” Conquest in the sense of hardship, has the sense of energy also comes.

Valajthad linguistic sense It: Exert situation to do a job, not be the only things in which the weight, it is said: Striven so and so in lifting a heavy stone, can not be said: Worked hard to carry the paper.

Ibn al-Atheer: “Diligence to make situation in the command request, the fabricating voltage: Energy. And be it: Re the issue that he was governor of by analogy to the Quran and Sunnah. There was no view which sees by himself is carrying on a book or a year”([8]).

Diligence in terminology:

The terminological meaning, what seems to be the fundamentalists in two different meanings terminology: Private and Public.

The special meaning: Can not define the concept of ijtihad sense your precise, perhaps the one hand, mixing some of the general concepts Bmassadagaha, it seems to follow the words of scientists that diligence when some of them sense your was synonymous with measuring, and approbation, and interests of sending and analogues but are such Almassadik of this concept.

We see Shafei considered synonymous with the measurement of judgment where he said: “Two names for one meaning ” He added that Jmallma ” Everything came down to a Muslim is subject to the rule is needed, or for the right to which denote exist, and therefore if it has a particular rule, his followers, and if you do not have a specific, significant demand for the right diligence, diligence measurement([9]). He denied that the approbation of diligence([10]).

The concept of ijtihad idiomatically him is the measurement, there is no difference between them with him, but latecomers Khalvoh the in it, they said,: That generally diligence of measurement, and the latter needs to be diligent, diligence does not require measurement.

Some of them make a synonym for diligence opinion, we believe Mustafa Abdul Razak says: “Opinion is that we are talking about is thought to rely on in devising the legal provisions, a مرادنا diligence. The measurement is also synonymous with the desirability and elicitation”([11]).

Perhaps made synonymous with diligence for approbation, and opinion, and deduction, and measurement by making the names of the meaning of one.

Said Hoda Mr. Murtada aware of: “In jurists of separation between the measurement and diligence, and to make the measurement had its origin which it is measured, and diligence, unless the original of referred to Kalajthad in demand Qibla… And those who enter the measurement in the diligence and make a diligent generally it”([12]).

Whatever the case may be, the diligence in this sense that lasted from the first century until the fifth century ago, When it was called ijtihad, was intended to this special meaning, and it was rejected by most scholars Imami Twelver, the invalidity of measurement and plaudits have, as well as the prohibition on to say opinion (God bless him and his family) He said: “Beware of opinion makers, they are the enemies of Sunan أعيتهم the conversations يحفظوها, they said, the view, preferred أضلوا the”([13]).

At about the fifth century took diligence years broader concept than ever before.

The general meaning: After that it was diligent when scholars in the chest first confined in the measurement of opinion and plaudits, the difference between acceptance and response, concept development, and taking gives a broader meaning of your means, Vtlgueth Imami scholars accepted.

Said Detective ornaments: “Ijtihad is in fact known scholars: Effort in the extraction of the legal provisions, and this account be extracted provisions of evidence Shara diligent, because they Tptny on theoretical considerations are not learned from texts phenomena of the most, whether it's relative or other directory, so the measurement to a report sections diligence.

Van said: This needs to be front of the people of ijtihad.

We: So, but it delude in that the measurement of the total diligence, if we were measuring exempted from the people of diligence in the collection provisions theoretical methods one of which is not a measurement”([14]).

We see Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, ijtihad is defined as: “The effort and vomiting situation in the act of acts, and not used except where the cost and effort… But became known scientists مخصوصا the doing Mujtahed can the application of science to the provisions of the law. Full and diligence: To make situation in demand so that he feels himself powerless to further request”([15]).

Imam Ahmad knew Matrudi saying: The fact vomiting diligence effort to collect jurist thought by virtue of a legitimate inference([16]).

As Arafa الآمدي in the fundamentalists ad hoc convention: “Bastfrag situation in the request probably some legal provisions on the face of the senses of self all the deficit”([17]).

Knew the son eyebrow: “Bastfrag effort to collect legitimate by virtue of thought”([18]).

The brand was defined by saying ornaments: “Diligence idiomatically: Vomiting situation of the jurist to collect legitimate by virtue of thought”.

Then he said,: “The closest acceptance of the fragmentation, because the requirement for the necessity of working with diligence in all existing provisions with some diligence in and Tjoaz attached known بالمجهول the push hypothesis”([19]).

And utilized from the foregoing that when some diligence is: Vomiting situation in the collection probably legitimate governance, according to sub-voltage and power of the words of the Quran and Sunnah and other presumptive evidence, and called the evidence derived from those provisions presumptive evidence discretionary.

This definition has been discussed: That the evidence in the legal provisions not been limited بالظن, he explained, will therefore this definition Chance([20]).

Said Manaawi: Said Ayaz: “Diligence to make situation in the right order and the right thing in this instance”([21]).

Ibn Hazm knew saying: “Diligence in the law is the depletion of energy in the request for the rule of calamity where there is such a provision, this is not a dispute between a number of scholars in which religion”([22]).

As defined by Badr al-Din Zarkashi saying: “Exert situation in Neil practical way of legitimate rule elicitation”([23]).

As Mr. Al-Khoei diligence have known: “Exert effort to collect on fact or argument on the actual virtual function”([24]).

Said Mr. Mohammed Taqi al-Hakim: “The most appropriate as we see that the collection known as Queen of the arguments on the legal provisions or practical functions or mental legitimacy “.

Then he said,: And this definition منتزع than adopters Najaf Modern School in the science of assets([25]).

And there are many other definitions of left care for the shortcut.


Must be diligent

The substance of the words shows that jurists of diligence duties Ulkipaúah the Muslims, if neglected by all Muslims, were not available to hard-working, he was everyone آثمين; verse in the holy book arbitrator: ﴿وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُواْ كَآفَّةً فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ﴾([26]) So enjoined God - the Almighty- Some members of this nation who has standby, to do the religious duty of specialization to the level where they can learn the rule of Islam introduces them from calamity.

Said Mark ornaments: The collection of this science is the duty of competence, indicated by the progress of the Koran, it indicates the need AlTafaqah the range of each band, even if the duty of the Senate would have been the duty of each band, and because the originally non-obligatory, and the proof but includes obligatory on enough, and because ([27]).

Shahristani said: Diligence of hypotheses competencies rather than hypotheses objects, if dabble Btheselh one fell hypothesis about everyone, though short of it the people of the era disobeyed leaving and oversaw the great danger, the provisions discretionary If consequential diligence arrangement causes the reason, and there is no reason, the provisions idle ([28]).

Then he said,: And if Mojtahdan in the country, worked hard colloquial where even choose best and Alawra, and takes بفتواه([29]).

Al-Nawawi said: When not in the position, but one that is suited for an advisory opinion, had to issue fatwas although there was anyone else, he is of the hypotheses competencies, however this is not permissible acceleration him, they were companions with watching revelation, referring to each other in the advisory opinion, and Ihtrzn from the use of opinion and Measurement ([30]).

The Shia Imami diligence

The diligence with the followers of Ahl al-Bayt School (Peace be upon them) At the forefront of basic parameters, by taking advantage of their inheritance newborn broad and deep that they inherited from their imams (Peace be upon them).

It is never possible to lead diligence in the Shiite jurisprudence without the inspiration of Sciences Imam Baqir and Imam Sadiq (Peace be upon them) Value results.

The avoidance of adoption of measurement method and take advantage of interest sent another milestone is characterized by the jurisprudence of the followers of Ahl al-Bayt School, while abounding jurisprudence of other Islamic sects inference according to the methods of measurement and approval and sent interests.

Divine judgments should not be subject to the standards of the human mind, and to this was narrated from Imam Ali Bin Al Hussein u he said: «The religion of God does not catch minds»([31]), And narrated from Imam Ja'far bin Mohammed Sadiq u he said: «The year if the debt is measured right»([32]).

It is also vital Shiite jurisprudence and مسايرته the zeitgeist another milestone of its features, Valajthad in light of jurisprudence requires the Faqih Imami Shia follow developments in the issues and devising provisions legitimacy, according to the evidence and proof.

Types of legal judgment

It is known that Islamic Sharia came with two types of provisions:

The first type: Provisions of the fixed deterministic, must believe them, and not the subject of diligence, nor disputable, not that will change with time and place, nor justify the Muslims to disperse them, Kalakaúd due, and proven practical rulings as frequently, and is indicated by the texts indicate the phenomenon, so .

Type II: Provisions discretionary presumptive are under consideration and diligence, and different scholars from all unless the from Shara evidence stating certainty.

Sections diligence

Diligence can be divided into two parts:

One: Full diligence, and the so-called full with diligence (Palmjtahed absolute), A mujtahid who is Welcome and mighty on the extraction of the ruling of Dalila scheduled in various sections of Principles. The grounds of his sayings as progress:

The Sheikh Abdul Hussein Arashta, has known saying: “What Iktdr to devise the actual provisions of the prestigious Principality, Or out considerably with reason or quoted in the resources which they accrue”([33]).

There is no doubt that the absolute mujtahid deprives him refer to the advisory opinion of the others, as well as may be due to him in the tradition, and the addresses of the Judiciary, and acting in the minors' funds, and so on.

II: Diligence incomplete, and called the owner relegated diligence incomplete, (Or Palmjtahed the المتجزئ), Who strive to some of the issues without some legitimacy, so mighty to devise special terms and facts to get to know its ruling forensic evidence, his what is necessary to those facts.

Have also differed in its definition, he knew Sheikh Arashta saying: “What Iktdr to devise some provisions”([34]).

When we talk about your diligence, or partial diligence, Vakadir on this kind of diligence tradition deprives him of the matter diligence leads to the rule.

Perhaps the words of al-Ghazali explained above what can be calculated from the likes of this definition, where he said: “I have no diligence is an integral position, but may be told to the world position of diligence as a hard-working in some of the provisions without some”([35]).

He said الآمدي after that the text of the terms of industrious: And it is all but required in the industrious absolute who stands up for judgment and opinion in all matters, and the diligence in some of the issues is enough in it to be knowledgeable with regard to the matter and has to be him to, it does not matter in that ignorance, including not attached to him by the rest of the doctrinal issues([36]).

Valmklv if I got him a civil Ijtihad بتمامها in an issue, worked hard and diligence tool to rule them, they all agreed that he may not imitate other diligent in contrary to what he thinks enjoined.

Terms of diligence ellipse

The conditions of incomplete diligence (المتجزئ) As seen easily accessible, it is not the one who wants diligence in the matter of selling or divorce, for example, but to know the verses of sale or signs of divorce, and sayings sale or talk of divorce, and knows what copies of them and the rest, known sites consensus to avoid offending after the insight .

Sections of Muftis

Department'm nuts people fatwa values ​​into four sections where he said:

One of them: World Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet and sayings of the prophet, he is hard-working in the provisions of the calamity, which means approval where the forensic evidence, and contrary to his diligence sometimes give it to someone else.

Do not find one of the imams but an imitator of is I know him in some of the provisions. The Shafei said in a place of pilgrimage: I said a tradition of giving([37]), This is the kind that justify them advisory, and justify surveyed and their Atady impose diligence…

Type II: Hardworking restricted in the doctrine of ائتم him, he is hard-working to find out fatwas and his words and مأخذه and assets, Aref them, versed of discharge them, and measure unless of completed by him on Mansos not be an emulator for the imam, not in power nor in the directory, but …

The third type: Who is the hard-working in the doctrine of belonged to him, the decision has evidence, elaborately for fatwas, world, do not exceed his statements and fatwas and opposers, and if it finds the text of the imam did not alter it to the other at all, and this would most classified in the doctrines of imams, which if more scientists communities.

Many of them thinks he has no need to know the Quran and Sunnah and Arabic, for being Mojtzaa texts imam, she has as text street has settled out of tabbed fatigue and hardship, may suffice Imam derive rulings and مؤنة extracted from texts, may see the imam said judgment بدليله, فيكتفي is so …

Type IV: Range Tfgaht in the doctrines belong to him, and kept his fatwas and its branches, and acknowledged themselves pure tradition in all respects, the mentioned book and someday in the year the issue of On the face of blessing and virtue, not on the face of protest and action… ([38]).

Dead industrious tradition starting

The tradition of the Dead industrious beginning, the scholars differed in the Dead tradition passport and prevent the sayings:

One: Passport tradition of Dead industrious, and has told an audience of Muslim jurists, and expressed Shafei said: Doctrines do not die the death of masters([39]).

The second: Prevent any prevent industrious tradition Dead at all, and he attributed Ghazali consensus fundamentalists, chosen by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi([40]).

Al-Nawawi said in explaining the polite: “And has no – Any of the years – التمذهب doctrine of one of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them- And other than the first, even though they know and the highest degree of those who came after them; they did not يتفرغوا to identify the science adjust its assets and its branches, it is not one of them gilded decision editor”([41]).

He said Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi: “The tradition in the religion of God may not be with us, not tradition, living or dead”([42]).

And third: May tradition of Dead industrious with the neighborhood, and may not be with his presence.

And Ibn Abdeen Shami said: It may tradition المفضول with the presence of the best, and has said the Hanafi and Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali more, and Ahmad and many scholars range: May not be([43]).

The reasons for the difference

I've mentioned the emerging differences between scholars in different doctrinal issues and reasons many side factors, including:

First: The companions in the era of the mission of the Prophet asking the Prophet (God bless him and his family) What is to them God bless him and his family Evtém them, and when they are not accessible to them, asking each other companions and يجتهدوا. The people in the country far from the city asking companions delegated to them by the Prophet (God bless him and his family) With their displays of things, knew answered, and only strive.

But it was not all in the companions of science and the understanding and knowledge of both conversations, some of whom needed Prophet (God bless him and his family) For a long time, heard him talk, and aware of provisions ناسخها and Mnsukha, and its Khasa more year than any other.

Some of them did not accrue except بالنزر few it, Fachtbh it the case, and did not know what meant by the Messenger of Allah (God bless him and his family).

The Andalusian Ibn Hazm referred to some of this by saying: “He was aware of tayammum when Ammar and others, and ignorance Omar Ibn Masood, they said,: No tayammum side though not find water Months. The survey was sentenced at on Hudhaifah - God bless them- And others and Jhilth Aisha and Ibn 'Umar and Abu Huraira, they were civilians. The inheritance son's daughter with the girl when Ibn Masood and his ignorance of Abu Musa, and was sentenced authorization when Abu Musa when Abu Sa'eed, and ignorance of age. He was sentenced permission for a menstruating woman to alienate before floating around when I'm Abbas Salim mother, and his ignorance of the age and Zaid ibn Thabit…

Then he said,: And like this is too much, departed companions of what we are, and then behind after them Affiliates them Takers”([44]).

And after that the right of the Prophet (God bless him and his family) بالرفيق الأعلى، وأصبحت السلطة التشريعية بيد الخلفاء من بعده، وامتدت رقعة البلاد الإسلامية شرقاً وغرباً، وانتقل إلى هذه البلاد المفتوحة بعض الصحابة، وأخذوا يحكمون ويقضون ويفتون على وفق ما فهموا من كتاب الله وسُنّة رسوله (God bless him and his family), Did not find in the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (God bless him and his family) What Asafhm with asking about, massacred their opinion and diligent, and the freedom of this diligence can help بالتقنين and each needs legislation.

Narrated recaps bonds for Maimon Ben Mehran said: “Abu Bakr was if received by the opponent, look at the Book of Allah, he found what eliminates them spent it, although not in the book and learned from the Messenger of Allah e in that year spent by the command, the output أعياه asked Muslims and said: Came to me and so and so, do you know that the Messenger of Allah e spent in that spending? : Praise be to God who made us keep our Prophet, the أعياه is to find the years of the Messenger of Allah e, ​​collecting people's heads and their Va_i_arhm choice, if met their opinion is spent”([45]).

It also bonds for Shurayh: “The Omar bin Khattab wrote to him: That comes to nothing in the book of God فاقض him not Afattnk him men, comes to what is not in the book of God see the Sunnah of the Messenger of God e فاقض, comes to what is not in the book of God it was not the year of the Messenger of Allah e see what people met him thigh ([46]).

Secondly: The most part of the campaign of the modern era of the mission of the Prophet they do not improve their reading and writing, but the bulk of their dependence on what is aware of their ears and kept their hearts, and I ate fire wars and strife many of these, in addition to that has prevailed in the era of the caliphate direction to prevent codification of modern Prophet Noble (God bless him and his family), Which had an impact in modern waste, and creating rift between Muslims.

But this trend met collection of companions and opposed this idea with strong opposition, and stressed that the pure strain of the Prophet are amended to book Aziz, as stated those of sanitation Hadith.

And continued the case until the reign of Omar bin Abdul Aziz on the second head per cent for Migration, which is down to talk, was the son of Shihab al-Zuhri, who died in 124 Without first talking, then many blogging and classification after him. The Abu Naim Alosbhana said, Ibn Abd al-Barr and others Bssandem for Malik bin Anas said: Without first knowing Ibn Shihab([47]).

Thirdly: People move away from the high values ​​and ideals, and their involvement in the physical atmosphere, led to live in the paradoxes of contradictory, false and fake atmosphere.

The sellers of conscience, conscience upper hand in distorting the facts, in order to gain more of dirhams and dinars, فنراهم يختلقون attribute them sometimes conversations of the Prophet (God bless him and his family), And another for one of the companions, and a third for himself – It is every day in the affair – فشاع lying, and each claimed for himself, or his tribe, his country, or it's leaders and those in power and the ability of praise and praise.

Has lied to the Messenger of Allah (God bless him and his family) Even the orator among his companions, and I know this nation, and warned them in more than the home position, and more than one word, frequent interviews them:

Saying (God bless him and his family): «O people have abounded on الكذابة it deliberately lied to let him take his seat in the fire»([48]).

And saying (God bless him and his family): «ستكثر Ali El Kala (الكذابة) After me it is a lie, let him take his place in Hell »([49]).

And saying (God bless him and his family): «Lied to deliberately let him take his seat in the fire»([50]).

And saying (God bless him and his family): «Ali said what I did not say, let him take his place in Hell»([51]).

Ibn Taymiyyah said: “And a wide placed to Muawiya virtues and ROUEN sayings of the Prophet (God bless him and his family) In it, the whole lie”([52]).

The collection of Ibn al نزرا fraction of the Ahadith and flimsy in his book marked b(Ills very flimsy in conversations Companies), A book (Topics), Suyooti in his book (Pearls made in Ahadith).

Four imams opinions about اجتهاداتهم:

Said Ibn Qudamah, said Abu Hanifa: “It is not permissible for anyone to take by saying unless knows مأخذه of the Quran and Sunnah and the consensus of the nation and the measurement is evident in the matter”([53]).

In the words of said: “Should not those who do not know Dalili that Lefty my words”([54]), And increased in another words: “We preached to say say and go back with him tomorrow”([55]).

This is to prevent counterfeiting permit; because knowledge of evidence is hard-working demands of the argument does not imitator, impersonator who accepts say is not demanding the pretext.

Muzahim said Ben exhale Abu Hanifa: “O Abu Hanifa this advisory opinion and you put in your book is right, which no doubt? : God, what know perhaps the wrong that no doubt”([56]).

He said exhale: “We disagree to the Abu Hanifa us Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan we were writing it, one day said to Abu Yusuf: Woe to Jacob! Do not write everything you hear from me, I could see the view day allow it tomorrow, and see tomorrow opinion leave it the day after tomorrow”([57]).

As Malik bin Anas has narrated that he said: “But I preached sin against the wounded, and see, in my opinion, just approved by the Quran and Sunnah and bring it, and all of what the book did not agree and فاتركوه year”([58]).

This is also a statement from prevention of tradition.

The Shafi'i was narrated that he said to Mezni: “O Abraham, do not Tqldni at all what I say, and see it for yourself, it is a religion”([59]). He also: “Such as requesting the flag without an argument like Haatib night carrying firewood package, where a snake bite he does not know”([60]). Said: “No argument in the words of one without the Messenger of Allah (God bless him and his family) If multiplied, neither measure nor in something, and then only to obey Allah and His Messenger delivery”([61]). Said Harmalah bin Yahya, said Shafie: What I said was the Prophet (God bless him and his family) Unlike Say has said, which is true, the first hadeeth of the Prophet, not تقلدوني”([62]).

As Ahmad ibn Hanbal, he had to say: “Not Tqldni, not mimic the owner, nor Shafei, nor revolutionary, nor Awzaa'i, and take from where they took”([63]).

Said: Opinion Awzaa'i, owner of the opinion, and the opinion of the whole Abu Hanifa opinion, which I have both, but the argument in effects”([64]). He also: Look at is your religion, the tradition is not infallible blameworthy, and the blindness of insight”([65]). He also: “Lack of jurisprudence from the man that mimics his religion men”([66]).

Abu Daoud said, I said to Ahmad: “Awzaa'i followed or the owner? : “Not Dink mimic anyone of these, what came from the Prophet e thigh”([67]).


The call to close the door of ijtihad

Those who are trying to inertia and adhere to tradition, they were unable to reach the rank of diligence, and were convinced Sultan carefully at what they had shortages, do not like them reach a rank diligence, and attributed claiming to madness, as he went to Sheikh Dawood Naqshbandi in book: 'Greater jihad' where he sees the prosecutor diligence stray Creator([68]).

He says Sheikh Ahmed bin Abdul Rahim Dahlawi in the division hardworking layers: (The third layer of Muslims grew from the fourth head per cent): Commoner must industrious affiliated with tradition is not any one of the four schools for excluding independent existence of this history until today([69]).

The role of inventory diligence

Can not determine the date of the role of inventory diligence and advocating tradition, and inventory doctrines in four despite the presence of other doctrines, but historical sources attribute it to the time of the Abbasids, which differed in their age opinions, and dispersed passions, and numerous sects, فاتفقت word superiors to limit the doctrines in four 422 AH, he took from each of the four sects serious money, and expressed those doctrines official.

The son of the values ​​of nuts: They differed, when blocked the door of ijtihad? , Not permissible for anyone to look after in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger to take their provisions.

Then he said,: She said, a wide: No one has to choose after the Abu Hanifa and Abu Yusuf and exhale bin Hudhayl ​​and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan and al-Hasan ibn Ziyad pearl, and the words of many of the tap. He said Bakr bin Ala Qushayri Maliki: “No one has to choose after the bicentennial of immigration, and others said: No one has to choose after Awzaa'i and Sufian the Wakee bin Revolutionary surgeon Abdullah bin Mubarak, said a wide: No one has to choose after Shafei”([70]).

And Ibn Aalfoti said in accidents years (631) At the mention of open school Mustansiriya: “Then divided quarters of, greeted a quarter kiss right to Shaafa'is, and the second quarter to the left Kiss of the faucet, and the third quarter Imnah inside of Hanablh of, and the fourth quarter to the left inside of Maalikis”([71]).

Then he said, in incidents years (645): And where teachers brought to the House the minister's Mustansiriya and submit them to not mention something Tassanifam, scholars do not commit to save any of them, but remind elders Tadba the words with them and blessing them… And pedestrians Caliph came remembrance and respect for the words of the elders They answered listen and obey([72]).

He stated that Mr. Murtada when the oldest to take the official doctrine of al-Jaafari of the Caliph, a student Caliph hundred thousand dinars of gold, because the Shiites not able to meet, or did not want to take the official doctrine money, limited official doctrines on the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali([73]).

And followed the example of Qader in God Abbasi, Baybars Bunduqdari aka shadow king of Egypt Year (661) AH where allegiance Hakim Ahmad Abbasi, was not accepted eliminate non-judges of the four schools mentioned, its was المتمذهب the other hostile and deny it, and does not accept his testimony, and does not provide for oratory and the Imamate and teaching([74]).

Evidence of the importance of opening the door of ijtihad

And demonstrates the importance of opening the door of ijtihad, which made no secret of the scholars and thinkers, فاكتفى some of them to call for diligence only, but others exceeded stated intentions to actual practice.

Said Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi: Do not be left verse or news to tell the true owner or Imam, and whoever does it has stray astray noting, and came out of the religion of God([75]).

He said Sha'rani: Did not tell us that none of the advances is one that restricts the doctrine of a certain, albeit this occurred them to fall into sin, to Tfoathm work all the talk did not take it so industrious, who ordered the creation follow him alone, and Sharia fact it is the sum of what the hands of hardworking all of them do not, however, hard-working one, : If بلغكم an interview Vaamiloa the wall Blow بكلامنا,([76]).

Asked Ibn Taymiyyah man تفقه on the doctrine of the creeds, and insight in it, and worked beyond talking, and found conversations just does not know her copiers and dedicated not opposed, and that the doctrine which is contrary to those conversations, can he work doctrine, or he must return to work by talking : “Has been proven in the Quran and Sunnah and consensus that God assumed slaves obey Him and obey His Messenger, e, not incumbent on the nation to obey a particular in everything ordered and forbade him only the Messenger of Allah e”([77]). Ibn al-Abdeen: “Not on the human commitment to the doctrine of a particular, and it is not permissible for him to work in contravention of what his work on his doctrine of an emulator which is the imam, catchment conditions, and works two things opposite in the two incidents are not attached to one each other and has no revocation eye what he did the tradition of Imam another; because the signature of the judge does not ”([78]).

Jamal al-Din Ibn al: “I know that the imitator on the non-confidence in imitated it, and in the tradition invalidate the benefit of the mind; because it created for reflection, and the ugly who give candle Astadhae out that extinguished and walk in darkness, and I know that the general owners doctrines exalted in their hearts person and follow saying it is managing what he said, ”([79]).

Call to open the door of ijtihad

Were not invited to the open door of ijtihad the result of the day and hour, but it was there since the first centuries of the closing of the calls to open the door of ijtihad and veto filled, such as: Abu Fath al-Shahristani, who died in 548([80]), And Abu Isaac Shaatibi of the deceased Year 790([81]) And other.

This Suyuti (d. 911), declares that it was ranked the absolute ijtihad… A message in: (Refutation of those who went to the ground and ignorance that diligence in every age to impose), And presented to the letter by saying: “The people have defeated them ignorance, blinded by love stubbornness and Osmanm of the, Fastazmoa suit diligence and an evil enemy among people, and did not feel these ignorant that the imposition of hypotheses competencies in every age, and the duty of the people of all times be done in every community”([82]).

And Shawkaani said: “It Fadlallah inventory on some of His creation and understanding of this law Palace on the progress of his time, God has dared to U and then on his law established for each slaves, then the Jewish slaves who worship God book and the year”([83]).

Said Abu Mohammed, Baghawi: “And imposing enough is: To learn what a rank diligence and replace the fatwa, the judiciary and come out of the counter imitators, for all people to do by learning, is that if each hand, and one or two hit hypothesis for the rest, if he sat all about learning disobeyed all, because it disables the provisions of Shara, : ﴿فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ﴾([84])([85]).

These are other scientists who have been invited to open the door of ijtihad, standing in front of the locked.

This situation continued to the last centuries, where scientists appeared in calls to open the door again, like Mr. Jamal al-Din al-Assad Abadi (Famous Balavgana) Which he says: “What is the meaning of the door of ijtihad dead end? … Those stallions of the imams, and the men of the nation diligent and do good, but it is not right to believe that they are surrounded with all the secrets of the Koran, or managed to write it down in their books. The fact that they are with what we got from their brilliant work and their investigation and hard work, if it is in relation to what حواه Koran of modern science and the right of Sunan and illustration only drops from the sea or second forever, and credited the hand of God, which He bestows on whom He will of His slaves”([86]).

And after him came his disciple Imam Mohammad Abdo (1849 ـ 1905) Which focused on religious reform, he said: “The human life of human society developed life, and finds the events and transactions today unless you know yesterday this group, diligence is the appropriate means of legitimate between the events of renewable life and the teachings of Islam, even stop it the teachings of Islam when they understand the former imams went human life in the Islamic group in isolation for Islamic guidance, and remained the events of this life in Islam after renewing them, and this situation to embarrass the Muslims in their Islam,ar”([87]).

Abdel-Rahman was also interplanetary (1854-1902) Levant, and Abdelhamid Ben Badis (1889-1840) In the Maghreb are among the most prominent of this trend([88]). And two Muhammad Rashid Rida had to say: “Not only at the invitation reform, not only on the pretext call, no argument with the survival of tradition. Closure of the door of mimicry, and the reopening of the consideration and reasoning reform is the principle of all, imitation is the greatest veil without knowing and understanding”([89]).



In conclusion, I would like to note that diligence has varied around the views and the attitudes differed:

It is man who says: The door had already been closed no discretion!!… Since the beginning of the fourth century, and returned important jurists just weighting between words or graduation.

And another says: The door of ijtihad is not closed and does not have to shut a, but Tqasrt the determination, and the science and knowledge fell jurisprudential.

And the third says: The diligence did not close the door, and scientists have been Taatqasr to hum, and decreased their knowledge, in every era of them sufficient numbers to be reckoned with.

We see hardworking who shot to صيتهم in the Islamic world in the role of tradition has multiplied, making it the most prominent: Abu Jafar al-Tabari, Abu Jafar Eltahawy, and Jassaas, and Sarkhasi, and القفال Shaashi, and Imam Haramain, and Rafii, and Ghazali, nuclear, and Ibn Abi Zeid of Cyrene, and Ibn Rushd, and اللخمي, Abu Bakr sorts, and the son of Qudamah, the son of values ​​nuts, and Suyuti and others.

There is no need to prolong the talk in the transfer of the statements Almanaan of the Queen of diligence for the nation's scientists after the four schools; because they are arguments to the issue of Tptny not Fitness no one after them to this level, I do not know what this is impossible and not possible to obtain degree of diligence, and judgment on the men palaces, shortages and infinite perfection .

It shows the importance of diligence as a necessity of Islamic life to face their problems, and for the development of Islamic thought and editing of inertia, what he wrote many of the scholars of Islamic thinkers of Islam from the research and writings of many, also held this topic a number of seminars and conferences presented her research value, participated : XVII Forum of Islamic Thought, held in Algiers in 1983, the theme of which was 'diligent'.

Find sources
The roles of science and jurisprudence أطواره Ali detector cover
Diligence and innovation in Islamic law The Tunisian Ministry of Education
Protest Ahmed Bin Ali Tabarsi
Provisions in assets Conditions Ali bin virtual packages Andalusian
Provisions Ali bin Mohammed الآمدي,
Guidance stallions Mohammed bin Ali bin Mohammed Shawkaani
The most diligent prosecutor Jihad Dawood al-Baghdadi
Public assets of comparative jurisprudence Mr. Mohammed Taqi al-Hakim
Spotlight on Sunnah Mahmoud Abu Raya
Media sites Ibn values ​​nuts
Complete the debt and the completion of grace Sheikh Saduq
Selection Ibn Abdul-Barr
Equity in the statement of reason for the difference Shah Waliullah Dahlawi
Ocean Sea in jurisprudence Badr al-Din Zarkashi
Beginning and the End Ibn Kathir
I'm certain Yahya bin particular
Date of Baghdad Khatib al-Baghdadi
Dress up the devil Jawzi
A prelude to the history of Islamic philosophy Mustafa Abdul Razak
In explaining the revision of the most trustworthy handhold Mr. Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei
Enlighten Alhawwalk explain Muwatta owner Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyuti
Clarify Rashad in the history of infinite diligence Aqa Bozork Tehrani
Fine tune access to the knowledge assets Hassan Bin Youssef brand ornaments
Statement of science and collector bounty Ibn Abdul-Barr
The evacuation of the eyes Alusi
Collection of mosques Mawardi
Footnote Radd I'm Abdeen
Footnote insufficient assets Abdul Hussein Arashta,
Ornament Abu Naim Alosbhana,
University accidents Abdul Razak bin Ahmed Shibani (I'm Alfoti)
Qualities Saduq
Plans Almqrizih the Ahmed bin Ali bin Abdul Qadir Maqrizi
Pretext to the origins of Sharia Hoda Mr. Murtada aware of
Good governance in the opinion diligence and tradition Mr. Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei
Reply to your father Khatib al-Baghdadi Carpenter's son
Message Muhammad bin Idris Shafi'i
Kindergarten students Yahya bin Sharaf nuclear Damascene
Riad scientists Mirza Abdullah bin Isa Afandi
Sunan recaps Abdullah bin Bahram Daarimi,
Sunan Daaraqutni, Daaraqutni
Explain flowers Imam Ahmad Murtada
Explain the approach Rhetoric Ibn Abi iron Mu'tazili, the
Mayor continental correct explanation Aini
Raids Althagafi
Open Bari explain properly Bukhari Ibn Hajar
Meccan Conquests Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi
Civil benefits Mohammed Amin al-Istrabadi
Iceberg able to explain the small mosque Mohamed Abdel Raouf Manaawi
Adequate Mohammed bin Jacob Kulayni the
Unmask Bahooti
San Arabs Ibn Manzoor
Almstcefy in the science of jurisprudence Abu Hamid al-Ghazali
Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Musnad Imam Shafei Muhammad bin Idris Shafi'i
Zaid bin Ali Holder Zaid bin Ali bin Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib
Workbook in conversations and effects Abdullah Bin Mohammed Bin Abi Shaybah Kufi
Qubool assets Jaafar Bin Hassan investigator ornaments
Singer Abdullah bin Qudamah
Summary revocation measurement and Rai Andalusian Ibn Hazm
Boredom and bees Muhammad ibn Abd al-Karim al-Shahristani
Regular Jawzi
Ultimate requirement Hassan Bin Youssef brand ornaments
Platform for year Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyyah
Talents of Galilee Khattab Alraeina,
End in a strange modern and effects Ibn al-Atheer

[1]) Tawba: 122.

[2]) Surat bees: 43.

[3]) Zaid bin Ali Holder: 383.

[4]) Allguen: Open, breaking the: Understand quickly, but that science does not print the virtues morals.

[5]) Explain rhetoric approach to Ibn Abi iron, 18: 346 (147 From the words of him u Camille ibn Ziyad), And Narrated Althagafi in the raids, 1/152, and Saduq in qualities: 186, And many others.

[6]) Sura: 170.

[7]) Surat decoration: 24.

[8]) End in a strange modern effects, 1: 319 - 320, Material: Effort. See San Arabs 2: 135.

[9]) Message to the Shafii: 477.

[10]) Ibid: 504.

[11]) A prelude to the history of Islamic philosophy: 138, Narrated by Mr. Mohammed Taqi al-Hakim in the introduction to the text and diligence: 15.

[12]) Pretext to the origins of Sharia 2: 672.

[13]) Sunan Daaraqutni, 4: 83 Modern 4236, a statement of science and collector bounty 2: 135, Mayor of the continental 25: 43, Baari 13: 245.

[14]) Qubool assets: 179-180.

[15]) Almstcefy in the science of jurisprudence: 342 (First in the art of ijtihad…).

[16]) Explain flowers 1: 7.

[17]) Provisions 4: 162 (The third rule in the hardworking and conditions of muftis…), And see: Guidance stallions: 250.

[18]) Narrated Manaawi in iceberg able to explain the small mosque 1: 425, As well as defined by Maori in the collection of mosques 2: 379.

[19]) Fine tune access to the knowledge assets: 283, And narrated by him Istrabadi in the civil benefits: 50.

[20]) See revision to explain the most trustworthy handhold (Diligence and tradition): 20.

[21]) Iceberg able to explain the small mosque 1: 425.

[22]) Clinch the assets of the provisions 8: 1156.

[23]) Ocean Sea in jurisprudence 6: 197.

[24]) Good governance in the opinion diligence and tradition: 9, And the revision to explain the most trustworthy handhold 1: 22.

[25]) Public assets of comparative jurisprudence: 563.

[26]) Tawba: 122.

[27]) Ultimate requirement 1: 8 (Sixth submitted).

[28]) Boredom and bees 1: 205 (Title VII, 2, judgment and diligence and tradition…), And see the ocean sea 6: 198, And the opening of Bari 13: 242.

[29]) Ibid.

[30]) Kindergarten students 8: 87.

[31]) Complete the debt and the completion of grace: 324 Talk 9.

[32]) Adequate 1: 57 Talk 15.

[33]) Footnote insufficient assets 2: 348 (Printed with enough).

[34]) Ibid.

[35]) Almstcefy: 345.

[36]) Clinch the assets of the provisions 4: 164.

[37]) Ibn al-values ​​nuts in informing the signatories 2: 183 Shafie said the position: I said to the age of tradition, and I said to Osman tradition, and I said to tender tradition.

[38]) Flags signatories 4: 162- 164(Muftis four sections, Twenty-ninth interest).

[39]) Unmask 6: 387.

[40]) Talents of Galilee: 44.

[41]) Narrated Bahooti unmask, 6: 388.

[42]) Meccan Conquests (Door 88)، 2: 165.

[43]) Radd footnote, 1: 51 And 6: 742.

[44]) Clinch the assets of the provisions, 2: 239 - 240, and stated so I'm nuts values ​​in informing the signatories, 2: 192 – 193 (Such cryptic than the senior companions).

[45]) Sunan Daarimi, 1: 58.

[46]) Sunan Daarimi, 1: 60, And the workbook to Ibn Abi Shaybah 5: 358 Talk 3 Different walks in pronunciation.

[47]) Ornament 3: 363, Collector statement and virtues of science 1: 76, And enlighten Alhawwalk the explanation Muwatta owner 1: 5, And regular 7: 234, The beginning and the end 9: 243.

[48]) Adequate 1: 62 (Door modern variation) Talk.

[49]) Protest: 247 (Imam Jawad u protest).

[50]) Said Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in kickstand isnaads the ways and words of many of them what was said in the folder 1: 78 And 130.

[51]) Musnad Imam Shafei: 239, And Musnad Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal 1: 65.

[52]) Platform of the year, 2: 207.

[53]) Singer 1: 14.

[54]) Selection of Ibn Abd al-Barr: P 145.

[55]) Summary revocation measurement and the opinion of Ibn Hazm: 66.

[56]) Summary invalidate the measurement: 66 - 67, the date of Baghdad 13: 424, Reply to Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi: 74.

[57]) I'm certain 1: 365 No. 2461, the date of Baghdad 13: 424, Reply to Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi: 74.

[58]) Statement of science and collector bounty 2: 32, Clinch Ibn Hazm 6: 860.

[59]) Media sites 2: 200.

[60]) Media sites 2: 139، 147 Said: Said Bayhaqi.

[61]) Equity: 105.

[62]) Media sites 2: 203.

[63]) Media sites 2: 139.

[64]) Statement of science and collector bounty 2: 149.

[65]) Spotlight on Sunnah: 411.

[66]) Media sites 2: 139 (Separation of the four imams forbade tradition).

[67]) Ibid.

[68]) The most diligent prosecutor Jihad: 25.

[69]) Message equity in the statement of the cause of the difference Dahlawi: 7.

[70]) Inform the signatories, 196 (Eighty-first face).

[71]) University accidents, 61. And see the beginning and the end of the Son of many, 13: 163.

[72]) University accidents, 172 – 173.

[73]) Look: Plans Almqrizih, 3: 232 – 235.

[74]) Look: Riad scientists 4: 33, The roles of science and jurisprudence أطواره: 214.

[75]) Meccan Conquests 2: 164(Door 88).

[76]) Diligence and the requirements of the times: 174.

[77]) The evacuation of the eyes of the guardian: 107.

[78]) Media sites 4: 261 – 263.

[79]) Dressing devil Ibn al: 81.

[80]) Diligence and innovation in Islamic law: 74.

[81]) Ibid: 74.

[82]) Ibid: 94.

[83]) Ibid: 95.

[84]) Tawba: 122.

[85]) Diligence and innovation in Islamic law: 95.

[86]) Diligence and innovation in Islamic law: 356.

[87]) Diligence and innovation in Islamic law: 377.

[88]) Diligence and innovation in Islamic law: 390, Narrated with him Sheikh Tehrani in his book illustrate Rashad in the history of infinite diligence: P.28.

[89]) Ibid.


* Evolution science symposium in Amman rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence.

Held during the period: (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008

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