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Diligent in the middle of the fourth century AH (Twentieth century) Between innovation and regulation

Diligent in the middle of the fourth century AH (Twentieth century) Between innovation and regulation *

Preparation: A. D. Heba Mustafa Zoheily

(Damascus University - Faculty of Sharia member jurisprudential academies)

Presentation

Praise be to God alone, and peace and blessings be no prophet after him. After:

فإن الله تعالى في كتابه المجيد في أكثر من مائة وخمسين آية دعانا صراحة إلى إعمال الفكر والعقل في جميع شؤون الحياة الإنسانية والتشريعية والاقتصادية والسياسية والاجتماعية والدعوية، لتبقى الأمة الإسلامية منارة الانفتاح الاقتصادي، والنهضة، والتقدم، والازدهار، والعطاء الحضاري، والاستقرار المدني وبقاء معالم الوحي الإلهي، لكن ظروفاً داخلية وخارجية أعاقت عجلة البناء التجديدي، والانبعاث الحضاري، والريادة العلمية، ومنها أفق الساحة Jurisprudence and discretionary, which awakened an elite or a bright constellation of innovators, فبادروا to educate Muslims, and drew attention to the need for scientists and diligence exercise to keep up with the legal and industrial renaissance of others from the West and the East in the past three centuries.

However this has not stopped diligence, his movement did not stagnate, and emerged flags in fatwas, whether in the era of the Ottoman Caliphate, Kalalama Abu Saud al-Hanafi and other chieftains of the Ottoman power, or in the rest of the country.

There is no doubt that the basic legal provisions but based on sub-texts correct, may استنبطها to the earlier scholars may God have mercy on them in various doctrines, and filled with workbooks and blogs jurisprudential large, medium and small Thousands of issues of legitimacy and a statement of its provisions.

And stayed emerging issues and emerging issues need to renew and diligence and adequate coverage, because of pressure from modern renaissance in the affairs of many, and أبدعته of innovations in the prospects for commercial contracts, industrial and service, particularly with regard to road transport, sea and air and other issues and behaviors important economic and vitality, as well as social and medical .

It can track the movement of diligence and rationing in the middle of the fourteenth century / of the twentieth century in the following themes:

– The Age of Enlightenment and the Islamic Awakening (School Sheikh Jamal al-Afghani) In the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

– The actual era of renewal in the first half of the twentieth century (Law professors in universities).

– Emitters and imperatives of diligence partial and its importance to both the public and private sectors.

– Teamwork and diligence institutions and فاعلياته in the second half of the twentieth century.

– Exclusive models of the flags of innovation and diligence in the twentieth century.

– Rationing movement and prospects of private and public in the twentieth century.

– Conclusion.


The Age of Enlightenment and the Islamic Awakening (School Sheikh Jamal al-Afghani) In the nineteenth century and early twentieth century:

Appeared in the Islamic world in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century calls for a major call for renewal and jurisprudence كالدعوة of Salafism in Najd by Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab (1115 – 1206هـ/ 1703 – 1792), Call Senussi in Oran, Algeria and its founder Imam Muhammad bin Ali al-Sanusi great rhetorical (1202AH / 1787 AD, and died in 1260 - 1302 AH / 1885 AD).

Then emerged other leaders led the Islamic movement, at the forefront of Sheikh Jamal al-Afghani in the land of the Afghans year 1839 - 1897, and travel between India and Egypt, Istanbul and Europe, and called in the magazine “The most trustworthy handhold” To fight against British colonialism, and the realization of the Islamic sources confirmed (Quran and Sunnah) And uncertain (Views of scientists) To revive the true teachings among the people.

Then his disciple Sheikh Mohamed Abdou Mufti (Who died in 1323 AH / 1905 AD) Who walked on the Afghan Sheikha approach in the fight against counterfeiting, and the realization of the mind and the renaissance of the Muslims, then the Islam thinker and philosopher poet Muhammad Iqbal in the province of Punjab, India (Born in 1289 AH / 1873 AD and died in 1938) Who delivered in 1928 In Madras, Hyderabad and Aligarh seven lectures on the rebuilding of religious thought in Islam in the book translated “The renewal of religious thought in Islam” Which is the first call innovative in the Islamic intellectual arena.

This is a period in the Grass roots advocacy diligence, and the emergence of the harbingers it's needed, and the revival of renewal landmarks and raise the spirit of contemporary ijtihad.

In any case, although the total closure of the door of ijtihad in the late fourth century AH, especially after the fall of Baghdad (656 AH) As a matter of policy legitimacy to maintain the heritage idiosyncratic and prevent vaunted diligence of tampering with the provisions of Islam, the diligence partial door jurisprudential or in matters of legality, still exists in every age and Egypt; because the issues of the nation and the referendum continued her make it unreasonable to say close the final door .

 

The era of the actual renewal of the judgment in the first half of the twentieth century (University professors):

إن كل من يستعرض المؤلفات الحديثة في الأزهر على يد الرواد الأوائل في منتصف القرن العشرين، أو في كليات الحقوق في الجامعات المختلفة في مصر والسودان والمغرب وسورية والعراق وغيرها من البلاد العربية والإسلامية، يجد ظاهرة واضحة في التجديد، ومحاولات جادة صائبة في إيراد حلول المسائل المستجدة والقضايا والمشكلات الطارئة، وهي نوع من الاجتهاد الجزئي، سواء في كتب أصول الفقه المعاصرة أو في كتب المدخل الفقهي، أو في دراسة النظريات الفقهية أو العقود أو القواعد الشرعية، أو مؤلفات الفقه المقارن وما اشتملت عليه من موازنات بين الآراء ومناقشتها، وترجيح الأقرب للصواب منها، أو لرعاية المصالح العامة.

وتركزت رسائل الدراسات العليا -مرحلة الماجستير والدكتوراه-في بيان آراء جديدة للكاتبين في الموضوعات المعروضة والمتخصصة؛ لأنَّ التخصص بدراسة موضوع محدد يؤدي إلى نضج بعض الآراء الاجتهادية وسلامتها في ساحة التطبيق العملي، بالاستفادة من مجموع آراء الفقهاء من سنة وإباضية وظاهرية وشيعة، من غير تعصّب لمذهب معين، وَإِنَّمَا رائد الباحث المدقق والمتعمق تحقيق الغاية، ورعاية مقاصد الشريعة، ونشدان توفير المصلحة للمجتمع الإسلامي، وبيان سبق الشريعة الإسلامية لما توصلت إليه القوانين الوضعية: Civil, criminal and other, all in the considerable discretion.

وَمِـمَّا أدى إلى تنشيط حركة الاجتهاد الجزئي في عصرنا جمع فقه السلف من الصحابة والتابعين، إلى جانب فقه المذاهب الثمانية، حيث لم يكن يعنى الناس بفقه السلف، مكتفين بفقه المذاهب السائدة، واستفاد الباحثون والدارسون في رسائل الدراسات العليا، وواضعو القوانين، وهيئات كبار العلماء في مصر والسـعودية، من بعض آراء السـلف، ومن آراء المتأخرين كابن تيمية وابن القيم الجوزرية في كتب السياسة الشرعية وأعلام الموقعين، والدهلوي في كتابه “God argument amounting” And Shawkaani in his books, including “Neil Awtaar”, And a good friend Khan king of Bhopal in his book “Kindergarten parity”.

He helped to develop diligence issuance of encyclopedias jurisprudence, and indexes wrote jurists famous, and projects rationing of jurisprudence, and legalization magazines legitimacy, as well as the codification of the provisions of the judges in the degrees of the various courts in all the country's Arab-Islamic, and other scientific activities, public and private, which richest scientific arena, is pleased to scientists .

This does not mean that all the correct interpretations, some of them are acceptable, some are middle, and some are rejected for Forensic clash text or Sharia قطعيات, or naivety opinion.

And I've been to conferences and seminars jurisprudence or specialized Islamic contribution evident in the development of consensus through in-depth discussions and sharp at times, and Responses explicit, and the issuance of appropriate decisions that guide the opinion discretionary likely reason and religiously, and the interest and conventionally true, believing in the science of jurisprudence.

The Islamic banks and oversight bodies legitimacy in which the contribution is evident in the growth of Islamic jurisprudence, and to find alternatives to the legitimacy acceptable and far from getting involved in the land, in order to pay the march of these banks, and the success of the mission, and then put standards legitimacy of the high-level in the Accounting and Auditing in Bahrain, and the adoption of their authors on “Forensic Council” Component of the era's leading scientists and managers of Islamic banks. All of these efforts have led to a distinct product in the scientific field, and to reap the fruits ripe in various fields of endeavor, making jurists accept the study of Islamic jurisprudence, and benefit from it in terms of application and rationing.

The great legal scholar Prof. Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sanhoori in a mediator and Write “Right sources” First wealth praised the ancient and contemporary jurisprudence, and was written by encouraging jurists in the balance between Islamic jurisprudence and legal provisions and theories, and found Mgarnathm the clear acceptance among law scholars. On the other hand appeared in the arena of scientific literature that studies jurisprudential theories along the lines of legal theories, such as: Theory of nullification and susceptibility to revoke, and the theory of abuse of right and legitimate defense, and the theory and the necessary security and termination, and civil and legal prosecution, the state and other.

 

Emitters and imperatives of diligence partial and its importance to both the public and private sectors:

It is known that the overall diligence and absolute independent has lost of time, which means independence placing assets or sources of jurisprudence, and then branching out, so industrious independent is which rode its rules for himself, builds upon jurisprudence out about the rules prescribed doctrine, said Imam Suyuti (ت911هـ): This is something that was lost forever, but if a person wanted today to Declined([1]). And likeness of the imams of various sects remaining extinct due to the unavailability of the ingredients for the dissemination of doctrine and keep it independent and industrious is the only person who called the term “Imam”.

The diligence المتجزئ the: Means is that the world will be able to devise the issue of governance issues and not others, or in jurisprudential door without other. And industrious المتجزئ the: Is knower devising some provisions, and this requires the availability of civil jurisprudence has([2]).

This type of endeavor is the remainder, which we see many examples of him in every era, Egypt.

The scientists decided more: That fragmentation diligence may know what the question of what does not need him to, but ignorance is not about him out of the rest of the doctrinal issues([3]).

There are concerns many theoretical and practical require the survival of this type of endeavor; because it covers the actual need for the nation to see the provisions of developments and emerging issues, as well as the weighting between the doctrine inherited, and to benefit from the fruit of penalties in the codification of the legal provisions of civil and criminal provisions of the Family (Personal status system) And other.

بل إن الضرورة تملي علينا القول بمشروعية هذا الاجتهاد، على المستوى العام أو الخاص؛ لأنَّ الشريعة الإسلامية شريعة خالدة ومرنة، تجمع بين الثوابت والمتغيرات، ورعاية المصالح والأعراف والتطورات والبيئات والأزمان والأمكنة، فهي بحق شريعة صالحة لكل زمان ومكان، ولا تتحقق هذه الصلاحية إلا ببقاء باب الاجتهاد مفتوحاً، علماً بأن الله تعالى لم يهمل عقول هذه الأمة في النظر والتأمل والاستنباط، بل إن النبي ـ عليه الصلاة والسلام ـ رفع الحرج في هذه الأمة عن الخطأ في الاجتهاد، فقال لعمرو بن العاص: «The injured orbit troughs, but missed the orbit of wage»([4]). In another interview generally: «If Governor فاجتهد convicted hitting, he may troughs, and If فاجتهد convicted فأخطأ the reward one»([5]).

هذا، ولا يمكن تَحقيق تطبيق الشريعة إِلاَّ بالاجتهاد، سواء بالنسبة للدولة المسلمة، كما حدث في عهد الخلافة الراشدة، لاسيما في عهد عمر بن الخطاب t حيث توسعت الدولة، واتسعت الفتوحات، وطرأت حوادث جديدة كثيرة، فتصدّى لها الصحابة الكرام، فكان الخليفة الراشدي بدءاً من فترة خلافة أبي بكر t إذا وقعت حادثة فإن وجد فيها نصاً من كتاب الله تعالى أو من سنة رسول الله e عمل به، فإن لم يجد جمع رءوس الناس فاستشارهم، فما أشاروا به أخذ به، وكذلك كان عمر يفعل ذلك، وهكذا كان منهج معاذ بن جبل حين بعثه النبي e قاضياً ومعلماً إلى اليمن([6]) And approved by the.

And the need for renewable and variable interest, and all common norms dictate the need for diligence in various public and private matters, and the increased pressure of these considerations in our time where the shot of economic life, medical and other hundreds of issues that requires diligence Islamic solution.

 

Teamwork and diligence institutions and فاعلياته in the second half of the twentieth century:

أفرزت الحياة المعاصرة كثيراً من الأنظمة والأوضاع والقضايا الجديدة في عالم الاقتصاد والاجتماع والثقافة والتربية والطب ونظام الأسرة والعلاقات الدولية العامة والخاصة، واتسـعت رقعة البلاد الإسلامية في المشارق والمغارب، واسـتجدت مسـائل عديدة في المعاملات، ولم يعد الاجتهاد الفرديّ ذا تأثير ملموس على المسلمين قاطبة، بسبب ازدياد عدد الناس، فوجدت الحاجة إلى المؤتمرات والندوات الفقهية المتخصصة، وإلى إنشاء مجامع فقهية، وتنادى كثير من المصلحين والفقهاء والعلماء المعاصرين إلى ضرورة وجود مجمع فقهي عام، وكان أول من دعا لذلك الإمام الشيخ محمد عبده .

And actually resulted in these appeals, was decided in Egypt to create “Islamic Research Academy” Egyptian Resolution No. (103) For the year 1961 Special reorganization of Al-Azhar([7]).

He was followed by a “Islamic Fiqh” Of the Muslim World League in Mecca, starting in 1398, after it emerged the idea of ​​creating a compound in the year 1384 AH, holding the compound nineteen cycle recently in 1428/2007, with a total membership of twenty members, mostly from the Saudis and some of other nationalities. The development of this compound, finally, became a membership of more than fifty members of different nationalities.

And was followed by the establishment of “Islamic Fiqh” The decision of the Third Islamic Summit Conference in 1401 AH / 1981 AD, based in Jeddah, and its members from various Islamic countries, and they now account for more than (45) State, holding eighteen complex cycle, most recently in the year 1428/2007 in Malaysia.

Then followed by the formation of the Islamic Fiqh Academy in India in 1409/1989 and held seventeen latest cycle in 2007.

Then established “Islamic Fiqh” In Sudan ten years ago, and”European Council for Fatwa and Research” In 1418/1997, and”Assembly of Muslim Jurists” America held five sessions, most recently in the Kingdom of Bahrain in 1428/2007.

It was for these councils decisions many new and very important in cases of dogma and doctrine and jurisprudence, economics and public issues, transactions, medicine and issues of renewable and problems of life, was the weighting and the statement of many provisions, particularly with regard to the activities of Islamic banks and the statement of halal and haram of food and stripes.

وتعد هذه المجامع الناشئة مفخرة عظيمة للأمة الإسلامية وقراراتها ثروة كبيرة، اعتمدت على ما يعرف بالاجتهاد الجماعي، حيث تقدّم فيها بحوث متخصصة من صفوة فقهاء العالم الإسلامي، ثُمَّ تناقش، ثُمَّ تصدر القرارات إِمَّا بالإجماع وإما بالأغلبية، وقد لقيت هذه القرارات ترحاباً كبيراً، وعناية ملحوظة بين العلماء والدارسين، لا سيما في كليات الشريعة والحقوق، وفي مجال التطبيق الفعلي بين الناس لهذه القرارات.

The effects of these synagogues conviction configuration adequate for the application of Islamic law, and the issuance of a purely Islamic laws in the Sudan, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, and the abandonment of man-made laws gradually.

Exclusive models of the flags of innovation and diligence in the twentieth century:

It is impossible to stop diligence and as long as the renewal of life receive repeated Bahdatha, and people renew their activities, Wen resort to scientists and scholars in their questions and their fatwas, in accordance with the words of Almighty God)Male ask the people if you do not know﴾ [Bees: 43].

Hadith confirms the meaning of the verse mentioned, Fadlallah said in a statement on the Islamic nation to creating men, and the preparation of scholars and innovators, he said, u: «God sends to this nation at the head of every hundred years renews her religion»([8]) Meant by Balmojadd in every age: That which calls for the renewal and reform path diligence, and supports the call for evidence and proof.

These are examples or models of the flags of innovation and diligence in the mid-fourteenth century migration / twentieth century:

1– Sheikh Mohammed bin Mustafa Maraghi (1319/ 1364E- 1881E /1945ملحق بسير *الشماخي) Sheikh of Al-Azhar Mosque. كان متأثراً في دعوته الإصلاحية بتوجيهات الشيخ مُـحَمَّد عبده في إصلاح المحاكم الشرعية، بالخروج عن التزام مذهب واحد من المذاهب الفقهية إلى دائرة الاستفادة من بقية المذاهب، وفتح بهذا باب التلفيق في القضاء الشرعي على مصراعيه، ليأخذ من المذاهب الفقهية لأهل السنة وغيرهم ما يشاء، فمنع وقوع الطلاق الثلاث بلفظ واحد أو في مجلس واحد، كما يذهب إليه ابن تيمية، وكوَّن لجنة تنظيم الأحوال الشخصية، ولا يجاوز في منهجه استنباط أحكام جديدة ليست في مذهب من المذاهب المشهورة وغير المشهورة، أي ولو لم يكن الرأي من المذاهب الأربعة، وتألفت فعلاً برئاسته لجنة لإصلاح نظام الأحوال الشخصية وتدوينه تدويناً عصرياً، وكان من بين أعضائها الشيخ عبد المجيد سليم مفتي مصر، والشيخ فتح الله سليمان رئيس القضاة، بالاعتماد على جميع المذاهب الإسلامية وعدم التقيد بتقليد مذهب واحد فحسب([9]).

The sheikh of Al-Azhar was chosen year 1347 AH / 1928 AD, and then retired from the job after his job four months by pressing the King Ahmed Fouad I, and then returned to Al-Azhar sheikh Year 1354/ 1935 فحرص to implement his reform until he died God's mercy([10]).

2- Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout Grand Imam Sheikh of Al-Azhar Mosque in the late fifties and sixties of the twentieth century.

Found three books of jurisprudence (Compared to the doctrines, the doctrine of Islam and Sharia, fatwas - a study of the problems of the contemporary Muslim in his daily life and public) Its distinctive characteristics in five axes:

First: Penalties in the disputed doctrinal issues after the discussion and adoption of the correct directory, religiously and language interest.

II: Horizon in the capacity to take advantage of all sources of public law and rules.

Third: المعاصرة والسبق في علاج مشكلات المسلمين والدفاع القوي عن الإسلام وعلومه، والاستيعاب لأحداث العصر، مِمَّا أكسبه القدرة على التفوق، وحلّ مشكلات كثيرة في تفسير القرآن، وبيان أساسيات العقيدة، وتصحيح عادات الناس وتقاليدهم الموروثة، وأفكارهم المغلوطة، كما أنه أسهم إسهاماً واضحاً ومبتكراً في حسم مسائل الاختلاف بين المذاهب، وقضايا المجتمع، ومسائل الفقه الشائكة العامة منها والخاصة، وربط الدين بالواقع، وتجلية غاياته ومقاصده، وتحديد مفاهيمه، والجمع بين العقيدة والشريعة، فلا وجود للشريعة إلا بوجود العقيدة، ولا ازدهار للشريعة إلا في ظل العقيدة.

IV: Determine the reasons for the difference between the doctrines accurately, and a strong call to strive after the Civil availability and Queen diligence, and renounce fanaticism and blind imitation.

V: Deep understanding of the spirit of Islam, and a sense of flowing developments life, إبانة the issues of Islam clearly, with eloquence the tongue, and the eloquence of the statement, and strength of character and expression, and the capacity of the mind and the power of the trial, and accuracy of observation. ويميل في اجتهاده إلى التيسير لا التشدد أو التنفير، والوسطية لا المغالاة، فهو مثلاً يجيز تعدد الزوجات والأصل فيه الإباحة مع تقييده بضابط العدل فقط، ويقول بمشروعية التطليق للضرر، وجعل الطلاق المشروع مرة بعد مرة، دون جمعه بكلمة واحدة، ويدعو لتوثيق عقود الزواج، ومحاربة الزواج العرفي، فهو زواج رعب وقلق، لا سكن ورحمة، ويدعو لتنظيم النسل لا تحديد النسل، والالتزام بأخلاق الإسلام ووصاياه لتحقيق الاعتدال في الحياة الزوجية، والالتزام بقواعد الميراث في الإسلام، وينادي بأن واجب الدولة في حماية الاستقلال الاقتصادي، والاحتياط في العقوبة، واعتماد رأي ابن القيم في إسقاط العقوبة بالتوبة الخالصة الصادقة إذا أقرَّ صاحب الجناية بها، والإمام مخيَّر بين ترك عقوبة التائب أو تطبيقها عليه، وهذا مسلك وسط بين من لا يجيزون إقامة العقوبة الحدية بعد التوبة مطلقاً، وبين من يقول: No trace of repentance in the drop punishment at all.

And has seen that Galilee Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout was truly proficient scientist, and again conscious and moderate, and sometimes diligent acceptable opinion and direction, and confirms what بحثان said the two distinct him: “Islam and international relations in peace and war”, And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi”Civil and criminal liability in Islamic law” Submitted to the Hague Conference in 1937, and fatwas months and its “Adoption of the doctrine Jaafari doctrine V. in jurisprudence, and its method in rapprochement between sects”.

But Sheikh involvement in some of his books saying by the possibility of bank interest rates, unlike other books.

3- Sheikh Abdel Wahab Khalaf: Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University's Faculty of Law in the fifties and earlier of the twentieth century.

Manifested flight Sheikh otherwise the prospects for Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic politics in his famous books such as “Science of jurisprudence and the history of Islamic legislation Summary” I 1373 AH / 1954 AD, and”Diligence opinion”, H. 1369/ 1950, And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi”Islamic politics” Outstanding simplicity and smoothness and clarity, with depth and to cite evidence of mental and legitimacy, and comparison between Islamic jurisprudence and laws, as appears in the (Pp. 255 - 256) From the book of jurisprudence, where he showed that in the death retribution premeditated killer of two rights: Really the victim, a Crown slain, and really God, any community, and made the right of the victim most likely, and led to the fact that the right to file a lawsuit at the request government retribution to the victim, and that he has the right to pardon the killer, and that the government in the event of an amnesty victim to punish the victim .

On the contrary,: Adulterous wife's death, they are in law the right of God, any community, and suit the harlot of the jurisdiction of the Public Prosecution, while in man-made laws, the suit from the jurisdiction of the pair.

Sheikh otherwise was a leading advocate after Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, and Rashid Rida that Islam is a religion of peace, in his book “Islamic politics” And that the origin of the relationship with other Muslims is peace, not war, and that jihad in Islam response to aggression, and defense in the face of abuse, and that the verses of the Quran holds the absolute unrestricted, ie, that the verses of jihad mounted on the contents of the verse: ﴿وَقَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلاَ تَعْتَدُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبِّ الْمُعْتَدِين﴾ [ Sura 190 ]And verse)Enter into peace all do not follow the footsteps of the devil he is to you an avowed enemy﴾ [Sura: 208] But he strongly criticized the permissible commercial insurance The straight-line.

4- Sheikh Ali light (1309 – 1398E / 1891 – 1978ملحق بسير *الشماخي):

Sheikh A Jurisprudence flags innovators in contemporary financial transactions, as it seems many of his works such as: “The provisions of the transaction legitimacy, the provisions of the injunction, the reasons for the different scholars, right and disclosure, companies in Islamic jurisprudence, mortgage, debt, insurance and the rulings of Islamic law, the property in Islamic law with comparable laws Arab regime, the prosecution of others in the act, security in Jurisprudence .. Etc.”.

يتضح من هذه المؤلفات إقراره للشخصية الاعتبارية للشركات، الاستبدال بالوقف الأهلي الوصية بالمنافع للوارث، إقراره الوصية الواجبة للأحفاد المتوفى والدهم في حياة أبيه، وهو رأي الإباضية القائلين بأن الوصية للوارثين منسوخة، ورأي ابن حزم الظاهري، والطبري وإسحاق بن راهويه، وتحديد مقدار الملكية في جميع الأملاك أو في ملك خاص بسقف معين يراه الحاكم إذا اقتضت المصلحة ذلك، ونزع ما يزيد على هذا الحد في الملكية ومنحها لآخرين، وفي هذا نظر واضح، وإباحته عقد التأمين التجاري لاشتماله على غرر يسير فقط، وهو محل نقد أيضاً، وإباحته الاستثمار، وهو أيضاً منتقد نقداً شديداً([11]).

It appears that what has criticized it was in the last of his life, but his views bold and reasoned, Defining the upper limit of ownership is incompatible with the base «origin of things», including ownership is permitted, which is the right of an instinctive, may not be restricted or removed in the public interest, but to compensate the immediate Adel, as stated in the decision . As well as commercial insurance it tricked obscene, as stated in the resolution of the Islamic Fiqh Academy for the year 1406/1985, and investment certificates riba-based loan forbidden in Islam, as it is the decision of the Islamic Fiqh Academy for the year 1410 AH / 1990 AD.

Sheikh was a brilliant light in the statement of the reasons for the different scholars and their applications, and to clarify the foundations of Islamic law, take care of the interests of the people in all the legal provisions, and make it easier for people, and the gradient in a statement the provisions of the law, and low cost, and embrace the base: «Ward boundaries suspicions» and the necessity of Justice house people in governance and transactions, and to differentiate between the spouses khul and الإيلاء and curse and disadvantages Repellents, not spending, and the absence of a spouse, and ill-ten, and apostasy from Islam, and parents of one of the spouses Islam, and the option of puberty and recovery, and lack of verification efficiency, and insolvency of the pair ([12]).

5- Sheikh Mohammed Abu Zahra (1316- 1394E / 1898 – 1974ملحق بسير *الشماخي):

The richest Sheikh Mohammed Abu Zahra Islamic library بمؤلفات are many and varied in the science of law: In the interpretation and Sciences “Flower interpretations” And”The great miracle (Quran)”And, in faith, advocacy and rhetoric, as in his books: “Islamic doctrine as stated by the Koran, the history of the Islamic sects in politics and beliefs, lectures on Christianity, compared to the ancient religions, the call to Islam”, And in the jurisprudence and controversy “Jurisprudence, lectures at the sources of Islamic jurisprudence, lectures on jurisprudence Jaafari, Sent interests, abuse of the right”In the history of the legislation and biographies of scholars: “Date schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Shafi'i, Abu Hanifa, Malik, Ibn Hanbal, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Hazm, Imam Zaid, Imam al-Sadiq, Ibn Khaldun, Jurisprudence and eliminate”In Islamic jurisprudence: “في العبادات والمعاملات المالية، الاقتصاد الإسلامي، الملكية ونظرية العقد، بحوث في الربا، التأمين، مشكلة الأوقاف، مشروع قانون الوصية، نظرات في قانون الأسرة، مشروع القانون الخاص بتقييد الطلاق وتعدد الزوجات، تنظيم الأسرة والنسل، محاضرات في عقد الزواج وآثاره، الملكية بالخلافة في الشريعة والقانون الروماني، الميراث عند الجعفرية، أحكام التركات والمواريث، الولاية على النفس، التكافل الاجتماعي، تنظيم الإسلام للمجتمع، المجتمع الإنساني في ظل الإسلام، الجريمة والعقوبة في الفقه الإسلامي، خاتم النبيين e، نظرية الحرب في الإسلام، الجهاد، العلاقات الدولية في الإسلام، الوحدة الإسلامية” ([13]).

Sheikh Abu Zahra was endearing to the hearts attractive, fun, and has a prestigious scientific stature, is a fundamentalist witty, and versed jurist, and linguist Checker, Khatib مصقع the eloquent.

The focus diligence in the renewal of Islamic jurisprudence in moderation, did not know about him abnormalities in saying the illegality of the stoning of our time, and it is abrogated, and crystallized efforts in Islamic jurisprudence Endoscopy “Drafted in the form of theories” And comparative jurisprudence between Islamic sects, and comparison between Islamic jurisprudence and laws, and the formulation of Islamic jurisprudence in a new dress, and codification of Islamic jurisprudence strongly violence at Almanaan of, and contemporary encyclopedic work of Islamic jurisprudence([14]).

As for his diligence in the emerging issues or contemporary was Mahlqa the sober and reasonable in most cases, like: Say the fact that puffer fasting, obligatory zakat in real estate exploited by ten of the net yield, compared to ten on the necessity of the agricultural land, which is measured with a difference, exposure exploited for destruction without the land, which is opposed to the Islamic Fiqh Council of (1406AH / 1985 AD) Where no Zakat requires in real estate assets, but the yield by a quarter after ten حولان squint.

According unnecessary Zakat in stocks and bonds used in legitimate trade, but the bonds are prohibited, they are loans usury does not solve the deal, and sees Sheikh against prohibition benefits usury different, and the sanctity of commercial insurance with a straight line, which agreed with the views of most of the Islamic world from scientists and ordinary, and unanimously .

And campus Sheikh Abu Zahra coupons newspapers (Commercial competitions); Because it is gambling or lottery.

And Sheikh committed to a strong defense of the Personal Status Law (Fiqh of the family), And refused to restrict polygamy and divorce restriction and make it, however, the judge.

And permitted Misyaar marriage to its foundations and conditions are met, and did not come out of what scholars decided that the friendly woman half a friendly man in the murder, but in his mind with their equality with men in manslaughter.

Do not see the married adulterer stoned, but punishable by flogging Kalzana bosses, a view that gay is contrary to the constant in the Sunnah.

And entitles the Dead autopsy of the need for particular medical or forensic for Educational Affairs, and the campus of artificial insemination, but the Fiqh Council say is permissible only between a man and his wife([15]).

6- Dr. Sobhi Mahmassani lawyer:

Professor at the Institute of Islamic Sharia (College) Rights in Beirut in the fifties of the last century AD:

Seen from the book: “Jurisprudence in Islam” Introduction to the study of Islamic law in the light of doctrines different light and modern laws, he was a leading comparison between the jurisprudence of law for the year and Shiites and between the various ordinances old such as law Roman and contemporary such as laws Arabic in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Indonesia and Turkey.

وَأَنَّهُ ركز على مبدأ أو قاعدة «تغير الأحكام بسبب تغير المصالح»، وتغيير تفسير النصوص الشرعية، أو تغيير الاجتهاد المبني عليها لتغير علتها، أو لتغير العرف الذي بنيت عليه، أو لاقتضاء الضرورة والمصلحة، متأسياً بالخلفاء الراشـدين ومنهم الخليفة عمر بن عبد العزيز، لا سيما في عهد عمر بن الخطاب في شأن إيقاف نصيب المؤلفة قلوبهم من الزكاة، لعدم توافر سبب العطاء، وإيقاف حد السرقة عام الرَّمادة أو المجاعة، لعدم توافر بعض ضوابط السرقة، وإمضاء الطلاق الثلاث الصادر بكلمة واحدة ثلاثاً، وجعل الهدية للعمال (Staff) The governors bribe not a gift, then الاستهداء fatwas some scholars such as Abu Yusuf and Quraafi, and inventory most of the provisions prone to change and adjustment in matters partial without principles and total assets, in the spirit of the law based on tolerance and convenience, and taking ahaadeeth correct in matters of religion, not in cases of this world, Ktaber : «You know is دنياكم»([16]).

It is clear that Mahmassani was again moderate and committed to the origins of Sharia, fatwas of scholars, and taking advantage of the jurisprudence mentioned in the Journal of the provisions of justice, as evidenced by his statement that the application of the rule “Change provisions” Does not mean changing the texts - God forbid - they may not be compromised in any way, but change the intent of changing the interpretation and diligence in these texts, in the light of necessity, or change the ills and habits which it was built, or the absence of the necessary conditions to be applied([17]).

7 – Sheikh Mustafa Ahmad Zarqa (1325 – 1420هـ/ 1907 – 1999 ملحق بسير *الشماخي):

أحد أعلام الفقه والشريعة دراسة وتدريساً وممارسة في تطبيق النظريات الفقهية، وظل في نهاية عمره ـ رحمه الله ـ متميزاً بذاكرة قوية، ولسان بليغ، وفكر حصيف، في المؤتمرات والندوات الفقهية وغيرها، وكان من الطراز الأول في التدريس في جامعة دمشق والأردن في الحقوق والشريعة، وشارك في وضع مشروع القانون الموحد للأحوال الشخصية في الجامعة العربية، وفي صياغة بعض القوانين المدنية الإسلامية في البلاد العربية([18]).

Has distinct books, including: “Entrance idiosyncratic (Two parts), And tort and the security: Study and legal drafting, drafting legal arbitrariness using the right theory in Islamic law, insurance and its position in the economic system and the position of Sharia him … Etc.”, And is the book “Entrance idiosyncratic” The best book in the article about the roles and jurisprudential theories of jurisprudence and legal rules, which includes examples of modern jurisprudence and the Organization.

The owner of a variety of interpretations in the jurisprudence of worship and transactions and personal status, which is often acceptable and convincing, but in the legalization of commercial insurance contract such as Shaykh light critic and professor otherwise, but under the passport if the contracts were free of riba([19]), And remained so throughout his life; Because ambiguity is moving, and the accuracy of the finite in the evaluation of the conditions of the custodians, and his opinion under consideration; Because ambiguity is obscene is progressing in fact, as decided by the majority of scientists, the decisions of jurisprudence academies in Mecca, Jeddah and India, which deprived the commercial insurance The ([20]).

 

Rationing movement and prospects of private and public in the twentieth century:

Touching scientists feasibility التقنينات affected by the West, because of their importance in streamlining refer to the jurisprudence words, concise articles of specific legal, and in a clear and explicit, easy to refer to it, and provides time judges and others in the knowledge of the legal provisions in transactions and districts and other.

And rationing: Is the formulation of the provisions of the transactions and other contracts and smoothed her theories, the University of the framework in the form of legal materials, for easy reference. It may include legal rules also at the forefront of the judicial provisions of the magazine revenue (99) In the base material (2 – 100) And the number of materials (1851), Committee has begun its work in rationing 1285/ 1869M, was arranged and enforced in 1293 AH / 1876 which is on the Hanafi school only, and has remained in place during the reign of Ottoman authority and all Arab countries except Egypt to the mid-twentieth century, and is a codification of civil law Ottoman Empire, and like her mentor Hieran to see the human condition of the mark Muhammad Qadri Pasha before (647Material), A codification of the provisions of Awqaf and personal status in Egypt, has become a mentor Hieran relied upon in Egyptian courts in other Muslim countries in the first half of the twentieth century, it serves as a modern civil law, is based on the view of Abu Hanifa, and includes (1045 Material)([21]).

And mid-twentieth century witnessed issuance of a large number of personal status laws([22]), Including the Syrian law in 1953 Quoting from various four schools, and sometimes others, Kalusih due diligence of the doctrine Ibadi and virtual, كالتعويض for arbitrary divorce, and to prevent the marriage of a couple between them varying obscene elderly care for an interest in the future, restricting polygamy, provided the ability to spend, and make divorce three word one or . It is a full first law of personal status, except LV, it employs Balrajeh the Hanafi.

In Egypt: Issued several laws sporadic, 1920, and 1929, and in 1946 Including inheritance law, and the law of the state money, and the Waqf Act No. (48) Of 1946, and Law No. (180) For the year 1952 Abolition of the National endowment.

In Iraq: Republican issued the order in 1959 Personal status law, then amended by Law No. (11) In 1963, and deletes from that contravenes Islamic law, which is derived from all the schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

In Jordan: Released “Family Rights Law” Year 1951 Which replaced “Ottoman Family Law” It is similar in the Syrian law sentence, then was released in 1976 Personal Status Law.

In Morocco, the maximum: Act was passed in 1957 Comprehensive with all the provisions of the personal status derived from the schools of Islamic jurisprudence all, and Syrian law.

In Algeria: Issued by the Parliament of the personal status law.

In Tunisia: Issued a personal status law for the year 1958 Of (213) But when out of material for some of the provisions of Islam, such as the legalization of adoption, and to prevent polygamy, and prevent divorce.

In Libya: A draft of the personal status law, has not yet been issued within the limits of scientific.

In Sudan: Works Balrajeh of view of Imam Abu Hanifa, except in matters of publications issued by the legitimacy of the Chief Justice take without the correct view of the Hanafi school of other sects.

In Lebanon: What remains the Ottoman Family Rights Law promulgated in 1917 Is applicable to Muslims, mostly of the Hanafi.

In Saudi Arabia: Hanbali applies according to the correct view in the literature known jurisprudential adopted, like Qinaa and until the end, and scholars prevent rationing.

In North and South Yemen: Zaidi doctrine works.

In Oman: Works Balrajeh of doctrine Ibadhi the.

In Kuwait: Issued a personal status law in 1983 Includes 157 Substance, which is derived from the various schools of Islamic jurisprudence without complying with certain doctrine.

In Bahrain, Qatar, like Saudi Arabia spends two provisions of the Hanbali fiqh without rationing.

In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prepared the draft federal law of 1979 promulgating the Law of Personal Status (455) Then edit material, has finally released .

This is in the area of ​​personal status, but in the field of civil التقنينات:

It was released in Kuwait, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates and Sudan civil laws derived from Islamic law, with reservations on some articles on usury in some texts, with the exception of the Republic of the Sudan.

Is still in the application of the Code of Obligations Tunisia Tunisian and contracts issued in 1906.

And issued in Libya border in legislation 1973.

In the area of ​​private rationing has prepared a continental Sheikh Ahmed Makki Journal of legitimacy to the provisions of the Hanbali school, and it was great Sheikh President of the Court in Mecca, a magazine such as judicial judgments, a Hieran guide for Kadri Pasha.

And prepared Sheikh Mohammed Mohammed Amer from Libya rationing Maliki in civil transactions, and Al-Azhar has prepared rationing in financial transactions, both in the doctrine of the four schools separately, each with three parts doctrine in 1392 AH / 1972 AD, entitled “Codification of Islamic law project”, And it has prepared a draft Egyptian civil law in the era of President Sadat, and then presented to the Parliament, on the night of approval and adoption isolate the President of the Parliament, and neglected the project, malicious treacherous plot.

We are waiting for issuance of civil and criminal laws derived from Islamic law, both in the country and the Arab or Islamic country, knowing that he prepared in the scope of the Arab League draft a uniform civil code, and another criminal, then froze the adoption, also froze the draft Uniform Code of Personal Status.

 

Conclusion

The mid-fourteenth century / ceremony of the twentieth century the emergence of a distinct constellation of scientists in Rehab Arab universities, who had a sub jurisprudence clearly defined, concrete found in the books of university professors, graduate in letters (Master's and doctoral) Comparing and try and cash replenishment, and the statement of the fittest in their nation and aspirations of the reform.

He was credited with the call for renewal and diligence to calls for major reform (Salafism and Mahdia and Senussi), But school Afghani and Muhammad Abduh, the thought of Muhammad Iqbal in the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century.

Waddell this about a clear survival phenomenon diligence at the hands of Mojtahda fragmentation, despite the closure of the door of ijtihad in accordance with the principle of legitimate politics in the late fourth century AH onwards, even blocking the door to the vaunted diligence, especially after the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad in 656 AH / 1453.

Has contributed to the renewal of some of the men law, Kfiqih the big Abdul Razak Sanhoori, and walked in the direction of a group of senior Shariah scholars in Egypt and the Muslim world.

وكان للاجتهاد الجماعي أثره الواضح في التجديد والاجتهاد بإصدار قرارات عديدة في قضايا العقيدة والمعاملات المدنية، والاقتصاد، والمسائل الطبية وغيرها من مستجدات العصر، وذلك في مجمع البحوث الإسلامية في القاهرة، ومجمع الفقه الإسلامي الدولي في جدة، وفي مكة، وفي الهند، وفي السودان، وفي أوروبا، وأمريكا، مع التحفظ على بعض هذه القرارات الجريئة في مصادمة النصوص القطعية، وإباحة الفوائد الربوية في المجتمع الغربي أو غيره.

And appeared interpretations accepted by the flags of the pioneers in the second half of the twentieth century such as Shaykh Muhammad Mustafa Maraghi, Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout and Sheikh Abdul Wahab odds, Sheikh Ali light, and Sheikh Mohammad Abu Zahra, Dr. Sobhi Mahmassani, and Sheikh Mustafa blue and others in the Arab countries, in accordance with the purposes of the law, .

In the realm of rationing issued Tgueninat prestigious and very important, such as the Journal of the provisions of justice, and the Journal of the legal provisions on the Hanbali school of Sheikh Ali continental judge Mecca, and the Code of Obligations and Contracts Tunisian, and rationing Sheikh Mohamed Mohamed Amer of the doctrine of al-Maliki in Libya, and the codification of Islamic law at Al-Azhar in every doctrine of the .

At the official level, issued several laws of personal status in the Arab countries, and most of them did not adhere to the doctrine of Islamic sects, also issued a set of laws in civil transactions in Kuwait, Jordan, Sudan and the United Arab Emirates.

We are all waiting for the application of Islamic law in all Arab and Islamic countries, pursuant to under the orders of this law, in terms of civil and criminal laws, etc., and then the believers will rejoice in Allah's victory in the field of labor and the actual application of the law of truth, justice and reform, and Allah loves the doers.


([1]) Total book introduction to nuclear, the entrance to the view of Ahmad: Pp. 39 - 42. Book Refutation of those who went to the ground and ignorance that diligence in every age imposed for the resettlement: P.38. Flags signatories to the son of values: 4/ 212.

([2]) Almstcefy Ghazali: 2/ 103. Clinch in provisions for assets Amda: 3/ 140. Fouath Rahmot explain Muslim permanence: 2/ 364. Explain the humerus to the end of Ibn manual eyebrow: 2/ 290. Flags signatories: 4/ 216. Guidance stallions Shawkaani: P 224 .

([3]) Almstcefy Ghazali: 2/ 103. Clinch in provisions for assets Amda: 3/ 140. Fouath Rahmot explain Muslim permanence: 2/ 364. Explain the humerus to the end of Ibn manual eyebrow: 2/ 290. Flags signatories: 4/ 216. Guidance stallions Shawkaani: P 224 .

([4]) Agreed.

([5]) Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim (Sheikhs) And Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah Women Amr ibn al-'Aas.

([6]) Narrated by Ibn Abd al-Barr, Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi by owners Moaaz trustworthy.

([7]) Introduction to the study of Islamic jurisprudence, Professor Dr. Mohamed ElDesoki, and Dr. Amina Al Jaber: P 299.

([8]) Narrated by Abu Dawood and the Governor and al in the knowledge that Abu Hurayrah t.

([9]) المجددون in Islam from the first century to the fourth century, Sheikh Abdel Metaal Saidi: P 588. History of Islamic legislation of the masters of Sheikh Subki and his companions.

([10]) Ibid: Pp. 547 - 549.

([11]) Book by Dr. Mohamed Osman Sheikh Ali Shabbir light: Pp. 74 - 110.

([12]) Ibid: Pp. 144 - 154.

([13]) Dr. Mohamed Osman book Shabbir (Sheikh Ali light: Pp. 74 - 110).

([14]) Ibid: Pp. 142 - 145.

([15]) Ibid: Pp. 145 - 171.

([16]) Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh.

([17]) Book “Jurisprudence ..”:, P 218.

([18]) Completion of the flags, d : Nizar Abaza, 1/437.

([19]) Business Week conference of Islamic jurisprudence and the Festival of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah, 1961: Pp. 511 et seq.

([20]) Resolution of the Islamic Fiqh Academy in Jeddah 9/ 9/ 2, Pp. 60, the Fiqh Council in Makkah (Resolution V: P.31- 43) Fiqh Council of India: Pp. 108 - 113, Resolution No. 17 (1/ 5).

([21]) Jurisprudence in Islam, Dr.. Sobhi Mahmassani: Pp. 85 - 92 ، 117.

([22]) Researcher book is seen “Efforts to codify Islamic jurisprudence”:, Pp. 37 - 47.

 

* Evolution science symposium in Amman rationing and innovation in contemporary Islamic jurisprudence.

Held during the period: (28-2) April 1429 / ( 5-8) April 2008

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One Response “Diligent in the middle of the fourth century AH (Twentieth century) Between innovation and regulation”

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