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Comparative Jurisprudence and controls and its association with the development of science jurisprudence during the fifth century AH

Comparative Jurisprudence and controls and its association with the development of science jurisprudence during the fifth century AH *

«Authoring polymath and comparative jurisprudence»

A. D. Mohammed Zoheily([1])

Introduction:

Thank God who guided us to faith and Islam, and sent down on us the Koran, and put us Shara True, chose us Muhammad e prophet and messenger, and a ring of the prophets, and to guide and glad tidings and a warner, and calling to Allah by His permission and a lamp illuminating, and God bless all companions companions, and followers the Almighty to the Day of Judgment :

Jurisprudence a basic forensic science, and the most famous science and wider, and relevant to people's lives, and practical application in the life.

Islamic jurisprudence is the law heaven for the land and rights, an approach the divine to organize life, a piece of legislation religious whom may Allah as a Lord, and Islam as a religion, and the Holy Imam, and Muhammad is the messenger, which provisions process which covers all human behavior with the development conditions and times and places, so widened his circle, and became .

And the evolution of Islamic jurisprudence, with the succession of generations, and fork with him many branches, the most important comparative jurisprudence that has emerged out of date, and grew in the fifth century AH onwards, and excelled where scientists flags, books heavy, and encyclopedias jurisprudence, then faded wudoo, and I practiced in the covenants subsequent, then brighten .

Therefore we offer controls and approach in the light of its development in the fifth century AH, to get past with the present, and we put the foundations and the lights floodlights for the future, to deepen the studies jurisprudence on the one hand, and in order to achieve the objectives of the required purposes desired on the other hand, through the following plan.

The research plan:

Offered at the forefront of research, and five Detectives, and a conclusion.

The first topic: Definition of comparative jurisprudence controls.

The second topic: Comparative Jurisprudence and science of dispute.

The third topic: Jurisprudence in the fifth century AH.

The fourth topic: Terms of comparison, controls and approach.

Section V: Shirazi model of the fifth century AH, of Shaafa'is, and Alaotba of Ibadi.

Conclusion: And the search and extract the most important results and some of the recommendations and proposals.

Research Methodology:

The research methodology will be, God willing, historically extrapolated to keep track of jurisprudence and its evolution through the ages, and for some analytical rules and texts, and compared in general in the presentation of views on aspects of research.

And ask God to help and guide, and drew him help and guidance, and GA him Fattouh and asked the right thing, and it accreditation and Altclan, and Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

The first topic: Definition of comparative jurisprudence controls

To be a brief definition of comparative jurisprudence, and controls, before proceeding to search.

Definition of Jurisprudence:

Principles of Language: Understanding([2]): Who understand the meaning of words, and it says: ﴿وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِنْ لِسَانِي، يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي﴾([3]), And saying e: «Respond Abdullah Shehata in religion»([4]).

Jurisprudence in terminology: Science is the legitimate operation of the provisions of the detailed evidence([5]), Science is perception and certification, knowledge, and provisions: Collection of the rule, which is when fundamentalists: God's speech on the actions of law requiring, Tejeara or situation. He knew jurists rule: That there is no proven speech, or is the impact of the speech, fasting كوجوب, and be provisions ratify flag how to attach provisions to acts of law, legitimacy: Any provisions that depend on Shara, and limited source evidence Shara known college in jurisprudence. The process: Any provisions that require pursuant to, and have the legal provisions of the science evidence identified by al-Shara, he is winning flag for a detailed manual regard to a particular issue, and jurisprudence: Is to know the legal provisions of the acts in charge of analysis and prohibition, and prohibition and legalization, and this of industrious work.

And finally became Jurisprudence sense: Knowledge of the provisions of the incidents letter and Astenbata, or study and memorization on the doctrine of the creeds, and became a jurist in recent times who knows the legal provisions and keeps them from a particular doctrine, or more, to teach her people([6]).

Comparative definition:

Comparative Language: Combining connectivity and attendant, and compare it compared and villages: The owner and accompanied him, and a century between two things or things balanced between them, it is comparative, and compare things, and said comparative literature, or comparative legislation, or comparative jurisprudence or fiqh Parallel([7]).

And comparative jurisprudence idiomatically: هو دراسة الآراء الفقهية المختلفة في المسألة الواحدة مع مستنداتها من الأدلَّة الشرعية، وتقويمها، وبيان ما لها وما عليها بالمناقشة، وإقامة الموازنة بينها، توصلاً إلى معرفة الراجح منها، أو الجمع بينها، أو الإتيان برأي جديد أرجح دليلاً منها، وبذلك تتحقق نقاط الاتِّفاق بين الآراء والمذاهب، وتحدد نقاط الاختلاف، ويكشف عما هو خلاف صوري أو شكلي أو اصطلاحي، وما هو اختلاف واقعي، مع بيان الأسس والأصول والقواعد التي انبنى عليه كل قول، وتكون سبباً للخلاف بين الآراء، ويرجع إليها الاختلاف في الأقوال والمذاهب([8]).

And Prof. Dr. Muhammad knows Fathi Dereini, comparative jurisprudence a lengthy indicating definition of curriculum and controls, he says,: «Is the report of the views of schools of Islamic jurisprudence Islamic particular issue, after the liberation of the disputed which, coupled with evidence, and the faces of inference, and what promotes it inferred from the curricula of fundamentalism, and plans for legislative and indicate the origin of the dispute it, then discuss this evidence fundamentalist, and balancing them, and weighting ”([9]).

Definition controls:

Controls: Collection officer, which in the language: Unnecessary thing and imprisoned, and settings: Save thing TDMA, and adjust: Ahkmh and well done, and adjust the book and the like: Fittest Khallh, or classed and shape, and adjust the accused: Arrested([10]).

The officer idiomatically It has several definitions, it is the scientists only between him and al-Qaeda, and that the officer is the rule jurisprudence jurisprudence, there is no difference between them, but this came in “Lexicon mediator”: “When scientists officer: Holistic rule applies to fractions”([11]).

But most scholars, especially latecomers distinguish between al-Qaeda and the officer; that al-Qaeda: Is completely surrounded by branches and issues in different doctrinal doors, such as base “Things its purposes”, And base “Uncertainty disappear, not the smallest doubt”, And base “Hardship brings facilitation”, And base “Do no harm”, And base “Habit Court”; They applied to the gates of worship, and contracts, and felonies, jihad, and faith, and others, and the officer: Is entirely branches and combines the issues of one section of jurisprudence, such as “Origin of things Purity”، “Main in Alabdhaa the prohibition”، “No woman should fast on a voluntary basis without the permission of the husband or if traveling”، “Emma cuticle tanning Cleanse the”، “Each absolute water has not changed is the purification of the”([12]).

Suyooti said Almighty God's mercy: «Because the rule combines various branches of the doors, and the officer brings one door branches”([13]). Says Abu stay Almighty God's mercy after the definition of the base: “The officer collects branches from one door »([14]).

But the intended controls comparative jurisprudence here is the linguistic meaning, which tighten and his mastery of thing, and total compliance with the rules that correct speech, and prevent the imbalance.

The second topic: Comparative Jurisprudence and science of dispute

Appeared with the beginning of the Abbasid era flag controversy, as a branch of science Jurisprudence on the one hand, and relied on logic and debate and the principles of jurisprudence on the other hand, and became his entity and existence, and popularized and spread, and classified the books many, blogging jurisprudential wide, then faded mentioned, and was extinguished light, .

He knew Haji Khalifa aware of the dispute, he said: «Which science knows how revenue and pay legitimate arguments suspicion, Qoadh evidence contentious, included by peremptory proofs, and then said: «A controversy that is part of the logic, but he singled out the purposes of religious»([15]).

It appears from this that the flag controversy is the science that the statement of words and ideas and doctrines, then provides evidence and assets that takes them imams and scholars judgments, looking for faces elicitation of evidence overall and detailed, and assesses the evidence and proofs and arguments legitimacy to the discretion of imams and scholars, and this is the subject of comparative jurisprudence today .

The dispute depends aware or comparative jurisprudence aware of the controversy and its principles, and derives its origins from the Arab Science and legitimate and logical, especially jurisprudence and jurisprudence, considered by some scientists([16]) Supplement Jurisprudence assets, or a branch of its branches, and stipulated in the Finder in the science of disagreement or comparative jurisprudence full knowledge of the rules and principles of jurisprudence([17]).

It aims aware of the dispute or comparative jurisprudence to support the doctrine of imams included by arguments and evidence and the evidence for their statements, and the statement of the rules and assets that are relied upon in the diligence and deduction, pay uncertainties that respond to the doctrine, contained similarities that raised him, and rhythm in the doctrine of the offender, and this confirms it relates to the science of jurisprudence, .

So rushed scientists in every doctrine in favor of his words, and يستدلون of its provisions, and support it with evidence and arguments and evidence, and Anavon for Imam doctrine, and choices of scientists, and يدللون to repay the method in the diligence, and the power bases in the elicitation, the hardness of logic in reasoning, and deported all suspicion or doubt or doubt .

It summarizes the Ibn Khaldun, and portrayed, he says, knowingly dispute: “Know that this jurisprudence contriver of many forensic evidence where the dispute between the hardworking… خلافاً لا بدّ من وقوعه، واتسع ذلك في الملة اتساعاً عظيماً، وكان للمقلدين أن يقلدوا من شاؤوا منهم، ثم انتهى ذلك إلى الأئمَّة الأربعة من علماء الأمصار، وكانوا بمكان من حسن الظن بهم، واقتصر الناس على تقليدهم، ومنعوا تقليد سواهم، فأقيمت هذه المذاهب الأربعة مقام أصول الملة، وأجري الخلاف بين المتمسكين والآخذين بأحكامها، فجرى الخلاف في النصوص الشرعية، والأصول الفقهية، وجرت بينهم المناظرات في تصحيح كل مذهب إمامه، تجري على أصول صحيحة، وطرائق قويمة، يحتج بها كلّ على مذهبه الذي قلده، وتمسك به، وأجريت في مسائل الشريعة كلها، وفي كل باب من أبواب الفقه…, And it was in these debates statement intakes of these imams, and Mtharat differences, sites hard work, and it was this type of science called Balkhlaviat, is essential for the owner to know the rules that reach out to derive rulings, as needed industrious, but the industrious needed to devise (From the Quran and Sunnah), And the owner Alkhlaviat needed to save the issues derived that Ahedmaa of the offending evidence Another”([18]).

وكان هذا الهدف هو الأصل في الماضي، ونتج عنه كثير من العصبية المذهبية، والتشدد بالتمسك بالمذهب، وتأييد الإمام، وعدم الخروج عن أقواله، والتشكيك بأقوال المذاهب الأخرى، والطعن بها، والنيل منها، وعقد المناظرات الشفهية لها، وتسجيلها في الكتب، ولذلك كان معظم الباحثين في علم الخلاف يصلون إلى تأييد مذهبهم، وترجيح قولهم مطلقاً، وخرج عن هذا السبيل عدد كبير ممن يلتزم الحق ويرجح بالدليل الأقوى، كالقرطبي، وابن الهمام، والقرافي، وابن تيمية، وابن القيم، وابن رشد الحفيد، والشعراني، والشوكاني، ويحيى بن حمزة الزيدي.

ولكن نتج عن الفقه المقارن في العصر الحاضر عكس ذلك تماماً، وهو زوال العصبية المذهبية، وأن الحق لا يملكه شخص أو طرف أو مذهب، وتم قبول القول الآخر، مع الاطلاع على الأدلَّة القوية أو الراجحة في المذاهب الأخرى، كما تم التعرف على الجوانب الإيجابية، والسعة، والنظريات التي انفرد بها المذهب الآخر، وأدى ذلك إلى اتساع الأفق، ورحابة الصدر، وفتح المجال أمام العلماء ورجال التشريع للاستفادة من سائر المذاهب، واختيار القول الأرجح، أو الأنسب الذي يحقق مصلحة الناس حسب الأحوال والأزمان والأمكنة.

To this latter result rose star comparative jurisprudence, and became a requirement years, and planned to teach at the institutes, colleges and universities, and has become a way for the study of jurisprudence, and a goal in the curriculum, and has allocated hours of study on the one hand, and became the general approach in the study of materials jurisprudence often.

It has also become comparative jurisprudence approach is the best way required in theses for master's, or theses to get a doctorate in comparative jurisprudence, which is to be agreed upon in the preparation of the scientific research in Islamic jurisprudence court, and in studies and seminars, local and international conferences.

And largely absent authority henchmen([19]) الفقه، الذين يسعون لفرض الأحكام الفقهية المذهبية بالقوة المادية أو الأدبية، وحتى في البلاد الإسلامية والأقطار العربية التي يسود فيها المذهب الفقهي الواحد؛ اتجهت في قوانينها وتشريعاتها وأنظمتها وجامعاتها إلى الفقه المقارن، أو ترجيح قول فقهي من المذاهب الأخرى، وتبنيه في التشريع والقانون، واعتماده في العمل والتطبيق، لِما يحقق من مصلحة اجتماعية معاصرة، ويحل المشكلات والمعضلات السائدة.

Most important disagreement books and Comparative Jurisprudence:

Appeared in the science of controversy in the past, and comparative jurisprudence newly many books, which are three varieties:

Class I: Religious books that offered a comparison between the sects, but from a purely doctrinal perspective, and often up to support Imam doctrine, and tipping his words exclusively, questioning the views of other imams, and to respond to their evidence, and da'eef (weak) statements and opinions, it is so:

1 Supervision of the jokes matters of dispute, the judge Abdel-Wahab al-Maliki al-Baghdadi (422هـ/1031م), And the editing issues being the difference between the doctrines, together with the opinion adopted Maalikis without exposure to the statements of different denomination, followed by the views of bucking Maaliki from the rest of the four schools, and shows the basis of the violation, and then presents evidence Maalikis, and shows of approved Maaliki of ([20]): It From the fifth century AH.

2 Containing many, Judge Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Mohammed bin Habib al-Mawardi (450هـ/1058م): It is in the literature on the Shafi'i school, and compares with the rest of the schools with the evidence, and discussion, which is from the fifth century AH([21]).

3 Local, Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad, known as Ibn Andalusian virtual packages (456هـ/1064م): It is a book in the jurisprudence on the virtual doctrine, and comparative jurisprudence, but not limited to statements of the four schools, but encompassed the jurisprudence of the companions and followers and other imams of ijtihad([22]): It Scientists from the fifth century AH.

4 Badaa'i Sanai, Aladdin Abu Bakr bin Massoud الكاساني, (587AH / 1191 AD): It is one of the most important books Hanafi jurisprudence, and compare with the Shafi'i school special([23]).

5 Singer, Sheikh conciliator Din Abdullah bin Ahmed, known as Ibn Qudamah (620هـ/1223م): A brief explanation of the summary of the Whole (Summary الخرقي) Hambali, came the major doctrinal Encyclopedia singer and a huge Hanbali and comparative jurisprudence, not only in comparison between the four schools, but compare with the sayings of the rest of the doctrines extinct, displaying the words of the companions and followers([24]).

6 Great controversy, Abu Mahfouz speech bin Ahmed Bin Al Hussein Alklomana of (510E), Entitled: “Victory in the adult issues”, With a little controversy, and the author of one of the imams of the Hanbali school, and Oaaana, a jurist, a fundamentalist, and writer, and poet.

Class II: Books originally classified in the science of the dispute, and the comparison between the sects mainly, including:

1 The establishment of consideration, the Imam Obeid-Allah ibn Umar, Abizaid الدبوسي of (430AH / 1039 AD): وهو كتاب في علم الخلاف والفقه المقارن، وهو أول كتاب مستقل ومتميز في هذا الفن، ويهدف إلى عرض أقوال المذاهب، وآراء العلماء، ويبين كيفية إيراد الحجج الشرعية عليها، وكيفية دفع الشبه، ويحدد قواعد الأدلَّة الخلافية، ويذكر البراهين في المسألة، وبدأه في عرض الخلاف بين أئمَّة المذهب الحنفي فيما بينهم، ثُمَّ بين الخلاف بين الحنفية والشافعية، مبيناً الأصل أو القاعدة، ثُمَّ عرض الفروع الفقهية لها مع الاختلاف فيها، ثُمَّ بيان التعليل والدليل بأسلوب موجز([25]): It Scientists from the fifth century AH.

2 Disclosure meanings Asahah, to Abu Aoun Minister Muzaffar Din Yahya bin Muhammad bin Hubayrah Hanbali (560هـ/1165م): It is a great book to explain Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim, but devoted author Almighty God's mercy parts of it to the jurisprudence on the order of doors jurisprudence, according to the four schools, one of the most accurate books of comparative jurisprudence in the transfer of words correct paramount approved for schools, and between each question briefly, ([26]).

3 Beginning of the industrious and the end of the economizer, Abu Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad, known as Ibn Rushd grandson philosopher al-Maliki (595AH / 1198 AD): It is a book in comparative jurisprudence at the gates of jurisprudence, between the author Almighty God's mercy first agreed provisions in legal matters, then the disputed provisions, with the evidence very briefly, and then the alarm on the cause of the dispute, and call “The origins of the dispute”The evidence for each view, and is committed approach comparing always the truth remembrance of the plan, which will go on them, and identifies issues to be considered, then little forensic evidence to the door or issue, and then shows the things agreed with the evidence, then move on to other things different where among the scholars, and mentions the opinion of all the doctrine and guided by evidence ([27]).

4 Great balance, Abu Mohamed Abdel Wahab bin Ahmed bin Ali Sha'rani (973هـ/1565م): It is a book in comparative jurisprudence, between the author Almighty God's mercy matters of agreement between the four imams, then display the points of difference between them, and refunded to the two-way: Tightening of the people of wills, and ease to the people of excuses, so every issue doctrinal, and arranged on the doors of jurisprudence, and wrote a long introduction about the differences between scholars, and the adoption of the statements on the sources and evidence passport and work out the whole Vozal spirit of nervousness, and called for the adoption of all creeds, and passport where work([28]).

Class III: Comparative Jurisprudence wrote in the present era, many of which textbooks to cover vocabulary study comparative jurisprudence decision in institutes, colleges and universities, including:

1 Compared doctrines: Sheikh Mohammad Ali Sayes, Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout, a medium-sized, and addresses some of the doctrinal issues for the comparative study of between doctrines expansion, with the evidence and discussion and weighting([29]).

2 Jurisprudence on the four schools: Abdul-Rahman Al Jaziri, from Egypt, and eat the gates of Jurisprudence in full, to be displayed in each of which the most important issues comparison between the four schools with the evidence, and came in four volumes, printed a lot, and is limited to the statement of jurisprudence in the four schools in matters of doctrine and its fractions, as doors Jurisprudence .

3 Islamic jurisprudence and evidence: للأستاذ الدكتور وهبة الزحيلي، وهو الشقيق الأكبر، عرض فيه أحكام المذاهب الأربعة مع الإشارة في الخلافيات الشهيرة إلى مذهب الإمامية والزيدية والإباضيّة والظاهرية، وعرضها باختصار مع الأدلَّة لكلّ منها، والتنسيق أحياناً بين المذاهب المتفقة في حكم واحد، وشمل أبواب الفقه كاملة عدا باب العتق والرقيق، مع بعض النظريات الفقهية وبعض المستجدات المعاصرة، وفهرسة ألفبائية للموضوعات والمصطلحات والمسائل الفقهية([30]).

4 Research in Comparative Jurisprudence: للأستاذ الدكتور محمود أبو الليل، وللأستاذ الدكتور ماجد أبو رخية، وفيه مقدمات عن الاجتهاد، والاختلاف، وأسباب الاختلاف ودراسة مقارنة لبعض المسائل الفقهية كالنية في الطهارة، وقصر الصلاة في السفر، والجمع بين الصلاتين، وزكاة أموال الصبي والمجنون، واختلاف المطالع، والقدر المحرم من الرضاع، والطلاق الثلاث بلفظ واحد، والتسعير، والتعزير بأخذ المال، والقضاء بعلم القاضي، وهو مقرر للتدريس في كلية الشريعة والقانون بجامعة الإمارات العربية بالعين([31]).

6 Comparative Jurisprudence: Professor Dr. Mohammed Saeed Ramadan Al Bouti, Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Damascus earlier, and includes a definition of comparative jurisprudence, and the reasons for the difference briefly, and several issues of the comparative study between the sects, according to the rules of the scientific method in comparative and controls, they will come.

7 ـ الموسوعة الفقهية التي تصدرها وزارة الأوقاف والشؤون الإسلامية بالكويت، وهي أعظم إنجاز فقهي في العصر الحاضر، وعرضت المسائل الفقهية والمصطلحات الفقهية مرتبة بالترتيب الألفبائي، وفي كل مصطلح يتم عرضه بشكل مقارن بين المذاهب الفقهية الأربعة، بعد بيان الأمور المتفق عليها بين المذاهب، ثُمَّ عرض الأمور المختلف فيها بعد تنسيقها إلى قولين أو ثلاثة، وتحديد أصحاب كلّ قول من المذاهب الأربعة، ثُمَّ بيان الأدلَّة موجزة مختصرة، وتقف المقارنة عند هذا الحدّ، ولا تتجاوزها إلى مناقشة الأدلَّة والترجيح، مع تجنب عرض الآراء المعاصرة بعد القرن الثالث عشر الهجري، والآراء الشخصية للباحثين، لكن مع تخريج الأحاديث، وتقسيم كل مصطلح إلى فقرات متتالية بالأرقام والإحالة في الهوامش إلى المصادر والمراجع الفقهية، وترجمة مختصرة لجميع الأعلام الواردة في كل مجلد، في آخره، مع عناوين أصلية وفرعية، وأعطت الموسوعة الفقهية صورة رائعة ومشرفة وراقية وسامية لفقه المذاهب الأربعة، وتسهل الوصول للأحكام، وقد انتهى العمل بها، وطبع منها حتى آخر عام 1425هـ/ ومطلع عام 2005م، اثنان وأربعون مجلداً في حرف الواو، وبقي منها مجلدان أو ثلاثة تحت المراجعة والطباعة([32]).

8 Studies in Comparative Jurisprudence: Dr. Mohamed Samara, initiated display the nature of different scholars and its causes, then addressed several issues doctrinal study detailed comparison with the evidence and discussion and weighting, such as the necessity of faith in the ablution, and the rule of sharecropping, and utilization mortgagee Palmarhun, and the rule of insurance, and eliminate Balinkol, and the witness and right, and the penalty to pay money, (Jordan) First Edition 2002.

9 Comparative research in Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic: للأستاذ الدكتور محمَّد فتحي الدريني، عميد كلية الشريعة بجامعة دمشق سابقاً، بدأه بمقدمة عن الفقه المقارن، ثُمَّ تناول عدة مسائل فقهية، كلية وأصولية ونظريات، درسها بشكل مقارن، مثل مناهج الاجتهاد والتجديد، والجمود الفقهي والتعصب المذهبي، وأسباب اختلاف الفقهاء، ونظرية البطلان والفساد، ونظرية الاستصحاب، ونظرية الاحتكار، والتسعير الجبري وغيره، وأصله كتاب مقرر على طلبة السنة الرابعة في كلية الشريعة بجامعة دمشق، ثُمَّ أضاف إليه بحوثاً أخرى، وطبع في مجلدين كبيرين في مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، 1414هـ/ 1994م.

The third topic: Comparative Jurisprudence in the fifth century AH

The Islamic jurisprudence is the way to see Halal and Haram when Almighty God, to this commitment and to restrict it; because it draws the orthodox approach to people in all areas of life, so I wanted the Messenger of Allah PBUH, said: «Respond Abdullah Shehata in religion»([33]), Called by Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him so he said: «Oh God, in his understanding of religion»([34]), Was the nation in ink jurisprudence and interpretation.

وبدأ الفقه منذ عصر النبوة والوحي، وبعد وفاة رسول الله e قام الصحابة بواجبهم في الفقه خير قيام، وكان كبار الصحابة وخلفاؤهم يمارسون الفقه، ويعلمون الناس الأحكام من القرآن والسنة أولاً، ثُمَّ بالبحث والنظر والاجتهاد والاستنباط ثانياً، وظهرت اجتهادات الصحابة، وأقوال الصحابة، وانتقل الجميع إلى التابعين الذين حافظوا على الإرث الفقهي والثروة العلمية، وأضافوا اجتهاداتهم الخاصة للقضايا التي ظهرت في زمانهم، وبحسب تغير الأحوال والأزمان والأمكنة، وبرز فيهم فقهاء أعلام، ومجتهدون لامعون، واشتهر خاصة فقهاء المدينة السبعة، والفقهاء في كل مدينة إسلامية، وظهرت فيهم مدرسة الرأي بالعراق، ومدرسة الحديث بالمدينة، ولمع في القرن الثاني الأئمَّة المجتهدون والفقهاء الأعلام الذين أسسوا المذاهب الفقهية حقيقة، وقام تلامذتهم بحفظها ونقلها والإضافة عليها ونشرها في بلاد الإسلام، ونضجت المذاهب الفقهية في القرنين الثالث والرابع، وظهرت فيها المصنفات العديدة.

The fifth century was the most poignant centuries of the movement of jurisprudence, and RPR authorship polymath and comparative jurisprudence, and emerged as the imams and scholars and jurists and classified in various Islamic countries, and leave us scientists of their works huge, and their wealth of jurisprudence wide, was this century, the right of a century encyclopedias in general, and encyclopedias jurisprudence and science controversy and comparative jurisprudence .

1 Mabsoot, Shams al-Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi easy, Abu Bakr, Sarkhasi (483هـ/1090م) Faqih Hanafi, fundamentalist, judge, and Mabsoot book in the doctrine of the Hanafi school, the extension of the provisions and the evidence and discussion, with a comparison with the rest of the schools, especially the Maliki and Shafi'i, may recall the view of Imam Ahmad and doctrine virtual, the authors explain the book (Adequate) Governor Shaheed Muhammad ibn Muhammad Marwazi (334E) Imam Hanafi in his time, which collect Zahir wrote the novel of Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaibani (189E) Imam Abu Hanifa (150E).

And printed Mabsoot Cairo year 1324 AH in thirty part, then the picture much([35]).

The sun imams Halawani Hanafi (448E) Book (Mabsoot) In jurisprudence([36])In this century, the most important afternoon in the Hanafi manual (Summary Kaddouri) Ahmed bin Mohammed, Abu Hassan El Kaddouri Hanafi jurist, and has also (Abstraction) In seven books include the dispute between the Shafi'i and Abu Hanifa, and has (Rounding) Contentious issues between the Abu Hanifa and his companions, which is aware of the dispute or comparative jurisprudence([37]).

2 Explain the message Ibn Abi Zaid Cyrene, (386E) Qazi Abdul Wahab bin Ali bin Nasr al-Baghdadi, al-Faqih al-Maliki, the famous Judge Abdul Wahab (422E) Fundamentalist, writer, and his first book to explain the message of Ibn Abi Zeid of Cyrene, and was the reason for his fame and altitude his status Maalikis, and display Maliki length and expansion, then sate speech in matters of dispute, and the different faces and stories, and he called “Majesty course in the palm message”Or “Knowledge to explain the message”, A lengthy explanation is located in about a thousand paper, not printed yet, and there it part Manuscript public treasury in Rabat number 625 P.

And Class Judge Abdul Wahab: “Paved in a brief explanation of Abu Muhammad” (This is the message of Ibn Abi Zaid Cyrene) It arrived in half, and prolonged the self, not complemented, then A book at the request of his students “Aid on the doctrine of the people of the city” To be a gateway for the former two books; came outline the provisions of the Maliki school with reference to the evidence and stated violator and protesting it, a in Comparative Jurisprudence Maliki, with other sects, then class “Overseeing matters of dispute Jokes” For the Liberation of the issues being the difference between the doctrines, as سنبينه later([38]).

3 Recall, Abu Omar, Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Muhammad, known as Ibn Abd al-Barr Nimri Qurtubi (463AH / 1071 AD) Updated, Maliki jurist, one of the imams keep talking, historian, judge, writer, which is called: Hafez Morocco, an imam of his time to talk, and the title of the book sings to explain its content, which is “Recall combined doctrines scholars Alomassar, and diameters scientists with guaranteed Muwatta of the meanings of opinion and effects and explain all this concise and shortcut”; Because it اختصره of his encyclopaedic “Boot to the Muwatta of meanings and grounds” It is a very large, and the within the author boot and recall a statement sayings of the companions and followers and imams in doctrinal issues presented in the Muwatta, and the statement of some penalties in the year following the impact, with the evidence and penalties in dispute doctrinal issues.

The Profs Hassan Abdul Mannan and Dr. Mahmoud Ahmed Qaysiyah achieving Istidhkaar, and appeal Foundation edition in ten volumes, Abu Dhabi, fourth edition, 1423 AH / 2003 AD.

Ibn Abd al-Barr and wrote a great many, including “Sufficient in Jurisprudence” Printed in two volumes to achieve Dr. Mahmoud Ahmed Qaysiyah, and the enterprise edition of appeal, Abu Dhabi, i 1/1424/2004, and has “Homeschool in Maghazi shortcut and walk” Printed in a folder, and”Absorption in knowing Mates” Printed in four volumes, and”Statement of science and collector bounty” Printed in two volumes, and”Selection in the three virtues of jurists” Malik, Abu Hanifa, Shafi'i, and other books([39]).

The flags of the fifth century AH: Abu Waleed Beji, Suleiman bin Khalaf bin Saad Altchibey, Andalusian (474هـ/1081م) Maliki jurist fundamentalist, updated, the judge, his many books, including: “Picker explain Muwatta” In seven volumes([40]).

It is the fifth century AH scientists who are classified in the science of disagreement Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Ahmed known as Ibn Amrous (452هـ/1060م), And has a book “Comment” In the dispute, big and famous, has not yet prints([41]).

4 The end of the requirement in the familiar doctrine, Abdul Malik bin Abdullah bin Youssef Juwayni, Dad Excellencies, aka enlightenment debt, Rukn al-Din, known as the Imam of the Two Holy (478هـ/1085م) Shafi'i jurist, fundamentalist, speaker. This book is the most important book in the Shafi'i jurisprudence and comparative jurisprudence, and the most prominent works of Imam al-Haramain and the most famous and widely, and includes all jurisprudential doors, a brief explanation of Muzani (264E) But he explained extensively on curriculum scholars that displays referee with his guide, then compares with other views in the doctrine, then compares with the words of other sects, and inferred them, and then discuss their evidence, and to respond to their words in a manner controversial, based on the principles of jurisprudence, for the graduation of branches on “Great doctrine”, And the imam of the Two Holy Other Books.

This book is still a manuscript, and up some copy manuscript to twenty-six leather-bound, and remained on the shelves until قيض God has Prof. Dr. Abdel Azim El Deeb, a professor at Qatar University, he gathered his manuscripts, and achieved, and celebrated the completion of work by, and seeks to correct printing and publishing([42]).

Flashed in the fifth century AH scholars in the Shafi'i school flags, including the imam of the Two Holy father: Abu Mohammed Juwayni Abdullah ibn Yusuf ibn Abdullah (438هـ/1047م) Which ranked in Jurisprudence: “التبصرة” And”Ticket” And”Differences” Jurisprudence, and”Series”([43]).

Including: Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Mohammed bin Habib (450هـ/1058م) Categories beneficial owner famous, the most important “Containing large” In comparative jurisprudence, and has been explained, and”Persuasion” In doctrine, “The provisions Bowl” In the provisions of the sponsor and the parish([44]).

Including: Abu Tayeb al-Tabari, Taher Bin Abdullah Bin Taher (450هـ/1058م) Which ranked “A brief explanation Muzani” Eleven part, and”Explain the branches of the Egyptian'm mourning”, Has written in the dispute, assets and controversy no one like her([45]).

Including: Sheikh Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, who later Snfredh.

Including: Mansour bin Mohammed bin Abdul-Jabbar السمعاني the (489هـ/1096م) Which ranked “Proof” In dispute([46]).

5 Big difference, called the suspension, and his full name “Comment the great issues of contention between the imams” Dad mounted fur, Mohammed bin Hussein bin Mohammed, (458AH / 1065 AD) Judge, Hanbali jurist, fundamentalist, updated, the interpreter, the mufti. A useful categories never to like her, including “Great controversy” In comparative jurisprudence, and did not see the light of day, and is located in a ten volumes, and salary at the gates of jurisprudence, and sophisticated in the demolition of the word discount contrary to the doctrine, and has: “Brief explanation الخرقي the” In jurisprudence,”In the abstract doctrine” And”Bowl in the United provisions religious” And”Approved” And”Enough” And”Kit” In jurisprudence,”Provisions of the Koran” And”Eyes issues”([47]).

It is the fifth century AH scholars in the Hanbali: Hassan bin Ahmed bin Abdullah, known: Ibn al-Banna al-Baghdadi (471AH / 1078 AD), And his books: “Explain الخرقي the” In jurisprudence,”Full” In jurisprudence, and other([48]).

It is the fifth century AH scientists in the Ibadi sect: Luminance book, Salamah ibn Muslim Alaotba deserts 24 Part, reprint them 18 Part.

Shara statement, Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Abu Abdallah Canadian 508 E, which is in the seventy-two volumes, and takes way to print.

Extension: Encyclopedic authoring in the fifth century AH:

The Encyclopedic authoring in the fifth century AH not only aware of the dispute jurisprudence or comparative jurisprudence, but this century was the era of encyclopedias in various fields of science, and enumerate some of these encyclopedias:

1 Mustadrak correct, the ruler of Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah Alnisabure (405هـ/1014م) It is a book to talk, and printed in India in four large volumes([49]).

2 Ornament and layers الأصفياء, my father Naim Alosbhana, Ahmed bin Abdullah bin Ahmad (430هـ/1038م) Keeper of the mystic, Shafi'i jurist, writing in ten parts, and imprinted([50]).

3 Guidance to reach the end, Makki ibn Abi Talib Hammouche bin Mohammed Cyrene Qaisi Andalusian verse (437هـ/1045م) Expositor, reciter, jurist al-Maliki, writing in the interpretation of the Holy Quran in seventy-part, not yet printed([51]).

4 The correct explanation, Ali bin Khalaf bin Abdul Malik, Abu al-Hasan al-Bakri, known as Ibn Battal (449AH / 1057 AD) Updated Hafez al-Faqih al-Maliki, and his book of the most important explanations Bukhari, which was adopted by Ibn Hajar in his book “Open Bari explain properly Bukhari”([52]).

5 Sunan major, Hafez Ahmed bin Hussein al-Bayhaqi (458هـ/1066م) It: A large book in a year and conversations, the salary on the doors of jurisprudence, and printed in India in ten large volumes([53]). It has a book “Sunan knowledge and effects” It Encyclopedia حديثية, came out when he protested by Imam Shafei of conversations Bosanidh, newly printed in seven volumes.

6 Date of Baghdad, Khatib al-Baghdadi Ahmed bin Ali bin Thabit, Abu Bakr (463هـ/1072م) A keep talking, historian, jurist Shafi'i, and the book printed in fourteen volumes, a better written, and it many ahaadeeth استخرجها the Dr. Khaldoun humpback and خرجها in ten volumes and earned a doctorate in modern([54]).

7 Full, comprehensive, Abdel Sayed bin Mohammed bin Abdul Wahid, Abu Nasr al-Baghdadi, known as Ibn Sabbagh (477AH / 1084 AD) Shafi'i jurist, fundamentalist, and Book “Comprehensive” In jurisprudence, healthiest Shaafa'is wrote in his time, and Ojderha in transport, and has “In jurisprudence also fully”([55]).

8 Mabsoot, Ali bin Mohammed bin Hussein, Abu al-Hasan, the pride of Islam Albzdoa (482AH / 1089 AD) Hanafi jurist, interpreter, fundamentalist, and Mabsoot in Jurisprudence, eleven volumes, and has “Explanation of the Great Mosque” And”Explain the small mosque” It has “Interpretation of the Koran” Very large([56]).

The fourth topic: Terms of comparison, controls and approach

First: Terms comparison:

The Comparative Jurisprudence: Means the balance between words, and the balance between the owners of the views of the imams and scholars and hardworking and scholars, as if from the comparison rule and judge between two parties or third parties, and therefore requires the essential conditions for doing the job serious, and lead this function, and practiced this scientific aspect high.

The most important of these conditions are:

1 Sincerity in faith: To be his God, and this is the basic premise, without means fancy, or revenge, or defamation, so that way always the truth, and his blessing, he may hit the troughs, but the reward sinned, and the origin saying e: «Actions are but by intentions, and each person will have but that which he intended»([57]).

2 Science: Whoever takes the comparison between two things, two opinions, or two, or مذهبين, to be a scientist subject of science which is covered, كمقارنة religions, or comparative jurisprudence, or comparative literature, or comparative jurisprudence, otherwise floundering knock عشواء the.

In comparative jurisprudence is not enough just knowing jurisprudence, but must be a specialist in this science first, and be familiar enough statements doctrines, and views of scientists who compares them, and be conversant conversant enough assets jurisprudence; because many of the differences are due to the principles of pedagogy ([58]).

3 Objectivity and honesty: يشترط فيمن يمارس المقارنة بين المذاهب أن يكون متجرداً عن الهوى والعصبية أو التعصّب، وأن يكون حيادياً؛ لأنَّه كالقاضي في ذلك، وبالتالي يعرض الأقوال والآراء بأمانة كاملة، وينقلها عن الإمام أو المجتهد أو المذهب، وأن يتم النقل من المصادر الموثوقة في النقل، أو من الكتب المعتمدة في المذهب، وأن ينقل بدقة وأمانة القول الراجح المعتمد، وإلاّ صرّح بأنه ينقل قولاً له، أو رواية عنه، أو قولاً مرجوجاً، حتى يصحّ نسبة الرأي لصاحبه، أو القول في المذهب.

Secondly: Comparison controls and approach:

Must go comparative jurisprudence according to a specific approach, and certain controls, even useless, and achieves the desired goal, do not deviate from the right path, according to the following controls and curriculum:

1 Edit replace AllenـZa: مهما كان الخلاف واسعاً، والاختلاف شاسعاً بين الأئمَّة، أو الفقهاء أو المذاهب، وخاصة في الفقه الإسلامي، فإنّ هناك أموراً كثيرة مشتركة ومتفقاً عليها؛ لأنَّ مصادر الفقه الإسلامي الأساسية متفق عليها، وهي المصادر الأصلية من القرآن والسنّة، مع الاعتماد على اللغة العربية في دلالات الألفاظ والمعاني، ثُمَّ يأتي الخلاف والاختلاف تبعاً أو في الفروع والجزئيات، أو في تحقيق المناط، أو في تشخيص الوقائع التي يراد معرفة حكمها.

Hence, should the researcher to first determine the points of agreement between the sects, or the points of agreement between the views, to pay it all in question, and the focus of the conflict, and instills in the same reader provisions agreed to settle in his mind, and intellect, and his mind, I do not mind, but improves to demonstrate short .

When the agreed statement points appear clear and specific issues different, and must be highlighted and out and counted and identified; because it will be home to study and research, and the statement of words or opinions, and differences in provisions.

If they are different aspects of the multiple, must be arranged, for presentation to the issue of the issue, and section by section.

At this stage be neutralized words and views showing the virtual difference and conflict, and it's just a difference in terminology, or that different look, which is expressed scientists, that “Not مشاحة in terminology” Shall be agreed upon rule, with the difference in pronunciation and phrase, and enough is Allah for the believers here fighting, and became the ruling clique of the agreed provisions.

2 Show words Or different views per issue, or in one section, The words should be classified and opinions in two or three, for example,: In the passport, prevention, and detail, so that the opinion is clear and specific, and this view is the ruling principle in the eyes of its owner, diligent, or imam doctrine.

And heading a team of writers to review the opinions of each individual doctrine, to introduce the five views in five paragraphs, this is sound nor سديد; because it may agree opinions مذهبين or three or more on a single provision, there is no need for this census.

Here are reminded once again provided the objective mentioned above, that the movement of the statements and opinions impartiality, accuracy, and honesty, and reliable sources in transport, and books adopted in doctrine; because the objectivity required to submit statements of persons and ideas as they wish to present, and the right of the reader to .

Does not accept to convey the views of the doctrine of the doctrine last wrote, nor movement of Imam opinions or hard-working or Fakih of violators sources and his opponents, to the possibility of error in transportation, or intolerance leak, or inaccuracies in the approved transfer to say and likely.

3 Presentation of evidence for each statement or opinion, It is the evidence relied upon by the owner say or doctrine scientists, whether sources Nkulaih to the Quran and Sunnah, or original sources like consensus and measurement, or sources mentality Kalasthsan and reclamation, and other sources of Islamic jurisprudence agreed or different.

Here, the evidence must be directed, or face martyrdom statement, and how to infer them disputed, and how access to the evidence from different rule it.

وفي هذه المرحلة يجب التحرز المطلق والدقة الكاملة في بيان الآيات الكريمة، وتحديد موطنها من السور ورقم الآية، كما يجب تخريج الأحاديث تخريجاً مختصراً وموجزاً يتفق مع الدراسة الفقهية، وليس بالتخريج الواسع والمفصل المذكور في مصطلح الحديث، وخاصة عزو الأحاديث إلى كتب السنة من الصحاح والسنن والمسانيد والمستخرجات والمصنفات، وبيان درجة الحديث باختصار بالصحة والحسن والضعف وغيره، مع الاعتماد في ذلك على أصحاب الاختصاص في التخريج والحديث، من القدماء أو المعاصرين، أو من كتب أحاديث الأحكام العامة.

And remember evidence full each said separately, as if the researcher or the reader live with the owners of this to say, cruising in their books, and haunted perceptions and thinking, then moves on to the second opinion and evidence and then to say the third and evidence, on the same accessible and method and approach.

4 Discuss the evidence: There are two in comparison approaches, and almost that Atsawia, the first: Discuss all the evidence immediately after the presentation, to be linked to the reader and direct evidence, contained it the discussion around, to get to the validity of the protest it, ثبوتا and significance, and health denote power, or vice versa, or health ثبوتا, and after significant.

The second approach: A full presentation of evidence, then return to discuss them separately according to the previous method, and I see the first weighting approach to avoid repetition, but near the reader of the manual to know his health and strength and safety of its reasoning.

In both approaches, the result must be accessed in each directory and acceptance of his health, or his response and rejection.

5 Weighting: And that after viewing words, the statement evidence, and discuss the evidence in full, up researcher shootout between words, or refund all of the proposal say again, or to collect them, or to be distributed according to the cases and the details and particulars, depends one in the case or side, and the other in a second case.

Here, we must demonstrate the shootout, and reasoning to choose, whether non-proven evidence of a treatise, or conflict with the principles and rules recognized legally and language, and the strength of evidence to say the other, their health and proved, and the power of significance to govern.

And improves new evidence that the statement signed by the researcher, or grandfather and taken during the search, foundations and legally recognized rules and language, and power, to say the other evidence, the study.

But should reasoning, though, mentally and emotionally, weighting reached by the researcher, for confirms his convictions Batorgih, and demonstrates the choice away from sectarian or other neurological.

وهنا نهمس في أذن الباحث في الفقه المقارن أن يلتزم الأدب الجم، والاحترام الكامل للأئمَّة والعلماء، وإن خالفهم في الرأي، أو كان قولهم ضعيفاً، فالعلم رحم بين أهله، وإن الخلاف لا يفسد للود قضية، وبذلك يحفظ لسانه وعلمه عن الطعن بالعلماء، أو النيل منهم، أو التشكيك في دينهم وعقيدتهم؛ لأنَّه في أحسن الأحوال فهو مجتهد، وقد يكون مصيباً، وقد يكون مخطئاً، ومن تتبع عورات الناس تتبع الله عورته، وفضح أمره، وكشف سره، ونسأل الله أن يرزقنا حسن الأخلاق مع الأحياء والأموات؛ لقوله تعالى: ﴿وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالإِيمَانِ وَلا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَؤُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ﴾([59]).

Section V: Shirazi Alaotba the model of the fifth century AH

The reference was made to be Shirazi Alaotba the model for century Hijri fifth in comparative jurisprudence and controls.

First: Shirazi:

Is Sheikh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Yusuf bin Abdul God, Elvirozbadi, (476هـ/1083م): Faqih Shafi'i, fundamentalist, principals, born Pfirosibad Persia, and grew, and then entered Shiraz, and تفقه, and attributed to, and then moved to Basra, and entered Baghdad in 415 AH, and تفقه the judge Abu Tayeb al-Tabari and others, and was hit by the example of eloquence and the corresponding.

He said nuclear described: «Imam investigator, consistent checker, with the arts of science Almtcatherat, and classifications beneficial developments, Zahid Abid piety, the exhibition for the world, next his heart on the afterlife, الباذل himself in supporting the religion of Allah, المجانب for Hue, one of the scientists of the righteous, and the servants of God knowledgeable, collectors between ([60]).

The students deport him from the East and the West, and bear the opinions of the rest of the country, known for strong argument in the debate, and built him a minister System King School irregular in Baghdad, studied, and lived a poor patient, and it was good المجالسة, divorced face, eloquent, regulates hair, “Sheikh” In Shafi'i jurisprudence is to be, died in Baghdad, and prayed him Abbasid Caliph Almguetda.

A. Shirazi Almighty God's mercy famous beneficial useful classifications, including “Alarm” And”Polite” Jurisprudence on the Shafi'i school exclusively, and”التبصرة” And”Shine” And”Explain shine” In jurisprudence,”Abstract” And”Aid” In controversy, and”Layers jurists” Translations, and”Jokes” In the dispute, and”Advised scholars” And other.

The most important books ever: “Polite in the jurisprudence of Imam Shafi'i” He dealt with the texts of the Shafi'i school in doctrinal matters, and mothers of the legal provisions, said provisions, then between inferred from the Koran and hadiths, in a manner easy, and a literary court, away from the complex puzzles, and investigated branches with evidence, and took care of him scholars Shaafa'is heavily, was : “Statement” Abu Hussein Yahya ibn Abi Khair Bin Salem Urban Yemeni (558E) Who took care of him, Mr. Kassim Mohamed Nouri, and print curriculum House, Beirut in 1421/2000 13 Volumes, Volume XIV of indexes.

And: “Total polite in explaining” Subki nuclear and Motaey, printed in 22 Volumes, and explain the strange Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Yemeni Battaal (630E) The words explained the problem, and exited his speeches([61]).

But my book Shirazi “Polite” And”Alarm” محصوران doctrine Shafei, printed polite in Press Mustafa portal Halabi in two volumes in Egypt, 1379 AH / 1959 AD, then the researcher to achieve to demonstrate the correct view of the statements cited by seed or selecting say adopted in the Shafi'i school, and graduation speeches, printed in six volumes House pen in Damascus, “Alarm” Several times, and the students keep it by heart, and has many explanations, one of the most important acronyms, but limited to the Shafi'i doctrine.

The only book Shirazi in the dispute or comparative jurisprudence is his: “Jokes”, Printed fully reached in four volumes, printed shortcuts in a folder, and this does not detract from the prestige Shirazi, who was noted in his time, and in his time reference, and a strong counterpart in controversy and disagreement and Comparative Jurisprudence.

Secondly: Salamah ibn Muslim Alaotba deserts, tag, jurist, historian:

Shone the light of Islam in Mecca and Medina, and then uncle and spread to parts of the globe, and open minds and hearts, and gave birth to the nation's Islamic scholars and thinkers in all Islamic countries, فتركوا our heritage زاخرا, and the wealth of rich, light shining, a model for scientists in the Arabian Gulf of Oman in the Horn .

His name and lineage and upbringing:

Is Salamah ibn Muslim bin Ibrahim Alaotba, Abu Mundhir, deserts, relative to the Sohar (Annexation of antibiotic) Historically, the rod or Oman hand which follows the sea, and its name is derived from the desert as was mentioned in Sapphire “Lexicon countries” And Aotb: Villages Sohar.

I do not know exactly the exact date of his birth and the date of his death, and knew the conclusion that scientists from the fifth century AH, and was told: Extended his life until the beginning of the sixth century.

And ensure that the Omani identity and upbringing of his title attributed to Sohar Aotb, and a strong sense of belonging and loyalty to his country and his family, then his interest in the remembrance of the virtues of Oman and its historic role in ignorance and Islam.

His books and writings:

The Salamah ibn Muslim Alaotba deserts jurist, historian, and a sign in the ratios, literature and rhetoric, wisdom and proverbs([62]), The most important books:

1 Genealogy (Or shown lineages): It is two parts, which is encyclopedic in its article, it features alongside Genealogy historical information, anecdotal, and linguistic, literary, and many religious.

The book about lineages of humans and morals since the beginning of creation, talks about Adam and his sons until fork humans to the peoples and tribes, and then focuses on the lineages of the Arabs, and separates say in Qahtan, a grandfather Arab southerners even up-to-date Oman, and Nzlha of the Arabs, especially “Azd”, And highlights the role of Oman in the heart of Islam, suggesting able to genealogy, and the book is in two volumes of 750 Page, and gave him a study in 137 Page, and printed by the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture in Muscat, Oman, in 1415/1995, and repeated printing parts several times, with the investigation, the first part, the fourth edition 1415/1994, and Part II, i 3/1415 AH / 1994 AD achieving Muhammad Ali Crusader.

2 Luminance: It is a great book collector between religion and Sharia Sciences, located in the 24 Part, reprint them 18 Part. يبحث في صفات الله، ثُمَّ الأحكام الفقهية، طبعته وزارة التراث القومي والثقافة بسلطنة عُمان، الطبعة الأولى سنة 1411هـ/1990م، وما بعدها، ويجمع في الأحكام الفقهية مختلف أبواب الفقه، وبعض أبواب الحسبة، وسائر أحكام الحياة، وفيه بعض أحكام أصول الفقه، ومصادر التشريع من القرآن والسنة، ويعتمد على الأخبار، وينقل أقوال العلمـاء ويحدد أسماءهم، ويذكر مسائل واقعية من أحوال الناس لبيان الحكم الشرعي فيها، مِمَّا يدل على سعة علمه، وكثرة اطلاعه ومعرفته بالأحكام الفقهية، وجمعه لأقوال العلماء، مِمَّا يقربه من منهج الفقه المقارن الذي شاع سابقاً.

The scientists and researchers seeking to track News Alaotba, and revealed his life, growing up, and learn more about his books and his works lost, or still in the saved into manuscripts in private and public libraries.

3 Other Books:

Pointed Alaotba the mercy of God in the course of his book and other lineages, he already has authored a book: “Wisdom in Proverbs”, Rated genealogy book after book: “Arbitrator rhetoric in speeches and messages”, Then book: “Rhetoric in delegations fun and expatriates”, A book: “Anas Algraúb in anecdotes, news and Comics and Alosmar”.

This indicates the abundance of his knowledge, and his understanding polymath, with a book “Designation” In the language, has been achieved, and now printed in Oman in four volumes, a language dictionary.

Has not been found on most of these books, and this is an example of the greatness of our Islamic heritage that we have lost a part of it, and is still the second section is unknown, and the Alaotba model of the flags of the nation who have made their lives a lot, but have not received them very little, but God does not waste the work .

Thirdly: The comparisons between the budgets Shirazi and Alaotba of the:

A. Each of the two mark in his time, and the summit of his doctrine, and lived in the age of one, which is the fifth century AH.

B Shirazi Shafi was born in Persia, and moved to Baghdad, the first of the regular chieftain took Baghdad, where he remained until he died. The Alaotba is Arabic, born in Aotb, and grew up in Sohar, adored land of Amman, and without news, and devoted some effort to demonstrate the virtues.

ج ـ الشيرازي صنف في الفقه الشافعي، وله أهم الكتب في عصره، وهي: “Polite” And”Alarm”, Then a class in the fundamentals of jurisprudence “التبصرة” And”Shine” And”Explain shine”, As a class in the controversy “Abstract” And”Aid”, The class of the translations “Layers jurists”, The class of the homilies “Advised scholars”, Then ranked in the science of disagreement book values “Jokes”.

The Alaotba language فصنف “Designation” In History “Genealogy” In sermons and governance and ÇáŰŃÇĆČ names, was the greatest and most comprehensive wrote in Jurisprudence “Luminance” Which emerged in which his character, featured the talents and linguistic and historical sciences, and collect between doctrine and jurisprudence, then the provisions on the doors of Jurisprudence in full, and present the views of sects and religious scholars, scientists, and quoted it, and between the views of Ibadi sect.

د ـ يلتقي العالمان في علم الخلاف الذي خصص له الشيرازي كتاباً مستقلاً، دون أن يشير أو يذكر آراء المذهب الإباضيّ، بينما لم يفرد العوتبي كتاباً خاصاً في الخلاف، وإنما عرض الفقه المقارن خلال كتابه المطول “Luminance”, Said the words of schools of Islamic jurisprudence, including the Shafi'i school, and comparison between the two books need to be an independent study.

Conclusion

First: Results:

1 Principles of the most important forensic science; because it shows God's approach to life, in a statement the provisions of God in human behavior, it is valid for every time and place, and the evolution with the days to cover all actions and business.

2 Jurisprudence: Science is the legitimate operation of the provisions of the detailed evidence, and comparative research officer: Is tighten and his mastery of thing, with the overall compliance with the rules that correct speech, and prevent bugs in it, and determine its scope. And comparison: Is the study of doctrinal consensus with the evidence, including budget.

3 Old appeared aware of the dispute, then dying([63]), And renewed in the present era entitled Comparative Jurisprudence, with different goals and objectives, was to support the doctrine, and became the statement is probably more useful to achieve the practical interests of society and the nation.

4 Star comparative jurisprudence has emerged in the modern era in all studies([64]), And achieved to get rid of nervousness sectarian or individually doctrine and one in the legislative arena.

5 The most important books aware of the dispute and Comparative Jurisprudence: Supervision, and containing large, and local levels, and Badai, singer, and the establishment of, and disclosure, and the beginning of industrious, and the balance of the major, and compared doctrines, and jurisprudence on the doctrines, and research in comparative jurisprudence and comparative jurisprudence and Islamic jurisprudence and evidence, and studies in comparative jurisprudence, and Jurisprudence Encyclopedia and Research .

6 Marked the fifth century AH authorship Encyclopedic in comparative jurisprudence, it is so: Mabsoot, and explain the message Ibn Abi Zaid Cyrene, and paved, and recall, and the end of the requirement, and great controversy, and authorship in this century polymath in other sciences.

7 Required in comparison: Sincerity, science, objectivity, and controls: Editing dispute, and display words or opinions, and to cite the evidence is complete, then the discussion, then shootout with reasoning.

8 Sheikh Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi of the brightest scientists fifth century AH evolves, and to note, literature and debate and controversy Oraa and ascetic, rated, and most important books: “Polite in Shafi'i jurisprudence” And”Jokes” In dispute.

Secondly: Recommendations:

1 The necessity of care and care for books dispute, and comparative jurisprudence, and work to achieve doctrinal heritage, and publish encyclopedias jurisprudence that immortalized our Ancestors, great grandparents, and light flares of flags scientists in Islamic history.

2 The comparison should be interest in school at all levels, especially in the undergraduate and graduate studies, and in letters, theses, and scientific research, in the field of legislation, regulation and the enactment of laws and regulations.

3 Should benefit from the heritage schools of Islamic jurisprudence different, and the rejection of intolerance and neurological confessional, for grabbing gems and pearls of these doctrines that represent a wider heritage jurisprudential and legislative in the world, and represents the largest and greatest Pharmacy to take appropriate medications which depending on the circumstances and the times and places, and reliable knowledge of the developments and incidents that secreted .

4 Call to activate the collective endeavor, and the establishment of associations, institutions, and organizations at all levels to give the appropriate legal judgment, both chosen from Islamic jurisprudence heritage, or has been deduced and the diligence with his unprecedented.

5 Encourage graduate studies in comparative law and jurisprudence, and support for graduate students, materially and morally, providing free resources for them.

6 Call for the issuance of encyclopedias in the doctrinal aspects of life: As family provisions, and the system of government, and financial contracts, and Islamic economics, and education, and the media.

We ask God's help and guide and help, and invite him to bring the Muslims back to their religion, and to return the law, morality and dignity of Muslims, praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.


The most important sources and references

1 Alathafe graduation conversations overseeing matters of dispute, the judge Abdul Wahab bin Ali bin Nasr al-Baghdadi, al-Maliki (422E): Investigation: Dr. Badawi Abdul Samad Al Taher Saleh, dissemination of research House for Islamic Studies and Heritage Revival, Dubai, 1420 AH / 1999 AD.

2 Recall, Yousef Bin Abdullah, known as Ibn Abd al-Barr Qurtubi (463E): Investigation: Hassan Abdul Mannan, Dr. Mahmoud Ahmed Qaysiyah, call Foundation, Abu Dhabi, i 4/1423/2003.

3 Imam Juwayni, Imam Haramain, Dr Muhammad Zoheily, of series Flags Muslims, No. 26, House Pen, Damascus, i 2/1412 AH / 1992 AD.

4 Genealogy, Salamah ibn Muslim Alaotba (S 5 E) Print the Ministry of Heritage and Culture, Oman, i 2/1415 AH / 1995 AD.

5 Research in Comparative Jurisprudence, Dr. Mahmoud Abu Leil and Dr. Majed Abu Rgeh, publishing United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, 1996/1997.

6 Comparative research in Islamic jurisprudence, Dr. Mohammed Fathi Dereini, the message Foundation, Beirut, 1414 AH / 1994 AD.

7 Studies in Comparative Jurisprudence, Dr. Mohamed Samara, House of Culture, Amman, Jordan, 2002.

8 Studies in Comparative Jurisprudence, Dr. Mohamed Mind, modern message library, Amman, Jordan, 1983.

9 Sahih Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismail Bukhari (256E) Pen House, Damascus, 1400 AH / 1980 AD.

10 Sahih Muslim, Muslim bin pilgrims Qushayri the Alnisabure (261E) With an explanation of nuclear (676E), The Egyptian press, Cairo, 1349 AH / 1930 AD.

11 Photophobia, Salamah ibn Muslim Alaotba (S 5 e) Print Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, Oman, i 1 during the years 1411 هـ ـ 1416هـ/ 1990 Egypt 1996.

12 Judge Abdul Wahab al-Maliki, his personal scientific Dr. Mohamed Zoheily, research in the Journal of Sharia and Law, Qatar University, 2004.

13 Jurisprudence on the Hanafi and Shafi'i, Dr. Mohamed Zoheily, Academic Publication Council, Kuwait University, Kuwait, i 2/2004.

14 Jurisprudential rules and regulations for financial transactions at the Ibn Taymiyyah, Abdel Salam Ibrahim Mohamed hippocampus, Dar Taaseel, Cairo, 1422 AH / 2002 AD.

15 Sufficient in jurisprudence on the doctrine of the people of the city, Abu Omar Yousef bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abd al-Barr Andalusian (463E): Appeal Foundation, Abu Dhabi, 1424/2004.

16 Revealed misgivings about Asami books and arts, Muhammad Ali Althanue the (1158E): Photo Library Calcutta, India, 1862.

17 Reference of Islamic Sciences, Dr. Mohamed Zoheily, Darragh knowledge, Damascus, 1410 AH / 1990 AD.

18 Musnad Ahmad, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (241E): Islamic office imaging, Damascus, 1398 AH / 1978 AD.

19 Enlightening lamp, Ahmed Bin Ali Mokri Fayoumi (770E) Princely Press, Cairo, i 6/1926.

20 Lexicon mediator, Anis Ibrahim, Abdul Halim victor, Attia Sawalhi, Mohammed Khalaf Allah Ahmed, Dar waves, Beirut, i 2/1410 AH / 1992 AD.

21 Key to happiness and lamp sovereignty in science subjects, Ahmed bin Mustafa, Tash major Zadeh (968E) Modern Library, Cairo, 1968.

22 Introduction Ibn Khaldun, Abdul Rahman bin Mohammed Ibn Khaldun (808E): Major commercial library, Cairo, no date.

23 Polite in Shafi'i jurisprudence, Sheikh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Yusuf Shirazi (476E): Investigation: Dr. Mohamed Zoheily, Pen House, Damascus, 1412 AH / 1992 AD.

24 Jurisprudence Encyclopedia, the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, Kuwait, 1966 2005 m.

25 Brief in Islamic jurisprudence, Dr. Mohamed Zoheily, Dar goodness, Damascus, 1423 AH / 2003 AD.


([1]) Dean of the Faculty of Sharia and Islamic Studies, University of Sharjah.

([2]) Enlightening lamp, 1/656, Ocean dictionary, 4/289, Material: Jurisprudence.

([3]) Sura Taha: 27-28.

([4]) Narrated by Bukhari (1/39, No.: 71) ومسلم (7/128, No.: 1037).

([5]) This definition Shaafa'is of jurisprudence. Look: The end of the answers were, 1/23. Almstcefy, 1/4, and see: Fouath Rahmot, 1/10. Tariffs Gerjani, p 147. Explain the planet enlightening, 1/41, 63.

([6]) Brief in jurisprudence, the researcher, 1/18. Reference of Islamic Sciences, researcher, p 362. Comparative research K 1/15.

([7]) Lexicon mediator, 2/730, Material: Century.

([8]) Research in Comparative Jurisprudence, p 13.

([9]) Comparative research, 1/17-18.

([10]) Lexicon mediator, 1/533, Material: Adjust.

([11]) Lexicon mediator, (1/533), And knew many of the scholars as base: “Macro command that applies many molecules”Or “College issue applicable to all fractions”Or “Holistic rule applies to fractions to recognize its provisions including”Or “Qaeda: Is the officer who thereunder molecules issues”. Look: Jurisprudence on the Hanafi, Shafi'i, the researcher, p 18. Jurisprudential rules and regulations, Abdul Salam bin Ibrahim hippocampus, (1/58).

([12]) Jurisprudence on the Hanafi and Shafi'i, p 19.

([13]) Likes and isotopes in the way, for the resettlement, 1/7.

([14]) Colleges, dad to stay, 4/48.

([15]) Revealed misgivings, 1/472, and see: The entrance to the view of Ahmad, p 231.

([16]) Whom Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi in his book “Monuments” And other. Look: Key to happiness, 1/308, 2/599. The establishment of Debussy, p 5. Revealed misgivings, 1/72. Introduction of Ibn Khaldun, p 456.

([17]), The number of: Tash Zadeh major branches of jurisprudence, which is aware of, and the corresponding flag, and aware of the controversy, aware of the controversy (Key to happiness, his 2/598-599).

([18]) Introduction Ibn Khaldun, p 456, and see: Key to happiness, 1/306, 2/299, established to consider, p 3, Mankhol for Ghazali, pp. 489, Fiat Senate to Ibn Khalkan, 2/251.

([19]) الجلاوزة: Collection Jloiz, a policeman who saves system power and domination, and also Aljloiz: Huge courageous, lexicon broker, 1/129.

([20]) This book is printed in two major parts, will Tunis Press, then newly printed with graduation speeches in four volumes, published by Research for Islamic Studies and Heritage Revival in Dubai, 1420 AH / 1999 AD. Entitled “Alathafe graduation conversations overseeing matters of dispute”.

([21]) This book has achieved at the beginning of the fifth century AH twice, and printed in more than twenty-part, including Dar edition of thought in Damascus, 1414/1994 22 Part.

([22]) Local printed several editions, including the Cairo Almneryh edition 1347 e in eleven volumes, and worked him Jurisprudence Encyclopedia Damascus indexing entitled Ibn Hazm jurisprudence dictionary in two volumes to arrange accountability.

([23]) Print this book Palmtabah the aesthetic in Cairo in 1328 AH / 1910 AD in seven volumes, and then printed in ten volumes.

([24]) This book is printed several times, and was printed scientists and security reformers and jurists, including edition Dar Al Manar Egypt, (Ø) 3 The year 1367 AH 9 Parts, and then to Egypt edition in ten parts, and then print the Library of the Republic of Egypt in ten parts, then achieved edition in Riyadh 15 Part, and see: Reference Islamic Sciences, PO Box 557, 749.

([25]) Reprint the book more than once, including the second edition thought House, Lebanon Year 1399 AH / 1979 AD.

([26]) Scientists singled out this section of the book from the old and put him in a single bound, and I knew entitled “Disclosure” Then printed twice in Aleppo (Syrian) Second edition 1366 AH / 1947 AD in two medium-sized, and then published by Saidia in Riyadh year 1398 in two major parts with the investigation.

([27]) Adopted many of the colleges, institutes and universities this book to teach in comparative jurisprudence, printed several editions in two volumes, of which the third edition بمطبعة Mustafa portal Halabi in Egypt in 1379 AH / 1960 AD, then achieved by Mr. Majid al-Hamwi, and reprinted in four volumes in Dar Ibn Hazm, Beirut, i 1 / .

([28]) Gorgeous book Palmtabah the printed in Egypt in 1302 AH, in two major parts, on the sidelines of a book “Mercy of the nation in different Imams” Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman Ottoman Damascus, and this is the last book printed independent Palmtabah the new Damascus - the second edition in 1406 AH / 1986 AD, and then achieved a contemporary Ph.D. in comparative jurisprudence.

([29]) This book decision to teach for more than fifty years, the Faculty of Sharia at Al-Azhar University, then decided to teach in, the number of: From the faculties of Sharia.

([30]) Printed book in eight large volumes House thought in Damascus in 1404/1984, then re-photographed several times, then right folder in the jurisprudential developments, then finally printed in 12 Volumes, and see: Reference Islamic Sciences p 560.

([31]) Published by the United Arab Emirates University, No.: 32, 1996/1997 AD.

([32]) Reference Islamic Sciences, p 556.

([33]) This talk has been explained.

([34]) This Hadith narrated by Bukhari (1/66, No.: 143) ومسلم (16/37, No.: 2477) And Ahmad (1/266، 314، 328، 335) Bukhari narrated newly Last (God knew the book) (Sahih Bukhari 1/41, No.: 75) Remember his words and understand its meaning and its provisions.

([35]) Reference Islamic Sciences PO 390, 484.

([36]) Reference Islamic Sciences, p 388.

([37]) Reference Islamic Sciences, pp. 386 et seq.

([38]) See Search: Judge Abdul Wahab al-Maliki al-Baghdadi, the researcher, pp. 25-27, Alathafe graduation conversations supervision, investigator Introduction 1/5, 97.

([39]) Recall, Introduction to investigate 1/10, op Islamic Sciences, p 263, enough, Detective introduction 1/3, 7, 9.

([40]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 584.

([41]) Ibid, p 408.

([42]) Reference Islamic Sciences pp. 345, 516, Imam Juwayni, researcher, pp. 125-128.

([43]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 427.

([44]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 428.

([45]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 429.

([46]) Ibid p 264.

([47]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 583.

([48]) Ibid p 445.

([49]) Reference Islamic Sciences, p 289.

([50]) Ibid p 665.

([51]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 293.

([52]) Ibid p 261.

([53]) Reference Islamic Sciences p 262.

([54]) Ibid p 173.

([55]) Ibid p 665.

([56]) Ibid p 585.

([57]) This Hadith narrated by Bukhari (1/3, No.: 1) ومسلم (13/53, No.: 1907).

([58]) See different reasons scholars, and their relevance to the knowledge of jurisprudence in: Study in Comparative Jurisprudence pp. 16, 27, brief in which the assets of Islamic Jurisprudence 1/77 And Beyond.

([59]) Al-Hashr: 10.

([60]) Refine names, his 2/172, see translated in major layers Shaafa'is the 4/215, the Senate mortality ninth, Tabyeen lied fabricator, PO Box 276, beginning and ending 12/124, gold nuggets 3/349, flags 1/44.

([61]) Look: Reference Islamic Sciences pp. 429, 514, 515, polite, Introduction to investigate 1/13.

([62])As stated in the genealogy book, 1/103.

([63]) This is not accurate and not true at Ibadi and others from some Islamic sects who did not shut the door of ijtihad, and انفتحوا the views Mkhalvém over their history, and their books bear witness to, it has been true this speech when some doctrines that bear the intolerance and extremism to the views of the owners Fangrul themselves in . (References).

([64]) This is still comparative jurisprudence in all studies confined – Unfortunately, until recently – Between the four schools only out of other Islamic sects, but what we notice recently from some universities interest in this openness, and to see what confirms that – For example – As mentioned in the following paragraph. (References).

 

*Evolution science symposium in Amman during the fifth century AH “Authoring polymath and comparative jurisprudence”

Set up by the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs in Muscat

Daily 25- 27 Muharram 1426 / 6- 8 March 2005

This article contains Comments (3)

3 Comments “Comparative Jurisprudence and controls and its association with the development of science jurisprudence during the fifth century AH”

  1. Saif Al Riyami says:

    Have ÓćÇá about to say, adopted in Hanbali jurisprudence to the terms of the health Read the Koran
    God reward

  2. Younis says:

    We thank you for this beautiful benefit and we wish you every success. God is the source of strength

  3. عثمان says:

    جزاكم الله خير الجزاء على هذه الابانة

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