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Jurisprudence and its impact in the jurisprudence of the purposes

Jurisprudence and its impact in the jurisprudence of the purposes *

Mustapha Ben Hamou Orashwm

Researcher from Algeria


The science principles of fiqh his position established among other other forensic science, and clear its importance through knowledge of the advantages and features of these rules and what can result from the studies of the benefits; For this reason what we say of the benefits of this science will reveal to us about this, it is those benefits:

1 - They seized multiple things scattered and organized in a single wire; enabling recognition of the links between the dispersed particles, and provides sound familiar perception understands the qualities the university between these particles, they are also Ibn Rajab: (T. 5 9 7E): “Embodied him strewn issues in a single wire, and restrict his electrolytes and bring it Each متباعد”([1]).

2 - It is also the advantage that both of them controlling officer branches provisions of the process, and links them to the Association collects although different subjects and doors, and thus facilitate on Faqih Remember branches, and تغنيه save more particles as Alqraca said (ت 684هـ): «It adjust its rules jurisprudence sacked save more particles to اندراجها in the colleges»([2]).

Because save molecules Jurisprudence and its branches is impossible to appreciate it man, but save whatever rules fall under abounded possible, and to this sense pointed blue saying: «Without these rules have remained jurisprudence branches scattered may contradict manifestations without assets stuck out, and stand out from the university in which the ills»([3]).

3 – إنّ فهم هذه القواعد وحفظَها يساعد الفقيهَ على فهم مناهج الفتوى، ويطلعه على حقائق الفقيه ومآخذه، ويعينه على اكتساب ملكة فقهية قويّة تنير أمامه الطريقَ لدراسة أبواب الفقه الواسعة والمتعدّدة، ومعرفة الأحكام الشرعية، وتساعده على إلحاق أيِّ فرع أو حادثه بالقاعدة التي تناسبها عن طريق الإلحاق والتخريج، وتمكّنه من تخريج الفروع بطريقة سليمة، واستنباط الحلول للوقائع المتجدّدة، وبه يكون الفقه الإسلامي جامعا لما يحدثُ وسيحدث مستقبلا من الحوادث والمسائل على ممرّ الأزمان والعصور ([4]).

Suyooti said (ت911هـ): «The art of likes and isotopes (It is intended jurisprudence) Great art, familiar with the facts and jurisprudence stimuli and مآخذه, secrets, and Atmehr in understanding and استحضاره of, Iktdr placement and graduation, and knowledge of the provisions of the issues that is not Bmstorh, and accidents and incidents that do not expire passage of time »([5]).

Therefore they said to one another: The rule of the study of jurisprudence and their familiarity with the judges and muftis; imposition of an eye, and on the other obligation.

4 - The graduation of branches based on the rules college avoids Faqih of contradiction that may have on the partial discharge of occasions, has warned Quraafi to this, and stated that the graduation branches on partial occasions, without the college will lead to rules that contradict the provisions of sections and vary([6]).

The transfer of Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki (ت 771هـ) His father as saying: «How many is on Mcetkther in branches and Madarkha the Jamam emptied his mind; anonymous for college Vtakbtt base upon those perceptions, and became Hiran, and and jurisprudence of God more care; collection between the two sees eye view».

5- Among the benefits of these rules is also what was said Sheikh Taher Ben Achour; they help to achieve the purposes of the law; because the rules fundamentalist focus on the side of eduction, and notes aspects of the conflict and weighting, and the like of rules that is not the thing to note the purposes of the street, the jurisprudence is ([7]).

ونظرا لتوسع موضوع القواعد الفقهية وتشعُّب فروعه وكثرة مسائله؛ فقد حدّدت لنا إدارة الملتقى الموقَّرة دراسةَ جانبٍ من جوانبه؛ لبيان أثر هذه القواعد على فقه المقاصد؛ حتى تكُون هذه الدراسة مركَّزة ومحدَّدة في قواعد معيَّنة تشتمل على مقاصد الشريعة دون غيرها؛ ولتكونَ الدراسة مجديةً ومفيدةً، ولا يمكن الوصول إلى آثار هذه القواعد في فقه المقاصد الشرعية إلاَّ بتحديد بعض المفاهيم والمصطلحات المتعلِّقة بالموضوع؛ ولذلك ارتأيت أن أسلك المنهج التالي لبلوغ الغاية المرجوَّة من هذا البحث:

First: Definition of jurisprudence.

Secondly: Purposes of the definition of Sharia.

Thirdly: Jurisprudence relationship to the purposes of Sharia.

IV: Jurisprudence involving goals - and the so-called: Rules purposes -.

V.: Jurisprudence impact on the jurisprudence of the purposes, The application of these rules on the branches and the various issues.

Sixthly: Find finale.

First: Definition of jurisprudence

A- On linguistic rules:

Qaeda: Basically, everything is based upon the thing; is the base, and the pool on the: Rules, which are the foundations of the thing and its assets , Physically it as home bases , Or as bases of religion and moral foundations([8]).

And it says: ) Abraham raised the foundations of the House (([9]).

And it says: ) God came to pieces of rules ( ([10]).

With- Meaning of Rule idiomatically:

Known jurists rule definitions idiomatic give a clear picture to the reader, which is aware of the accuracy of their eyes and capacity أفقهم in audit and differentiation of these rules, and may be confused by other conventions as: Officer, and jurisprudential theory, and so on.

فعرفها each as: «College issue applicable to all fractions»([11]).

Some known as: «الأمرُ الكليُّ الذي ينطبق علية جزئيات كثيرة تُفهم أحكامُها منه»([12]).

وعرّفها الزرقاء بتعريف دقيق وشامل بأنها: «Origins of doctrinal College, in a brief constitutional texts, containing general legislative provisions in incidents that fall under the themes»([13]).

But Nadwi after the conventional definitions of said base; commented upon, he said: «… وفي ضوء تلك التعريفات والملاحظات حولها يمكن أن نُعرِّف القاعدةَ الفقهية بأنها: “Legal judgment in the case of the majority, which recognizes the provisions of the income below”; That the rules are the rules of jurisprudence containing a bunch of legal rulings from different sections, linked by a common jurisprudential, Vagayd mentioned in the definition: “Legitimate”; Out illegal rules, and the second limitation: “Majority”; Stating that these rules characterized as the majority, has Lindh for most of the rules of some branches, though those branches exit does not change the status of Commons rules, nor degrades worth »([14]).

These definitions are all converging lead united meaning that different syntax;, where will all the reports that al-Qaeda: Is a judgment or order in whole or in case of college, understanding of the provisions of the particles that fall under the object and applies.

Perhaps the definition reported Nadwi ills is the conventional definition chosen for the base jurisprudential.

Secondly: Purposes of the definition of Sharia

A - on the language for the purposes of Sharia:

Is an additional compound consists of the word: (Purposes), And the word: (Sharia) Attributed to Islam.

Valmqasd language: Collection of destination, Mimi source is taken from the verb (Intent), Intention and purpose to single words, scientists have stated that the intent language comes in gloss language([15]):

One: Dependence, and mother, and Etienne thing, and orientation.

The second: Straightening the road, said: Via Qassed easy straight, travel Qassed of easy close.

And third: Justice, mediate and not over.

IV: Fracture in any way, such as saying: Intentionally meant lute; break it.

Perhaps the closest appropriate meanings of idiomatic meaning is the first; as a mother, dependence, and Etienne thing, and orientation, and all about the will and determination thing it.

The language law: Religion, sect, and the curriculum, and the way, and the year([16]).

In the terminology: Ibn Taymiyyah said: «Name of Sharia and al-Shara and Bill; It organized everything that God has prescribed beliefs and actions»([17]), Some said: What age God for His slaves of provisions by the Prophet of prophets, peace be upon them([18]).

With- Purposes of the definition of Sharia as a note on a particular science:

I did not find a definition for the purposes of this account in the books of applicants from the fundamentalists, even when his attention purposes Kalrazali the (T. 505 E), And Shatby (T. 790 E), But يكتفون the Baltnasis some of the purposes of the law, or partition types.

Ghazali, we find, for example, mentions the purposes of the law, saying: «Intentional Shara creation of five: It saves them their religion, themselves, and their minds, and their descendants, and their money, just to save these assets includes five is interest, and all I miss these assets is evil, and paid interest .. »([19]).

It is clear that al-Ghazali here his words did not want to give a precise definition of the purposes, but wanted to limit the things mentioned destinations.

And The Shaatibi did not mention a definition of purposes with frequent his care of them, and thorough understanding of her([20]).

If this flag; it stays Search for the purposes of the definition in the latecomers who have written books on this subject, or in the jurisprudence generally. The following is stated:

1- Said Ben Achour: «General purposes of the legislation is: Perceived meanings and governance of the street in all the conditions of the legislation, or most of them; so that no observable universe specialize in a particular type of Sharia »([21]).

2- And defined Allal El Fassi said: «Be Sharia purposes; end of them, and the secrets that put the street when all of its provisions»([22])

This definition collector for the purposes of both types of public and private.

3- He knew Raïssouni saying: «Targets set by the law in order to achieve the interest of the subjects»([23]).

The definition chosen can be concluded from the previous definitions for the purposes of, is that the objectives are: Meanings, governance and the like that راعاها street in the legislation in general, and especially in order to achieve the interests of people.

Thirdly: Jurisprudence relationship rules legitimate purposes

كنت قد بيَّنت فيما تقدّم أنّ القاعدة الفقهية قضيةٌ كلية، تَعبِّر عن حكْم عامّ، يُتعرَّف بها أحكامُ الجزئيات التي يَتحقّق فيها مناطُ هذا الحكم العامِّ، وهذه السِّمَةُ الكلية التي تتَّصف بها القاعدة الفقهية؛ نجدها متحقِّقة في القاعدة المقصدية، بل هي إحدى أهمِّ خصائصها، ولا غَرْوَ في ذلك؛ لأنَّ من سمات القاعدةِ أن تكونَ كليَّةً في تناولها للجزئيات الداخلة تحت موضوعها، وإلا لم تستحقَّ وصفَها بالقاعدة، ويُقصد بالكلية أنها لا تختصُّ بشخص دون شخص، ولا بحال دون حال، ولا بموضوع دون موضوع؛ أي عامَّة([24]).

The other thing that combines rule jurisprudence and rule Almqsidih; that Gaithma the final one, which stand on the rule of the street at the facts and developments according to what he wanted the street and ابتغاه, Both rules in the end means aids industrious; to show the Islamic ruling, which addressed by God Almighty in charge with no text in it .

The end of the final the following jurisprudential rule: “Hardship brings facilitation”([25]) For example, consistent with the rule Almqsidih: “Not intended the commissioning Balhak street of Business”([26]); So that both of these rules shall devolve in the zenith to industrious subsidy or scholar to know the ruling where مناطها come true, and disclosed. This is the face of the relevant between Al Qaeda Almqsidih the one hand, and jurisprudential rule on the other hand.

IV: Jurisprudence containing legitimate purposes

The follower of the rules of jurisprudence notice that a variety of different themes and, Some of which is specialized purposes of the law, including what is the year, and from what matters doctrinal subsidiary, has been tracking some scholars and fundamentalists of these rules and Snvoha by theme, as did Shaatibi and others, Femiz between jurisprudence and rules of purposes, and examples include the following:

A- قواعد تتعلق بموضوع المصلحة والمفسدة:

In the sense that these rules unite in addressing the issue of benefit and harm, but they differ in how their approach to this topic, some of them shows the general basis upon which the law all in fractions and colleges, of bringing interests and ward off evil, and these rules, for example, but not limited to.

“Put laws but is for the interests of people in urgent and forward together”([27]).

“It never in steady interest in the faculties of law and their fractions”([28]).

“Commissioning the whole either to ward off evil or to bring interest, or both”([29]).

“Prohibited reasons causes of the evils of interests, as the legitimate reasons for the interests of reasons not to evils”([30]).

“The concept of the development of the street, obedience or disobedience according to the bone ossification benefit or harm arising therefrom”([31]).

These and other rules; showing the basis upon which the Sharia.

And other rules set controls so that the interests of stakeholders, considering them:

“To be significant interest the street, and arranges them Network”([32]).

“Put the law but to the interests of the people, for he as is the street and to the extent that alone, not according to their whims and desires”([33]).

And other rules found sections of interest; since the interests are not all the same in terms of the check request, and necessitate its existence; therefore show these rules degrees of interest, and that it is necessary and another Haji, and the third Thasina, and put an end to all rank of these top three, and this :

“Essentials: Are which are needed in the interests of the religion and the world; so that if you lose not been lower interests on straightening, but on corruption, Tharj and Foote life” ([34]).

“Widgets: Are lacking to expand and raise the distress and embarrassment, without a loss of the amount of public corruption and grave damage”([35]).

“Improvements: Are taking as befits of pros habits, and avoid the Almdensat conditions that Tanfea minds Alrajhat the”([36]).

There are rules appear industrious role in paying attention to the meaning المصلحي who were driven power for him, and to his job in understanding the meanings of sentences and judgment, such as:

“Must pay attention to the meaning of it is not to abstract”([37]).

“Work on track and phenomena Tagal; far from intentional street, as also neglected profusion”([38]).

With Rules on the subject of raising critical:

There are rules Mqasidih orbiting the subject of lifting the embarrassment, and what emerges about the issues and ramifications, and disclosure standards hardship that require the facility and mitigation and facilitation, and the links between the principle of raising the embarrassment and between Qsod charge, and we find these features and clear, while a closer look at the following rules:

“Bring hardship facilitation”([39]).

“الشارع لم يقصد التكليف بالشاقِّ والإعنات فيه”([40]).

“Sharia ongoing in commissioning بمقتضياتها on the road middle الأعدل, the introduction of the parties is no tendency premium, interior under earn slave is it nor the dissolution of hardship”([41]).

These rules, and many others show that inadvertently the street does not go to law including speech can not afford it, or you do not have to do it only very laboriously unusual.

There are rules related hardship controls and limits that require facilitation, for example:

“If hardship beyond the usual; so that the taxpayer gets a religious corruption or Earthly; Vmqsod of the street where the wholesale lifting”.

“Hawa violation of the hardship is not of hardships the prestigious, there is no license at all”([42]).

“Intent to hardship void; because it is contrary to the intention of the street; and because God did not make the tortured souls reason to get closer to him, and to achieve what he has”([43]).

“Not the taxpayer that meant hardship to reward bone, but his intended work that maximizes reward for bone Amishqth; from where he worked”([44]).

C Rules concerning Bmalat of acts and purposes of the law:

There are other rules regulated by the Multi purposes of the law, and Malate their actions, and rules in this topic many:

“Consider the considerable fate of intentional religiously”([45]).

“Hardworking should look at the causes of the provisions and their causes; what the consequent legal provisions”([46]).

And other rules relating to guidance purposes of the law; so that they are compatible with the intent of the street like:

“Inadvertently street from the charge to be intent in agreeing to work His purpose in the legislation, and does not intend unlike inadvertently”([47]).

“Considering destinations in behavior”([48]).

“If you pay attention to the cause would Relay for the cause and its sequel, and incitement to exaggerate the completion; must pay attention to him”([49]).

“Each of craveth in legal costs is what started it; has contradicted Sharia”.

“The reaction condition was intentionally or left to drop the rule necessary in the cause, not the consequent impact;, it is working correctly and the pursuit of vanity”([50]).

“Wire to the benefit of the project is the way; is widening in interest against those”([51]).

“Every act becomes illegal project if it leads to the fate of foreclosed, in order to designate that money or not intended”([52]).

Base: Things its purposes([53]).

This basic doctrinal base College, falls below many rules relating to the purposes and intentions in contracts and behaviors, so:

1 - Base: “Actions are but by intentions, and purposes, saying in worship and transactions”([54]).

2 - Base: “The seminal work can be either purely worship not mistaken habits, and can be either sex, which is similar habits”.

3 - Base: “Acts of worship that are not unambiguous do not need to be a addendum to God”.

4 - Base: '' Words if the texts in something that is not hesitant; did not need to intention signified set; انصرافها Besraanha for meaning”.

5 - Base: “Purposes of the benefits of the objects held by if Mtaana; dispensed appointment”.

6 – Base: “If money was kind often not been invoked to its statement in the contract”.

7 - Base: “Rights If تعينت a solo مستحقها such as the right; would have to be Lord without intention”.

8 - Base: “To be in the intention that they be based on knowledge of dictation or thought Rajah”.

9 - Base: “If the Department of behaviors between various points; GOES not one of them, but the structure”.

10 - Base: “Error while his appointment is not required does not affect”.

11 - Base: “Of something rushed prematurely; punished by depriving”.

12 - Base: “Unforgivable means what is unforgivable in destinations”.

13 - Base: “Is the lesson formats contracts or meanings?”.

14 - Base: “Neither reward nor punishment, but the structure of”.

15 - Base: “The purposes of the word intention Allafez only in one place, an alliance; it is the intention of Almstaf”.

16 - Base: “Salah Salah faith, and corruption Pfsadha”.

17 - Base: “Intention included under check”.

18 - Base: “What do not enter the intention of business: Acts Altruck by”.

19 - Base: “Almtaan of worship and does not need rights to the intention of the appointment, and the performance of Rights does not require intent”([55]).

D Rules related to the removal of damage ([56]):

“Damage disappears”.

“Do no harm”.

“Pay the damage as much as possible”.

“Damage is still in kind or the most harm”.

“First ward off evil from bringing interests”.

“The worst damage is still damage the lightest”.

“Choose the lesser of two evils or the lesser of two evils”.

“If conflicted Mvsdtan the Roi greatest damage committing Okhvhma”.

– “Damage your bear to pay for damage”.

V.: Showing some jurisprudential rules involving purposes, and its impact on the branches jurisprudential:

The first rule: Things its purposes:

1- The importance of al-Qaeda:

‘‘إنّ مقاصد العباد ونياتهم محلّ نظر الشارع الحكيم العالم بما يترتّب على ما أمر به عباده، فقد عُني القرآن بمقاصد المكلَّفين ونياتهم عنايةً فائقةً تفوق الاهتمامَ بأي مسألة أخرى، كما عنيت بذلك سنَّةُ المصطفى e؛ ذلك لأنَّ الأعمالَ لها تأثيرٌ في القلب، فإذا أنيطت بالقصد الصحيح والنية الخالصة؛ أحْيت القلب وأيقظته، وإذا لم تقترن الأعمال بالمقاصد الشرعية والنوايا الطيبة؛ أماتت القلبَ وأعمَتْهُ، وَعُدَّتْ في ميزان الأعمال هباءً منثوراً، وسراباً خادعاً لا يظفر صاحبها بغاية ولا يَرُوحُ رائحةَ نعيمٍ؛ فميزان الأعمال القصدُ والنيةُ، ومن وراء ذلك العملُ”([57]).

2 - The concept of al-Qaeda and its manual:

The speech on the appropriate assessment;: Things that the provisions of its purposes; because aware Jurisprudence but looking for the provisions of the things do not ذواتها; therefore interpreted the magazine judicial rule saying: “Means that the judgment which follows an order; be appropriate what is meant by that order”([58]).

The base: “Things its purposes” And validation to pronounce a few words; considered one of the conciseness of speech; they are meaningful in room includes everything comes from human to say or do; since the word (Things) Year; to this entry “AL” Nationality him, and term objectives as well; to add it to the conscience of the word in([59]).

The significance of this rule: “That the work of the taxpayer and his actions from قولية or he, تختلف نتائجُها وأحكامُها الشرعية التي تترتَّب عليها باختلاف مقصود الشخص وغايته وهدفه من وراء تلك الأعمال والتصرفات؛ إذ الحكم المترتِّب على أمر ما يكون على مقتضى المقصود من ذلك الأمر، وكلُّ تصرُّفات المكلَّف يحكمها دافعٌ منبَعثٌ من القلب، سواء في ذلك تصرُّفاته الدنيوية أو الأخروية، ولما كانت الفعال متنوِّعة إلى فعل وقول، وحركةٍ وسكونٍ، وجلبٍ ودفعٍ، وفكرٍ، وذكرٍ، وعادةٍ وعبادةٍ؛ كان اعتبارُ القصدِ بترتيب الأحكام عليه، فمن عمل عملا ولم ينْوِه ولم يقصده لعارضٍ كنسيان ونحوه؛ فإنَّ هذا العمل لا يترتَّب عليه من الآثار والأحكام ما يترتَّب على من قصد العمل وأراده”([60]).

Among the evidence of this rule:

أ- يرجع أصلُ هذه القاعدة إلى الحديث المشهور الذي رواه البخاري ومسلم عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال: I heard the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him says: «Actions are but by intentions, but each امرىء what nuclei…»([61]).

With- وما أخرجه ابن ماجه من حديث أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه وجابر بن عبد الله رضى الله عنهما أنَّ النبي e قال: «But sends people to their intentions»([62]).

These two hadeeth Alnpuyan - and others- Demonstrate a clear indication that the balance but it is a business intent and purpose, and behind that work.

3 Branches base (Things its purposes), And certain rules thereunder, and its impact on the jurisprudence of the purposes:

Can not we see the impact of this rule in Jurisprudence purposes only apply to subsidiaries, and the graduation of sub-issues, and after the application of these effects appear.

This rule takes place in many of the doors as jurisprudence: Worship, and transactions, المعاوضات, and financial Altmlikat, and discharge, as well as taking place in: Agencies, and make permissible, guarantees, and the secretariats, and sanctions…, Due to the large number of topics that are considered intent and purpose requirement in judging the actions of law; we will limit some of the rules and by the fork of the representation is not limited to door:

A- Base: “Seminal work can be either purely worship not mistaken habits, and can be either sex, which is similar habits”.

فالنوع first: Such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and other acts of worship do not suspect habits; because sex is not only God.

The second type: Which confused habits; it needs to intention added to God, and that as payment money, it may be the expense of due, or gift, or link, it may be Zakat imposed, or charity volunteer, as well as the slaughter, it would be God Almighty Kalodhah, and sacrifice, and the blood neighbors, ([63]).

With- Base: “Acts of worship that are not unambiguous; does not need to be added to God's intention”.

This كالإيمان God Almighty, and venerate, and إجلاله, and love, and hope for reward, and the fear of punishment, and the modesty of majesty and awe of his power, and praise him, and cheer him, and read the Koran, and other prescribed; they distinct God Almighty([64]).

فلا تحتاج هذه الأعمال إلى نية الإضافة أو نية التخصيص؛ فإنَّ هذه الأعمالَ بطبيعتها منصرفةٌ إلى الله تعالى لا يستحقِّها سواه، فلا يلزم العامل أن ينوي أن يسبِّح الله أو يذكره، أو يعبده، لكن هذه الأعمال تحتاج إلى نية القصد، وإرادةِ وجه الله سبحانه وتعالى بهذه الأعمال، فيؤدِّي العبدُ هذه الأعمالَ بنيَّةِ الإخلاص والمحبَّةِ والتعظيمِ لله، والرجاءِ لثوابِه، والخوفِ من عقابه، فهذه النية لازمةٌ متعيِّنَةٌ؛ فلو اشتغل بشيء من هذه العبادات وهو ذاهلٌ، أو جرت على لسانه وهو نائم، أو جرت على لسان مجنون، أو سكران؛ فلا تكون عبادة، وكذلك لو كان مرائيا بعمله، أو طالبا ممدوحة أو ثناءً؛ فإنَّ ثوابَه ينقُص بقدر نقص إخلاصه، وبهذا يتَّضح معني هذه القاعدة([65]).

If we say the requirement intention addendum to necessary that you need faith to the intention of the other; because the intention of the intention of worship need to intention, they shall be on that sequence; because the purpose of faith discrimination labor and discrimination applicable to him, and acts of worship of God due to him that are not confused habits; does not need to be the intention of ([66]).

C- Base: “Words if the texts in something you do not need AC intention signified set; to clearly اتصافها the significance of its significance”.

This Kalolvaz explicit transactions, Klfez sale, purchase, lease, and sharecropping, and Almgarch, peace, and the lead, and royalty, marriages, divorce, and Alataq, and the gift, and the gift; these words indicate the significance of conformity and recruitment; where تعينت these words for these contracts; Vlzim .

Such linguistic terms that have become the legitimate use of the fact legitimacy Klfez the prayer, zakat, fasting, and pilgrimage; they once launched GOES to this legitimacy worship, nor GOES linguistic meanings unless special structure. Or a particular connotation, Valolvaz explicit hesitate between two things and was appointed: Either by the street, or by the use of language, or normal use, not GOES about its significance, but the structure or the presumption of a phenomenon, and speaks to what put him once at all, you do not need to the intention of the appointment, but need to be the intention of the intent, if issued these words of those who ([67]).

D- Base: '' Purposes of the benefits of the objects held by if Mtaana; dispensed appointment”.

فالعين المعقودُ عليها عقدَ إجارة أو إعارة أو نحو ذلك؛ لا تحتاج إلى تحديد الانتفاع بها في العقد إذا كانت المنفعة متعيّنة عادة، كمن استأجر فأسا أو معولا، أو ثوبا أو عمامة، لم يحتج إلى تعيين المنفعة في العقد لانصراف هذه الأشياء بصورتها إلى مقاصدها، وإن كانت العين متردِّدة بين منفعتين أو أكثر كالدابة للحمل والركوب، والأرض للبناء والزراعة والغرس، فيفتقر إلى التعيين؛ لئلا يحصل اللّبس؛ فإنَّ النزاع عند استيفاء المنافع في بعض أحواله يكون سببُه عدمَ تحديد المنفعة؛ ولأنَّ من لا ورع عنده قد يتَّخذ الأمورَ الملتبسة مدخلا لطمعه وأغراضه، لهذا يتعيَّن تحديدُ المنفعة عند العقد على العين التي تتعدَّد منافعها، فينصُّ على المنافع التي يراد استيفاؤها بموجب العقد المتَّفَق عليه، دفْعا للبس وسدًّا لباب النزاع. But if the eye held by its multiple benefits, but custom and habit determine the type of benefit; فيكتفى including Ataref it at all, does not matter intention here is not reliable in meeting the rights and benefits; because the benefits of things phenomenon, it must be built on is apparent as well as .

But if he said the completed for the benefit of: I meant to benefit as well, but did not hire this eye, and by the owner or payable, he may do so; because the right has not Ateke ([68]).

D- Base: “Of something rushed prematurely punished by depriving”([69]).

Branches of this rule:

– That defrauded the analysis of land, or prohibition wife; it treats بنقيض meant death to him, God was forbidden to the Jews, fishing on Saturday, they put the fishing nets and took on Sunday, was called God this work assault and جازاهم بنقيض intent that punished them([70]).

The Prophet said e: «May God curse the Jews that God has forbidden them fat dead Fjmloh, then sold it, then ate its price»([71]).

And cursed the Prophet e analyst and analyst to him and he called Baltes, wigs, and that he intended purpose marriage analysis, فاحتال of the Sacred analysis ([72]); Therefore deserved the curse of the Messenger of Allah e analyst like him.

Scholars decided the prohibition of tricks, and dared the enemy of God, and the heroes of the provisions of the Quran and Sunnah.

According to Imam Ahmad that a woman they want to her husband Faiby the dissociation by some employers said to her tricks: If Artddt about Islam girl, I did, Imam Ahmad became angry and said: Opined that his knowledge or pleased with it; is an infidel, and face it is Basthlal the infidelity, and Kafr, We seek refuge with Allah from it, also said Abdullah bin Mubarak and then said: What see the devil improves like this, came up these Vtalmh them([73]).

The son of the values ​​of nuts: “Of Sharia hopes and livelihoods the jurisprudence same, he saw had overturned owners intentions tricks, and interviewed Bnqeidaha, and they blocked the ways in which conquered gimmick falsehood, it is so: That prevent Almthil street of inheritance - murdering gene - and his legacy transferred to the other without it what it defrauded vanities.

It's that: Invalidity of the will of the testator him money if he kills the testator.

It's that: What if defrauded the patient to prevent his wife from inheritance بطلاقها, they inherit as long as in the kit at the range, and when others inherit and elapsed promised what did not marry, and when a wide inherit though married”([74]).

It's that: Defrauded eat people's money in riba, God يمحق his money as he says: ) God يمحق the usury and raise charity (([75]).

It is so that God make false death wasting his response to it, and make a Gallic death of Booty – To the intent of the multiplication his Balglul money -; denied his share and the burning of luggage ([76]), Make the death of fish in campus or Ihram; prohibition eat What baited, and fined counterpart.

In the face of the whole: That these actions indicate corruption and ill-intention of intent; causing him to commit the types of tricks may be a sin or disbelief consequent committed evils financial or physical, public or private; therefore reward to reflect upon his way, فيعامل بنقيض meant structure([77]).

E- Base: “Unforgivable unforgivable in means money in destinations”:

The meaning of this rule: That the rule means to something different from the rule of unintended destination and. For these examples including base:

– جواز الكذب لإصلاح ذات البين؛ لتحقيق المصلحة مع أنّ الكذب في أصله محرَّمٌ([78]).

– ومنها جوازُ إحراق أموال العدوِّ في حالة الحرب؛ لأنه وسيلة للتهيب والإخافة([79]).

– وجواز تعزير المتَّهم بما يراه القاضي؛ للتوصُّل إلى معرفة الحقِّ، والأصلُ منع التعدِّي والأذى إلا بعد ثبوت الإدانة([80]).

In the view of some scholars that it is essential to the Mufti and the judge from considering provisions that relate to the means, and the provisions that relate to the purposes, they must differentiate when the fatwa or judgment in the rivalry from considering the means and objectives; as to be considered as influential in government, if committed Mufti and judge this rule Avadthma much ([81]).

The second rule: “Hardship brings facilitation “:

This is the base of one of the five major rules that underpin the said Islamic jurisprudence and its origins, and its relationship to the purposes of the law; since it calls for the lifting of the embarrassment and hardship, and calls for easing.

Says Shaatibi in this regard: “The evidence to raise critical in this nation was cutting the amount of”([82]).

The follow Sharia glue in assets and branches; find it clearly evident in the worship, and rights, the judiciary, and personal status, and other things that related to a creation Boukhalgahm the relationship, and the relationship of each other; ensure their happiness in this world and the hereafter.

1- The concept of al-Qaeda:

The linguistic meaning total base: That the difficulty and suffering become a reason to make it easier.

The legal concept of base: That the provisions arising from the application to designate critical and hardship to himself or his property; Sharia تخففها including falls under the charge capacity without distress or embarrassment([83]).

And understand them: “That hardship may find the taxpayer in the implementation of the ruling; due to incorrect legitimate to relieve him generally what “([84]); Because the in hardship embarrassment, and embarrassment is raised from the charge of provisions of the law([85]).

2- This rule guides:

Del on this rule, and some other sub-rules - which is an extension of this rule venerable - texts from the Quran and sayings of the Prophet e, and outs of the law precluding embarrassment, and the legality of the licenses, and the lack of consensus commissioning Balhak, and Alaanat it.

This has shown texts on the principle of lifting embarrassment and that the facilitation and mitigation of the highest purposes Shara religion.

A- From the Koran:

God said: ) God intends for you ease and does not want hardship for you (([86]).

He says: ﴿مَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهَّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ﴾([87]).

He also: ) God wants to relieve you, and man was created weak (([88]).

WithIn the area of ​​Sunnah:

It is not evidenced by the description that the Prophet e this magnanimous Balhanafih religion, there are novels and received this formula أجودها: That e Asked: Religions would love to God? : «Tolerant Tap». رواه البخاريُّ في صحيحه تعليقا([89]).

Said Shaatibi: “And the so-called – Tap any religion- Because of the facilitation and facilitation”([90]).

Bukhari also narrated in Saheeh from Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him that the Prophet e said: «Facilitated nor تعسروا the preached no تنفروا '([91]).

3- The reasons for mitigation:

The inventory jurists reasons mitigation and facilitation in seven key reasons, which are outlined in the: Travel, illness, and coercion, forgetfulness, ignorance, hardship, and general scourge, and natural shortage (Deficit).

4- Rules director and SACD: ([92])

– Base: “Hardship brings facilitation ” Many branches and deep roots in Islamic jurisprudence, and SACD rules as follows:

– قاعدةُ: If fed widened.

– Base: If widened narrowed.

– Base: A virtue of necessity.

– Base: What is permissible for need Atkdr the exaggerated.

– Base: What excuse champion Jazz been removed.

– Base: Need descend status necessity, whether public or private.

– Base: Having not invalidate the right of others.

– Base: Affordable not fall Palmasor the.

5 - The impact of having the legal provisions:

Or: The rule of necessity, which allows the outlawed.

Of the purposes of Islamic Sharia save souls and protect it from damage, and to achieve this it is permissible banned temporarily ward off harm self, Faazn for forced to eat dead meat, blood, pork, and so on, which deprived him of God of vaccinations and beverages; interpretation of the meaning: ), But what you must to him (from([93]); Any دعتكم the severity of the need to eat and the exception to the prohibition legalization, has been licensed in the act, but denied him eternal can not afford to fall ever, has been licensed in the act, but denied him brook fall in wholesale, was permissible and not authorized for it at all, it is four conditions are as follows:

The first case: It is permissible act forbidden by eating dead meat, and pork, eat wine and blood, and in the case coercion only Almlji; because the sanctity of these things identified when the text selection and exclusion of privacy legalization([94]).

He says: ) Has separated you what has forbidden you only what you must to him (from, even if the destitute and Almstl – Compared him what had inflicted harm to self or User – If Declined supervisor doom for eating from the dead, and so on until perished; was sinning if a scientist fall of privacy in his case that; because refrain became firing himself into destruction, has forbidden it, and necessary in this case raise the rule of the act of culpability and the sin, but not ([95]).

The second case: Authorized in the act, but denied him eternal can not afford to fall: Which remains the act forbidden, but licenses in taking him to a state of necessity only, but prevents sin and culpability eschatological, such as a word infidelity on the tongue with contentment heart by faith, it is permissible under duress Almlji only, but the patience of a person as I hate him until he was killed; was مأجورا : First to be told: That varies depending on the circumstances and conditions([96]).

The third case: Is not permissible act, but licensed it in a sentence, the rights of other people: Katlav money of others, eating compelled other money, it is haram, but this may go away inviolability permission of the owner of the money to act.

The truth is that this case, like its predecessor in terms of the result and the effect of coercion, but the former type is unbearable inviolable never fall in any of the cases, this type has fallen inviolable in the sentence by the will of its owner. And which fall under this type; rights of God that brook falls in the world Kalabadat; it may left under duress Almlji the.

The fourth case: لا يباح الفعلُ ولا يُرَخَّصُ فيه أصلاً، كالقتل بغير حقٍّ، والاعتداء على عضوٍ من الأعضاء، والزنا، وضرب الوالدين أو أحدِهما، فالفعل هنا لا يباح الإقدام عليه ولا تُرفع المؤاخذةُ ولا الإثمُ لو فعل، وإنما يعتبر الإكراه التامُّ على الفعل شبهةً تُدْرَأُ بها الحدود؛ لأنَّ الحدود للزجر، ولا حاجة للزجر عند الإكراه؛ وذلك يظهر أنَّ المباح هنا غيرُ مرخَّص فيه؛ فالضرورةُ إذن أباحت فِعْلاً تُرْفَعُ الحِرمة عنه، أمَّا إذا كان أثرها هو الترخيص بالفعل؛ فإنَّ الحِرمة تظلُّ قائمةً، ويقتصر أثر الضرورة على رفع الإثم فقط([97]).

6 Al Qaeda-related issues and graduating from branches:

For other examples of increased base on the above:

Male Imam Ibn pond branches doctrinal intervention under the base: “Hardship brings facilitation “Among these branches as follows:

– يُتسامح في إزالة أثر النجاسة من الثوب إذا بولغ في تطهيره ولم يَزُلْ، إذا زال طعمها ورائحتها([98]).

– كما أنَّ الراعف إذا لم ينقطع دمه؛ صلَّى كما أمكنه، ولو مع سيلان دمه([99]).

– جواز الجمع للمبطون لأجل المشقَّة, And may be combined in the rainy day for hardship.

Imam Ibn pool the other branches of jurisprudence under the rule known intervention: “A virtue of necessity”Among these branches:

– أنَّ للمجاهد وكذلك المطلوب من قِبَلِ عدوٍّ يخافه أن يصلّيَ كلٌّ منهما حسب قدرته([100]).

– أنَّّ المريض الذي لا يجد السبيل إلى الانتقال والتحوُّل إلى جهة القبلة، يصلِّي حسب وجهته التي هو عليها([101]).

– جواز صلاة الفريضة على ظهور الدوابِّ عند الاضطرار([102]).

– جواز تغطية المُحْرِم رأسه إذا اضْطُرَّ إلى ذلك([103]).

– جواز أكل الميتة لمن اضطُرَّ إلى ذلك([104]).

– جواز شرب الخمر لمن اضطُرَّ إلى ذلك([105]).

– جواز الأكل من أموال الناس اليتامى والبالغين لمن اضطُرَّ إلى ذلك([106]).

As mentioned other examples of scientists applied to this rule, so:

-Is permissible to take the Lord of debt money the debtor omission of religion performance without his permission, if fingernail sex right.

-Log homes passport without the permission of the owners, in cases كالدخول necessity to fight the enemy of them, Or to take baggage Chance, Or to repair a water stream right to إمراره of them, Or to arrest the corrupt or criminals disappeared; and that if there were not equitable authority.

-Passport take birth control when some scientists; in order to preserve the mother's life and health, or non-negligent parenting and do not take care of them, and is still refer to the people of forensic science, and consult specialists from the doctors, and satisfaction with the couple so([107]).

In each of the above examples, it is clear that distressed deals of the outlawed as far as what drives loss itself, is not required to achieve the loss to refrain from the outlawed, but enough to have to refrain conducive to and they are not likely, Or health scourge.

And the balance of the whole: Be consequent to refrain greatest prohibited of the outlawed Etienne, illustrated: That the maintenance of self-destruction in Shara, first of refraining from eating dead meat and pork, and maintenance money and respect the right of others([108]).

The third rule: “Damage remains”, Or base: “Do no harm”:

  1. 1. The importance of this rule:

Rules of jurisprudence, including Nuncio jurisprudence, which have the effect of adult in jurisprudential branches; base: “Damage remains” Or: “Do no harm”.

The importance of this rule is that the humanitarian community in great surroundings, in which different types of individuals, and سلوكاتهم, نزعاتهم, The creation of God Almighty rights and was filed forces of good and evil, And enabled him to act بإحداهما as he pleases.

And the human psyche often overlooked from the spirit of the law, Vtaat amok motivated by selfishness and self love and infringement on others, If you leave this breath of non-blocker prevents or hampered barrier when alone, Or he strikes deterrent to prevent evil society; led to widespread fears, And insecurity, and publicity grudge and hatred between individuals, And build Almojtmah cracked but this was beneficial, and spread love, and prevents damage; considered one of the pillars of the law, and as a basis for Islamic law.

This rule is one of the most important and most comprehensive rules branches, and have wide applications in Islamic jurisprudence, It is the basis for preventing harmful act, And the balance when the judge in a report and judged issues of justice and fairness, It is also based on the principle of bringing in reclamation interests and ward off evil, a number of scholars, and Amdthm, And ميزانهم in Sharia report incidents.

So damage is legally exile, It is not permissible for a Muslim to hurt his Muslim brother saying, or did, or because unlawfully, and whether it has the benefit of the first type, This year in each case on each one, وفي الأعراف الجارية بين الناس في معاملاتهم، وعاداتهم الاجتماعية، وممارستهم السياسية، التي تتطلَّبها حاجات العصر بما يُحَقِّق المصلحةَ، ويَدْفعُ الضرر([109])

  1. 2. This rule guides:

There are many texts in the Quran and Sunnah attest to this rule, Has been adopted by scholars in its development, so:

A- From the Koran:

– God said: ) Have not Thompskohn harm to transgress (([110]).

– He also: ﴿وَلاَ تُضَارُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ﴾([111]).

– وقال كذلك: ﴿لاَ تُضَآرَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا﴾([112])

All these verses stating judgment one; which denied the harm on women, whether absolute or nursing.

With- It is Sunnah:

This rule has its origin in the Hadith transferred scholars and fans protested, Perhaps his finest roads Narrated by the Governor and others from Abu Sa'eed, may Allah be pleased with him that the Messenger of Allah e said: «Do no harm, Of harmful noxious God, and hard hard upon »([113]).

The Shaatibi commented on this talk, he said: “«Do no harm», despite being one of the presumptive evidence; inside under segmental out in this sense; since the damage and fixed to prevent damage, in the whole Islamic law, the facts and the rules of molecules colleges….”.

Said: “And from the infringement of souls, and the money, symptoms, and anger, and injustice, All that is in the sense damages or Dhirar, and enters beneath felony on self, or mind, or birth control, it is very general meaning in the law, No doubt, no doubt, and if it considers news Sundays and her grandmother as well as”([114]).

  1. 3. Statement of the concept of rule:

Damage annexation and conquest: What hurts apparent from the body, and related Bmhassosh in an interview harm a self Eelam (LTTE) and related. And Vibrio feel that oppression and altitude , Aperture that have similar or thereabouts.

And damage: Inflict evil to others never, The damage,: Interview damage damage([115]).

It was: Damage: Is that you the benefit and the others which are harmful, It was: Damage: That harm will not harm or damage,: Be detrimental to your damaged from non-point assault Similarly, the victory of the right([116]).

The total effect of base:

The text of this rule never denies damage, Veugb prevented, whether public or private damage , And requires to stop it before it happens possible prevention methods, and also includes lifted after the incident, including possible penalties legitimate criminals does not contradict this rule, The consequent punishment generally, and the greatest damage([117]).

والمقصود بنفي الضرر: نفي فكرة الثأر لمجرد الانتقام؛ لأنَّ هذا يزيد في الضرر، مثل: To fight the destruction of his property; because the expansion of the damage without the benefit, other than the crime of self or body which initiated retribution; criminal because no يقمعها but the death of her sex([118]).

وعلى كلِّ حال فإنَّ في هذه القاعدة: “تحريمُ سائر أنواع الضرر إلا بدليل؛ لأنَّ النكرة في سياق النفي تَعُمُّ, It may be legitimately only for special positive”([119]).

What is based on the rule of jurisprudence doors:

This rule is based on many of Jurisprudence doors, so:

First: Reply defect to remove damage.

II: All types of option, Differing descriptions unconditional and lured, And the bankruptcy of the buyer…Etc.([120]).

Third: Different kinds of stone; to maintain the money is not able to act proper ([121]).

IV: Pre-emption; partner began to pay damage division, And neighbor to pay for damage to a bad neighbor.

V: Retribution; to pay for damage slain parents.

VI: Border; to pay for damage from society and those who suffered.

VII: Expiation; to remove the cause of sin.

VIII: ضمان التلف؛ لإزالة الضرر اللاحق بمن أُتلف له.

التاسع: القسمة, لدفع الضرر عن أحد الشريكين، أو كليهما.

العاشر: Monument imams and judges; to prevent damage from the Islamic nation; and where their presence held the border, and prevent crimes, and eradicate the scourge of corruption.


Ten first: Pay off the attacker([122]); To keep self-harm.

XII: قتالُ المشركين؛ لإظهار نور الحق، ودحرِ فتنة الباطل, وصدِّهم عن طريق الدعوة الإسلامية.

الثالث عشر: Annulment of the marriage defects, or insolvency; to remove the damage from the husband or wife.

And underpin Jurisprudence money confines doors, which in the wisdom of legitimacy pay for damage and damage from slaves([123]). The provisions of this rule and its applications and its impact on the jurisprudence of the purposes:

– “لو انتهت مدَّة إجارة الأرض الزراعية قبل أن يُستحصَد الزرع, تبقى في يد المستأجِر بقلع الزرع قبل أوانه”([124]).

– لو باع شيئاً مما يُسرع إليه الفساد كالفواكه مثلاً, He missed the buyer before the cash price and catch Sales and feared corruption; Vllbaúa to avoid the sale and sell to him than any other; ward off harm([125]).

– يجوز حبس المشهورين بالدعارة والفساد حتى تظهر توبتهم، ولو لم يثبُت عليهم جُرْمٌ معيَّنٌ بطريق قضائيٍّ؛ دفعاً لشرهم([126]).

– أوجبَ الفقهاءُ احترامَ الحقوق القديمة من منافعَ، ومرافقَ، وتصرفاتٍ, If it is not in the hands of the owners installed documents; because in their remove damaging, unless it proves its creation illegally, Or not harm the rights of public([127]).

– لو احتاج الملك المشترك إلى العمارة (Restoration), He asked one of the partners architecture (ترميمَه) And my father the other;, it does not force it, but if the king common is divisible divides, and do all of them his share what he wants, although not viable division authorizes the governor to a student of architecture reconstruction, and locked eyes to meet his partner as much as you hit the share of alimony([128]).

– وكذلك لا يحلُّ أن يجعل في طرق المسلمين وأسواقهم ما يضرُّهم من أخشاب، أو أحجار، أو حُفر، أو نحوِ ذلك، إلا ما كان فيه نفع ومصلحة([129]), فلو سلَّط إنسانٌ ميزابه على الطريق العامِّ بحيث يضرُّ بالمارِّين؛ فإنه يُزال, وكذلك إذا تعدَّى على الطريق أو مجرى الوادي ببناء، أو حفرِ بالوعة، أو غيرِ ذلك.

– ويدخل في ذلك التدليس والغشُّ في المعاملات, وكتمُ العيوب فيها, والمكرُ، والخداعُ، والنَّجَشُ, وتَلَقِّي الرُّكبان, وبيعُ المسلم على بيع أخيه, And all that kind of treatment; God will not bless them; because of harmful harmful Muslim God, and God harmful deport him good, and he is to be evil, including that earned his hands([130]).

– ويدخل في ذلك مضارَّة الشريك لشريكه، والجارِ لجاره، بقولٍ، أو فعلٍ، حتى إنَّه لا يحلُّ له أن يُحْدِثَ بملكه ما يضرُّ بجاره فضلاً عن مباشرة الإضرار به([131]).

– وكذلك الضرار في الوصايا، كما قال تعالى: ﴿مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَى بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَآرٍّ﴾([132])، بأن يخصَّ أحد ورثته بأكثرَ مما له، أو يُنْقِصَ الوارث، أو يوصي لغير وارثه بقصد الإضرار بالورثة.

– ومن هذه السخرية بالخلق، والاستهزاءُ بهم، والوقيعةُ في أعراضهم، والتحريشُ بينهم, فكله within the affected and positive المشاقة for death([133]).

هذه الأمثلة وغيرها تطبيقاتٌ للقاعدة: “Do no harm”، وتتعلَّق بالحقوق العامَّة، أمَّا في مجال الحقوق الخاصة؛ فإنَّ المعتدي يضمن التلفَ عِوَضَ ما أتلف؛ للضَّرر الذي أحدثه ([134]), To other branches and many jurisprudence.

RULE: “First ward off evil from bringing interests”:

1 – Interest and care ward off evil purposes of Islamic law:

Expresses the pros and cons of good and evil, benefit and harm, and the advantages and disadvantages; interests because all Khior Navat advantages, and the whole evil evils harmful effects disadvantages, was defeated in the use of the Koran in the interests of good deeds and bad deeds in evil, He says: ) The good deeds go bad deeds that the memory of stating (([135]), And most of the purposes of the Koran to the acquisition of interests and causes, and rebuke from the acquisition of evil and its causes; Every bailiff do is subject to the interest of the homes, or one of them, and all the forbidden is subject to evil in them or in one of them, what was the acquisition Mahsla to the best interests; is the best business, and some are Mahsla to uglier . Not HE the fittest of gratitude, faith, and obedience Rahman, Shaqawa not uglier than ignorance Baldaan, infidelity, and immorality, and disobedience([136]).

This rule is based on the principle of excuses dam which provides for the prohibition of all the means that lead to corruption. Ibn al-values ​​nuts: '' Since the objectives are not reached by only the causes and roads leading to it; methods and their causes were restricted subsidiary, فوسائل taboo and transgression in their hatred and prevention them according to إفضائها to its objectives and commitments, ووسائلُ الطاعات والقربات في محبتها, والإذن بها بحسب إفضائها إلى غايتها, فوسيلة المقصود تابعة للمقصود، وكلاها مقصود, لكنه مقصود قصد الغايات، وهي مقصودة قصد الوسائل…”([137]).

2 - Approved base in the collection of interests and ward off evil:

“The act guarantees if interest Hsalnaha abstract, but abstract Dronaha ensure spoiler, and ensure that the interests of the face and the face of evil, the ripen in our collection and payment of interest on the corrupting stopped unlikely, though not likely, but it Isto a two – تحصيل المصلحة أو دفع المفسدة – فعلناهُ؛ إذ أن العملَ بالراجح متعيِّنٌ شرعا، وعلى هذا تتخرَّج جميع الأحكام عند تعارض المصالح والمفاسد فيها، أو عند تجريدها”([138]).

يقول العز بن عبد السلام: “If you met the interests and evils, the possible collection of interests and ward off evil; did so in compliance with the command of Allah as saying two of the Almighty: ) Fear Allah as much as you can (([139]). The Unable Aldra and achievement, was corrupting the greatest of interest; Drona corrupting care بفوات is not of interest…”([140]).

3- Standard perception benefit and harm in Islam:

The correct standard to recognize the interests and ward off evil in Islam is the Quran and what is narrated from the Prophet e, although it is better Yes God to worship mind the most correct and insight; This is aware of interest and realize good-Sharia, and the ugliness of what Khalvha, and its know things are what they are .

Ibn Taymiyah: “…Standard amounts of pros and cons is the balance of the law, when the human ability to follow the texts did not alter it, and only worked hard in his opinion to know the likes and isotopes, say that lack the texts of an expert and Bdalaltha on provisions”([141]).

” فسواء أكان طريق معرفة الحكم هو النصُّ الصريح المباشر في القرآن الكريم، أو السنة، أو اجتهاد المجتهدين؛ فإن الله سبحانه وتعالى هو مصدر الشرائع والأحكام، ؛ لأنَّ دورَ المجتهد ينحصر في إبراز حكم الله والكشفِ عنه بطريق الاستنباط العقلي، ضمن مقاصد الشريعة، وحسب روحها العامَّة، إلا أنَّ ما يكون متفِّقا مع الحكمة ومحقِّقا للمصلحة، فما أباحه فهو نافع، وما حرَّمه فهو ضارٌّ خبيث، وقد تأكَّدت هذه الحكمة باستقراء الأحكام الشرعية وفهمها؛ فإنَّها كلَّها شُرِعت لتحقيق مصلحة الإنسان، إمَّا لجلب النفع له، أو لدفع الضرر عنه، فما جعله الشارع مباحا مأذونا أو واجبا مفروضا على الإنسان؛ فهو إمَّا نافعٌ له نفعا مَحْضاً، أو أنَّ نفعَه أكبرُ من ضرره، أو أنه محقِّقٌ للمنفعة لأكبر مجموعة من الناس، وما جعله الشرع حراما أو مكروها؛ فهو لأنه شرٌّ محضٌ، أو لأنَّ ضرَره أكبرُ من نفعه، أو لأنَّه ضارٌّ بمصلحةِ أكبرِ مجموعة من الناس”([142]).

For these meanings are all it should be a measure considered benefit and harm, the standard benefit and harm; provide Shara Hakim - that is, God Almighty -;, because of the stability, the immortality, and to ensure sure the interest of the individual and the community, and the creation of rights in other life([143]).

But if linked to assess benefit and harm the will of mankind; regimes are often vulnerable to tampering, manipulation, and breach of the public interest; because what is imagined people beneficial or harmful, influenced Balohoa and special purpose, or confined to a narrow circle, or perspective on it from a certain angle, or a minor (Had the right to follow their own lusts for spoiled the heavens and the earth and deeds). ([144])

It was therefore incumbent on the Muslim should avoid the forbidden street or forbade him, before doing what was ordered; because ward off evil precedence over bringing interest; so as to avoid people falling into the damage and harm unsightly, which hurt them in their money, and themselves, and their honor, and their minds.

ومعلوم أنَّّ الإسلام لم يحرِّم شيئا على الناس إلا أحلَّ خيرا منه مما يسدُّ مسدَّه ويغني عنه، مما يدل على سماحة هذا الدين، وإرادته للخير والهداية للعالمين, قال العز بن عبد السلام: “Officer in the secret of the pros and cons of non-worship that whatever appeared interests cell for evil; seeks debts, no matter how evil appeared the cell of interest; seeks shielding, although confused case; Ahttna the interests appreciated their presence and we did, To evils assessment of its existence and we left”([145]).

4- This rule guides:

Contained in the Koran and the Sunnah verses and sayings of the content of this rule emphasizes:

A- From the Koran:

God said: ﴿يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا…﴾ الآية([146]).

وجه الاستدلال:

There is no doubt that the benefit of alcohol in traffic and use its price, and the benefit of the facilitator as take gambler of money, but the sin to corrupt the mind and damage to health, causing discord among the people leading to disperse the word Muslim, but I doubt that this sin is greater than the benefit; Fujb ward off the evil of sin to bring ([147]).

قال رشيد رضا في تفسيره “Al-Manar” تعليقا على هذه الآية: “Verse: (إِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا) In this statement instruct the faithful to by inference, it was them to يهتدوا him to the rules which Torteurta after base in Islam: “Warding off evil takes precedence over bringing benefits” The base: “ترجيح ارتكاب أخفِّ الضررين إذا كان لا بد من أحدهما”…”([148]).

With- ومن أدلة القاعدة من السنة النبوية:

As evidenced by this rule, including Bukhari in his Saheeh from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (e: «Let me تركتكم, for he family who came before you frequent question and disagreement on the prophets, If نهيتكم for something فاجتنبوه, and if I command you to do something and they brought him as much as you can»([149]).

Hafiz Ibn Hajar nuclear saying: “This conciseness of speech and of the rules of Islam, and enters when many of the provisions, and quoted him to take care of that Shara Mounhiat above Aatnaúh Palmamorat; avoidance because it was in the forbidden things, even with hardship in the Turk, and being in as much energy Almamorat”([150]).

“Because evil Syriana and expanding epidemic and fire, It is wise and packages eliminated in its infancy, even if the consequent denial of benefits or delayed, if the thing or work caveats, requiring prevent, and require motivated justified, is likely to prevent it; because ward off evil precedence over bringing interests”,([151])

5- Branches of this rule, and their impact on the jurisprudence of the purposes:

It is this rule fork of the branches:

– It must be legally prevent trade taboos of booze and drugs, even though the profits and significant economic benefits.

– And prevents the owner of the house from the open window overlooking the headquarters of women neighbor, even if he has had the benefit of, and this is consistent with the purposes of the legislation is to save the show, and at the heart of Islamic architecture.

– It also prevents all neighbor acting in his act detrimental to its neighbors, كاتخاذ pounders or oven Aavean neighbors smell or smoke([152]).

– The same applies if taken next to his neighbor's house Knyva or sink or lying Qmamat hurt neighbor, then the one whose neighbor assigned to remove the damage, even though the interlocutor benefit in keeping it; ward off evil, because first of bringing benefits([153]).

– It tolerates leave some duties at the lowest discomfort, Kalkiem in prayer, mushrooms, and purity, and did not tolerate embarking on المنهيات a particular sins, It did not find a jacket left istinja even on the Shatt River; because it is forbidden to expose genitals weighty matter to remove the impurity.

– Including over-rinsing the mouth and nose Msnonh, and hate is fasting for presentation to ward off evil corrupting fasting to bring interest Sunni rinsing the mouth and nose.

– “إذا وجب على المرأة الغسل، ولم تجد سترة من الرجال تؤخّر الغسل؛ لأن في كشف المرأة على الرجال مفسدة وأي مفسدة”.

– “ولو اشتبهت محرمة بأجنبيات محصورات لم يحل الزواج بإحداهن”.

– ومن فروعها أيضا:

Hair pickling years in purity and dislikes of Muharram, And spare hand eroded preserved for the spirit often if safety cut it off.

In all these examples – And so on – Swing evil interests; introduced shielding Based on the foregoing that the Balrajeh work religiously significant.

Find finale:

After the presentation by the rules of jurisprudence, and the meanings, and evidence, and some of its subsidiaries, and its impact on the jurisprudence of legitimate purposes; appeared to us that the rules of jurisprudence and rules of legitimate purposes strong link, and closely, Although they differ in some aspects, all of them designed to take care of interests and payment of evil, and raise the embarrassment and hardship, and taking into account the conditions of taxpayers and their destinations.

ولعلَّ الفرقَ بين القاعدة الفقهية والقاعدة المقصدية؛ يظهر من حيث الأهميةُ والمكانةُ في التشريع الإسلامي؛ فمرتبة القاعدة المقصدية أعلى من مرتبة القاعدة الفقهية، وسببُ ذلك راجع الى الموضوع الذي تتناوله كلٌّ من القاعدتين، فلمَّا كانت القاعدة الفقهية تعبِّر عن حكم شرعيٍّ كليٍّ، وكانت القاعدة المقصدية تعبِّر عن غاية تشريعيّةٍ عامّةٍ، وكانت الأحكام هي وسائلُ لإقامة المقاصد وطرق تحقيقها؛ ترتَّبَ عن ذلك: Be the rule Almqsidih Introduction to the maxim; targets because the introduction to the means, and the maxim usually reflect on the rule, and al-Qaeda Almqsidih express extremely, and that the same rules of jurisprudence for states frankly that: “Taking into account the objectives Introduction on the very means never”([154]).

On this: , Taking into account the rules that embody the objectives, goals, Introduction to take into account the jurisprudence which embody the means of establishing objectives; since the end Introduction means; and the only way to the destination server and end([155]).

ورغم ما يظهر من فروق بين القاعدتين، إلاَّ أنَّ غايتَهما النهائيةَ واحدةٌ؛ وهى الوقوف على حُكْمِ الشارع في الوقائع والمستجَدَّات وِفْقَ ما أراده الشارعُ وابتغاه، فكِلاَ القاعدتين في النهاية وسائلُ إسعافِ المجتهِد بالقواعد العامَّة التي يتحتَّم عليه مراعاتُها والإحاطةُ بها عند بيانه للأحكام، وتقف هذه القواعد جَنبا إلى جنبٍ لإثراء المجتهِد بمجموعةٍ كبيرة من الأدلَّة التي تعينه عند النظر، والاستدلال، والتعليل، والترجيح بين المصالح والأحكام في حال تعارضها.

ولعلَّ منشأَ الزلل في بعض الاجتهادات المعاصرة، يعود إلى عدم مراعاة الكليات التشريعية المتمثِّلة في القواعد الفقهية والمقصديّة عند دراسة النصوص، والاكتفاءِ بتحكيم القواعد الأصولية لاستفادة الحكم دون أن يقترن بذلك نظرٌ إلى المعاني التشريعية العامَّة التي هي من صميم مقاصد الشريعة الإسلامية، فلا يصحُّ إذن دراسةُ الجزئيات بمعزلٍ عن الكليات التي تُوَجِّه تلك الجزئيات، ولا دراسةَ للفروع بعيدا عن القواعد([156]).

I can not fail to point out the importance of these rules to the enrichment of Islamic jurisprudence; that they show the extent of absorption of Islamic jurisprudence, the provisions of legitimacy, and observance of the rights and duties, and make it easier for non-professionals jurisprudence and its origins see the pros of this religion, and nullify a lawsuit from detractors of Islamic jurisprudence, and accuse him of being included on the . And on jurists hardworking but do these rules and rely on them, taking into account the purposes of the law; to find appropriate solutions for the renewable facts, and innovative issues.

ونحن على يقين من أنَّ أحكام هذه الشريعة الربانية الخالدة لم تَضق يوما عن تلبية حاجات الناس كافّة، ولا وقفتْ عقبةً في سبيل تحقيق مصلحة أو عدالة، بل إنَّ نصوصَها قد وَسِعَتْ جميع الناس على اختلاف أممهم، وألوانهم، ومذاهبهم، وبيئاتهم، وأعراقهم، حينما استظلَّت أممٌ شتى براياتها إبَّانَ عصورها الذهبية، وعلى مدى قرون عديدة أَوجدَ فقهاء المسلمين الحلول لكلِّ مشكلة ونازلة، وما حدَّثَنا التاريخ قَطُّ أنَّ المسلمين اضطُرُّوا إلى الاستعانة بتشريع آخر غير التشريع الإسلامي الحنيف، بل كانوا كلَّما فتح الله لهم أرضا فتح الفقهاء أبوابا من الاجتهاد والاستنباط، وما وقفوا عاجزين عن تقديم الحلول الفقهية على ضوء قواعد الشريعة الغرّاء، ومقاصدها العامة، وروحها السمحة، وقيمها العادلة الرشيدة.

In conclusion, I can only thank those who organized this jurisprudential seminar stones, and who provided us this opportunity to participate, and thanks go to all the participants, organizers and attendees in their contribution to the success of this seminar, we ask God to accept all our righteous acts that he listens and responds.

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

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  39. القواعد في فقه الإسلامي: أبو الفرج عبد الرحمن بن رجب الحنبلي، ت (795E)، ط دار الكتب العلمية, Beirut, Lebanon.
  40. قواعد المقاصد عند الإمام الشاطبي: عبد الرحمن إبراهيم الكيلاني، دار الفكر دمشق سوريا، ط 1421هـ –2000م.
  41. القواعد والأصول الجامعة والفروق والتقاسيم البديعة النافعة: للسعدي.
  42. كتاب الإيضاح: أبو ساكن عامر بن علي الشماخي، ط 1403هـ-1983م، سلطنة عمان.
  43. Whole book: أبو محمد عبد الله بن محمد بن بركة البهلوي، تحقيق: عيسى يحيى الباروني، المطبعة الشرقية ومكتبتها مطرح سلطنة عمان.
  44. المبدع في شرح المقفع: أبو إسحاق برهان الدين بن مفلح، ط الكتاب الإسلامي بيروت.
  45. Entrance idiosyncratic: الشيخ مصطفى أحمد الزرقاء، ط الثامنة، مطبعة الحياة دمشق، 1383هـ-1964م.
  46. المستصفى من علم الأصول: أبو حامد الغزالي، مطابع مصطفى محمد القاهري، 1375هـ.
  47. المستدرك على الصحيحين: الحاكم النيسابوري، دار الكتاب العربي لبنان.
  48. المسند في الأحاديث: الإمام أحمد بن حنبل، دار الكتب العلمية لبنان, Investigation: محمد ناصر الدين الألباني.
  49. المفردات في غريب القرآن: الراغب الأصفهاني، دار المعرفة للطباعة والنشر لبنان.
  50. Purposes of Islamic law: محمد الطاهر بن عاشور، ط الأولى، الشركة التونسية للتوزيع، 1979م.
  51. Purposes of the law and Mkarmea: علال الفاسي، نشر مكتبة الوحدة العربية، الدار البيضاء المغرب.
  52. معين الحكام فيما يتردد بين الخصمين من الأحكام: علاء الدين الطرابلسي، مطابع بولاق بمصر.
  53. Approvals in the assets of Sharia: إبراهيم بن موسى اللخمي الغرناطي المالكي، ت (790E)، ط الثانية، دار المعرفة، 1395هـ-1975م.
  54. Theory necessary legitimacy: D. وهيبة الزحيلي، مؤسسة الرسالة لبنان، ط الثالثة، 1402هـ.
  55. Theory when Imam Shaatibi the purposes: أحمد الريسوني، ط الثانية، المعهد العالمي للفكر الإسلامي واشنطن، 1412هـ-1992م.
  56. النية وأثرها في الأحكام الشرعية: صالح غانم السدلان، مطابع الفرزدق، نشر وتوزيع مكتبة الخزرجي الرياض.
  57. الوجيز في إيضاح قواعد الفقه الكلية: محمد صدفي البورنو، ط الرابعة، مؤسسة الرسالة لبنان، 1996م.
  58. The purposes of Islamic law and its relationship to legitimate evidence: Mohamed Saad bin Ahmed bin Masood Youbi, Dar al-Hijrah Arabia, First Floor, 1418 -1998 m.
  59. Rules: Mokri rules to Abu Abdullah Mohammed Mokri, T. (758E), Achieve: أحمد بن عبد الله بن حميد، شركة مكة للطباعة، من منشورات معهد البحوث العلمية إحياء التراث مركز إحياء التراث، جامعة أم القرى مكة.
  60. Glossary of language standards: لأبي الحسين أحمد بن فارس بن زكريا، ت (395E)، تحقيق عبد السلام هارون، ط الثانية، 1392هـ، شركة ومكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى البابي الحلبي مصر.

[1]) Rules: ابن رجب، ص3.

[2]) -القراقي: الفروق، ج 1/ 3.

[3]) المدخل الفقهى العام: مصطفى أحمد الزرقا، فقرة 559 Adapted.

[4]) قواعد الفقه الاسلامى: عبد العزيز محمد عزام، ص3.

[5]) Nazaa'im: السيوطي، ص6.

[6]) Differences: القراقي، 1/ 3.

[7]) Purposes of the law: محمد الطاهر بن عاشور، ص6.

[8]) المفردات في غريب القرآن: للأصفهاني، ص409.

[9]) Cow, verse 127.

[10]) Bees, Aya 26.

[11]) تعريفات الجرجاني: علي بن محمد الشريف الجرجاني، ص177.

[12]) Nazaa'im: ابن السبكي، 1/ 16.

[13]) Entrance idiosyncratic: الاستاذ مصطفي أحمد الزرقا، فقرة 556.

[14]) Jurisprudence: للندوي، ص43 – 45، طبع دار القلم دمشق، 1406هـ.

[15]) Look: كتاب العين، 5 / 54 ومقايسس اللغة: لابن فارس، 5/95 والصحاح: للزجاج، 5 / 524 ومابعدها.

[16]) Look: النهاية في غريب الحديث، 2/ 460 والصحاح، 3 / 1236.

[17]) مجموع الفتاوى، 19 / 306.

[18]) مقاصد الشريعة الاسلامية: محمد سعد أحمد اليوبي، ص31.

[19]) المستصفى من علم الأصول: لأبي حامد الغزالي، ص251.

[20]) Look: الموفقات: للشاطبي، 1/ 56 And Beyond.

[21]) Purposes of the law: ابن عاشور، ص51.

[22]) Purposes of the law and Mkarmea: علال الفاسي، ص3.

[23]) فلسفة مقاصد الشريع، ص7.

[24]) قواعد المقاصد عند الإمام الشاطبي، ص67.

[25]) 3/173, والسبكي: Likes and isotopes, 1/48 و السيوطى: Likes and isotopes, 76 وابن نجيم: Likes and isotopes, 75, Zarkashi: Wallflowers of rules.

[26]) Shaatibi: Approvals, 2/107.

[27]) Shaatibi: Approvals, 2/6.

[28]) The same source, 2/54.

[29]) The same source, 1/199.

[30]) The same source, 1/237.

[31]) The same source, 2/244.

[32]) Shaatibi: Approvals, 1/ 244.

[33]) The same source, 2/ 172.

[34]) The same source, 2/ 8.

[35]) The same source, 2/ 11.

[36]) The same source, 2/ 8.

[37]) The same source, 3 / 149.

[38]) The same source, 3 / 154.

[39]) Zkachi: Wallflowers of rules, 3 / 173 Subki: Nazaa'im 1/ 48.

[40]) Approvals: Shaatibi, 2/ 123.

[41]) The same source, 2/ 163.

[42]) Approvals: Shaatibi, 1/ 337، 2/ 153.

[43]) The same source, 2/ 139، 134.

[44]) The same source, 2/ 128.

[45]) The same source, 1/ 235.

[46]) The same source, 2/ 128.

[47]) The same source, 2/ 223.

[48]) Approvals: Shaatibi, 1/ 235.

[49]) The same source, 2/ 333.

[50]) Approvals, 1/ 275.

[51]) The same source, 2/ 249.

[52]) The same source, 2/ 248.

[53]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى وما تفرع عنها: Saleh Alsdlan.

[54]) Clarification: For شماخي, 3 / 424، 436.

[55]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى وما تفرع عنها: Favor Alsdlan, pp. 52, 53.

[56]) Ibid, p 494 and other.

[57]) النية وأثرها في الأحكام الشرعية: D. Saleh Ghanem Alsdlan, 1/ 2.

[58]) Explain the rules of jurisprudence: أحمد الزرقاء، ص47.

[59]) المدخل الفقهى العام: مصطفى الزرقا، 2/ 965 Paragraph 752.

مطابع الفرزدق نشر وتوزيع مكتبه الخريجى للرياض 1403.

المجلة العدليه التي أصدرتها الدولة العثمانية تشتمل على القواعد الفقهية.

[60]) ابن القيم الجوزية: إعلام الموقعين عن رب العالمين، يعرف(References: Perhaps: Adapted) 3 / 123. ط الثانية، 1374هـ، مطابع السعادة بمصر.

[61]) متفَق عليه واللفظ للبخاري، 1/ 9 ومسلم، 3 / 1515.

[62]) رواه البخاري، 56 ومسلم، 1628.

[63]) Nazaa'im: للسيوطي، ص14 وانظر فتاوى ابن تيمة، 26 / 23. الإيضاح في الأحكام: For شماخي, 2/ 561.

[64]) الأمنية في إدراك النية: للقرافي، ص5.

[65]) قواع الأحكام: للعزّ بن عبد السلام، 1/ 210.

[66]) المرجع نفسه، 1/ 210، وانظر القواعد الفقهية الكبرى: السدلان، ص55.

[67]) Nazaa'im: ابن نجيم، ص166، ابن قيم الجوزية: إعلام الموقعين، 2/4، فتاوى ابن تيمية، 23 / 102, And see: الأمنية في إدراك النية: للقرافي، ص6.

[68]) Look: الأمنية في إدراك النية، ص5، وقواعد الأحكام: للعز بن عبد السلام، 1/ 210.

[69]) الإيضاح في الأحكام، عامر الشماخي، 4 / 401.

[70]) Inclusive of the Koran: للقرطبي، 7 / 306.

[71]) رواه البخاري، 2223 و 3460، ومسلم، 1583.

[72]) رواه أبو داود، 2076، 2077، والترمذي، 1119، والنسائي، 6/149، وهو حديث صحيح.

[73]) إغاثة اللهفان من مصائد الشيطان: ابن القيم، 1/ 286.

[74]) إغاثة اللهفان من مصائد الشيطان، 1/ 371.

[75]) Cow, verse: 276.

[76]) المبدع في شرح المقنع: لابن مفلح، 2/ 375.

[77]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى: صالح السدلان، ص66.

[78]) جامع البيان في تأويل أي القرآن: للطبري، 18 / 8، وانظر بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد: لابن رشد، 1/7، 16، والتفسير الكبير: للداري، 8 / 124.

[79]) Interpretation of the verse, 7 / 25، 11 / 301، 15 / 29.

[80]) Sit-in: للشاطبي، 2/ 102 مطابع السعادة مصر.

[81]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى: صالح السدلان، ص67.

[82]) الموافقات في أصول الأحكام: Shaatibi, 1/ 231.

[83]) الوجيز في إيضاح القواعد الفقهية الكلية: محمد صدفي البورنو، ص130.

[84]) Permissions interest in Islamic law: د/محمد سعيد البوطي، ص277، ط الرابعة، 1402هـ.

[85]) Entrance idiosyncratic: لمصطفى الزرقا، 2/911 Paragraph 598.

[86]) Cow, verse 185.

[87]) Table, Aya: 6.

[88]) Women, Aya: 23.

[89]) Fath al-Baari, 1/ 93، ووصله في الأدب المفرد، 287 وحسنه ابن حجر.

[90]) Shaatibi: Approvals, 1/ 232.

[91]) Sahih Bukhari, 25 / 6، وصحيح مسلم، 1732.

[92]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى وما تفرع عنها: السدلان، ص245.

[93]) An'am, verse: 119.

[94]) Provisions of the Koran: لابن العربي، 1/ 52، 53.

[95]) Whole: لابن بركة البهلوي، 2/ 543 Islamic jurisprudence and evidence: وهبة الزحيلي، الإيضاح في الأحكام: أبو العباس عامر الشماخي، ج2 / 274-282.

[96]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى: السدلان، ص261.

[97]) Islamic jurisprudence and evidence: وهبة الزحيلي، 3 / 517, And see: القواعد الفقهية الكبرى، ص261.

[98]) Whole: ابن بركة، 1/ 421، 422.

[99]) المرجع نفسه، 1/ 417.

[100]) Whole: لابن بركة، ص261.

[101]) Ibid.

[102]) المرجع نفسه، 1/578.

[103]) المرجع نفسه، 2/65 لكن عليه فدية لأجل ذلك.

[104]) Whole: ابن بركة، 2/543.

[105]) ابن بركة الجامع 2/543.

[106]) Ibid page , But he was fined how much they eat.

[107]) Check out these examples in: A footnote'm Abidbn, the 5/140. And explain the rules of jurisprudence: Zarka, 131, And approvals, 2/352, and the revival of the science of religion: Ghazali, 2/47.

[108]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى، ص264، وانظر: Clarification: For شماخي, 3 /377.

[109]) القواعد الفقهية الكبرى، ص494.

[110]) Cow, verse 231.

[111]) Divorce, Aya 6.

[112]) Cow, verse 233.

[113]) المستدرك على الصحيحين: للحاكم النيسابوري، 1/57، ورواه أبو داود في سننه من طريق أبي صرمة. Look: عون المعبود، 10 /64، ط الثانية، 1388هـ- 1696، المكتبة السفلية بالمدينة المنورة.

[114]) الموافقات في أصول الأحكام: للشاطبي، 3/9-10.

[115]) المصباح المنير: للفيومي، 2/425.

[116]) Gomez eyes Insights: للحموي، 1/188.

[117]) الوجيز في قواعد الفقه الكلية: محمد صفي البورنو، ص79.

[118]) Entrance idiosyncratic: مصطفى الزرقاء، 2/978-980، بتصرف.

[119]) فيض القدير: للمناوي: 6/431.

[120]) Clarification: للشماخي، 3/213-218، 254-256.

[121]) Clarification: For شماخي, 3/163,157,110.

[122]) الصائل: أي الواثب، انظر: Ocean dictionary. والمقصود به: المندفع إلى قتل غيره.

[123]) القواعد الفقه الكبرى: صالح السدلان، ص503,502.

[124]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/979 فقره (586).

[125]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/979 فقره (586).

[126]) رد المحتار على الدر المختار: لابن عابدين الحنفي، 4/42.

[127]) معين الأحكام، القسم الثالث، ص215-218.

[128]) شرح مجلة الأحكام العدلية: لسليم رستم، ص70، مادة 1313.

[129]) القواعد والأصول الجامعة والفروق التقاسيم البديعة النافعة: للسعدي، ص25.

[130]) Clarification: For شماخي, 3/254-256.

[131]) المرجع نفسه، 4/64.

[132]) Women, Aya: 12.

[133]) Clarification: For شماخي, 43/293.

[134]) Clarification: For شماخي, 43/293.

[135]) هود، آية: 144.

[136]) Look: Provisions in the interests of the rules creatures: للعز بن عبد السلام، 1/ 5.

[137]) Media sites: ابن قيم الجوزية، 3 / 147.

[138]) A brief explanation kindergarten: للطوفي، 3 / 214، 215، تحقيق: D / Turkish Abdullah, founder of the message to Lebanon, the first i, 1410.

[139]) التغابن، الآية: 16.

[140]) قواعد الأحكام: للعز بن عبد السلام، 1/ 98.

[141]) مجموع فتاوى شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية، 28 / 129.

[142]) Approvals: للشاطبي، 2/ 25، وإعلام الموقعين: لابن القيم، 1/ 388، والضرورة الشرعية: لوهبة الزحيلي، ص13، 14.

[143]) Approvals: للشاطبي، 2/ 37.

[144]) المؤمنون، آية: 71, And see: الضرورة الشرعية: للزحيلي، ص16-17.

[145]) قواعد الأحكام: للعزّ بن عبد السلام، 1/83-84.

[146]) Cow, verse: 219.

[147]) قواعد الأحكام في مصالح الأنام، 1/ 98، ومقاصد الشريعة الإسلامية: الطاهر بن عاشور، ص178.

[148]) تفسير القرآن الحكيم: محمد رشيد رضا، 2/ 232.

[149]) صحيح البخاري 7288، وصحيح مسلم، 1337.

[150]) Baari: ابن حجر العسقلاني، 13 / 262.

[151]) Entrance idiosyncratic: Zarka, 2/ 985، 986.

[152]) شرح القواعد الفقهية، ص151 القاعدة 29.

[153]) المرجع نفسه، ص151.

[154]) المقَّري: القواعد، 1/ 330، والقرافي: القروق، 2/ 33.

[155]) قواعد المقاصد: عبد الرحمن إبراهيم الكيلاني، ص72.

[156]) قواعد المقاصد: عبد الرحمن الكيلاني، ص463.


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