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Differences between the rules and regulations jurisprudential

Differences between the rules and regulations jurisprudence *

D. Issa M'Hamed Abajahi

Teacher Fateh University, Tripoli, Pippa.


The best of human and spends his time, is the one that spends money to engage in beneficial knowledge, and Ashraf science science laws of God, and the fruit Shara Jurisprudence Sciences; He said SAWS: «God is to do good by religion»([1]). The fruit of jurisprudence rules and colleges, hence the principles of fiqh most important thing to engage in Islamic jurisprudence; it means to ensure that we adjust its branches and its fractions, and externalized on assets, and appended to colleges, have realized jurists such importance, and noted the branches, and warned them in their books long ago .

Imam Quraafi originally considered fixed assets of Sharia, and it is the only method to act together, Jurisprudence, and without them we can not adjust the time of calamity and control plentiful The complexity and complexity. Said God's mercy: «The law binoculars Mohammedia - increased Allaah Mnarha the honor and louder -, which included the assets and branches, and assets of the two sections: One called the assets of jurisprudence, and the second section bases College doctrinal great, many many great periods, containing the secrets of al-Shara and his rule, each base of the branches in the canon countless, did not give them anything in the fundamentals of jurisprudence, and agreed to refer to there for aggregate. These rules are important in jurisprudence, a great benefit, as far as briefing them maximize the amount Faqih and supervised ..., where competing scientists, Calculus virtuous, and emerged Qarih on the trunk, and won the prized where he excelled, and make out branches occasions partial without rules college; contradicted him Branches ([2]).

And Imam Zarkashi considered jurisprudence is the way to save the branches of jurisprudence and collect شتاته, and that the rules for branches Kagamal the thing for detailed; when he said: «... The settings for multimedia things scattered in the United laws is claimed to save and claimed tuned, which is one of the rule number for which they put ... and I reached for Sheikh Ghotbeddin Sunbati God's mercy, he says: Jurisprudence know isotopes([3]). This set the rules for Faqih doctrine assets, and looked forward of Jurisprudence sockets on the end of the requirement »([4]).

And Imam Subki considered refer to the rules of jurisprudence; back to the top of Jurisprudence and substitute the top, and considered the jurisprudence of the pillars of diligence, he founded, and believes that engage in doctrinal necessity indispensable to her jurist;, where he says: «Right on the student investigation, and eager to place the highest in the perception and certification, be governed by the rules of provisions; due to them when mystery and stand up to the burden of diligence completed advancement»([5]).

The imam of the Holy in the book grater: «The right at the moment; limited to keeping the rules, and understand the drawbacks»([6]).

On this jurisprudential rules was a great scientific method to collect diaspora Jurisprudence; and RDM accountability in its doors and its chapters, has been confirmed by scholars, and considered that does not take care of excessive collected in jurisprudence, is an officer him, مغلوبا on his command where.

I am not exaggerated if I: The rules of jurisprudence represents the pinnacle Islamic jurisprudence and Zbdth of and عصارته, and in the formulation of these rules, display and analysis show mental Islamic jurisprudence wide deep, and highlights the functional endoscopic philosophical, and their ability to assembly and theorizing.

The theme of this research: “Branches of rules and controls jurisprudential” In the title combines the rules and regulations and branches, and each term needs to be an independent research and does not meet the right, but taking the words of the view: “What does not realize all the whole does not leave”; Proceed it does not claim that the subject was a wilderness of interest and scientific research, but I know that there are researchers from eating on the face of faces, and part of its parts, but all that is nothing to be efforts sporadic not collected by the unit of the project, not organized and compose .

We can not fail to take such a topic in the search identified previously in the size and number of pages required brevity brief. I will address in this research jurisprudential rules and regulations, and the subsequent branches.

What rules jurisprudential:

If jurisprudence is the fruit of forensic science; the jurisprudence is the core of Fiqh and Zbdth, which crystallized mental Islamic jurisprudence mature, capable of assembly and rooting for issues of jurisprudence scattered in sources, and cross-cutting here and there. These rules have rules and definitions to be clarified.

The definition of the base:

Linguistic definition: Qaeda hovering around one sense, is: Origin and basis. Came in to San Arabs: “And al-Qaeda: Out of the head, and the rules: Basically, the House Rules: Basis”([7]). In Downloads: ﴿وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْت وَإِسماعِيلُ﴾([8]).

The rules of women: Collection base, a large elderly women([9]).

And the rules of the clouds: Assets encountered in the prospects of the sky, likened the rules of construction([10]).

Thus, the general meaning of which revolve around linguistic uses of the word “Base” It: Origin and the basis, whether that in Al_husaat as passed, or in morale as bases of Islam.

At the convention grammarians: The officer is the sense applicable to the rule all its fractions, Kcolhm of the: Upped actor, The object Mansob a([11]).

The conventional definition of base:

Making the base terminology year several definitions, they are as defined Fayoumi: “Overall it applicable to all fractions”([12]).

And defined Sharif Jarjaani as: “College issue applicable to all fractions”([13]).

And Sheikh Mustafa has ever known as blue: “Origins of doctrinal College in a brief constitutional texts, containing general legislative provisions in accidents that fall within the subject matter”([14]).

What we find in Subki's definition of the base, and rid of the word “All” He said: “Macro command that rule applies many particles understand its provisions”, Also note Hamwi in a footnote that make it to the likes of isotopes of Ibn Najim, he sacked the word “Kelly” Word “Ogelba”, And the word “All” Word “Most”, As it was known as al-Qaida: “Ogelba rule applies to most of the fractions to know its provisions it”([15]).

The Rocky knew Mr. definition last, which A_i_vh the introduction differences Quraafi from jurisprudential rule, a: “Main idiosyncratic jurisprudence or college that fall and graduated branches and many doctrinal molecules of the genus that college or that asset”([16]).

It is understood from the previous definitions that the idiomatic meaning is the base year: اندراج a set of heterogeneous or similar molecules in the judgment, in the origin and basis of one collected by the so-called: “Overall” Or “College”([17]).

The bottom line in this is that scholars may knew convergent definitions and general.

The take the definition of Abu Abdullah Mokri; because, as stated by Professor Rockies, is one of the most accurate definitions and paste subject of jurisprudence base, where al Qaeda known as: “All total asset is particularly([18]), Or other public mental meanings, and more generally of the contracts and the total private doctrinal controls”([19]).

Total, or college is a general rule that applies to the heterogeneous group of individuals falling to the inherent and.

Accordingly, rules are characterized by greater brevity in elaboration, Vtsag in base two words, or a few words of the words Commons Court([20]). And do we mean by the above that these rules but are doctrinal principles and controls each of which contains a general provision, these rules are the provisions of jurisprudence majority is steady.

ولذلك كانت تلك القواعد قلّما تخلو إحداها من مستثنيات في فروع الأحكام التطبيقية خارجةٍ عنه، وكونُ هذه القواعدِ أغلبيةً لا يغض من قيمتها العلمية، وعظيم موقعها في الفقه، وقوة أثرها في التفقيه؛ حيث نجد في هذه القواعد تصويرا بارعا، وتنويرا رائعا للمبادئ والمقرّرات الفقهية العامة، وكشفا لآفاقها ومسالكها، وضبطا لفروع الأحكام العملية بضوابط تبيّن في كلّ زمرة من هذه الفروع وحدةَ المناط، وجهةَ الارتباط برابطة تجمعها وإن اختلفت موضوعاتها وأبوابها، ولولا هذه القواعد لبقيت الأحكام الفقهية فروعا مشتّتة، قد تتعارض ظواهرها دون أصول تمسك بها في الأفكار([21]).

ونستخلص مما ذكر في التعريف بالقاعدة الفقهية مع ما أورده الشيخ مصطفى الزرقاء في ذلك، من أنّ القواعد الفقهية عبارة عن مفاهيمَ ومبادئ فقهية كبرى ضابطةٌ لموضوعاتها، قد بدأت حركة تقعيدها وتدوينها أواخر القرن الثالث الهجري، وأنّ معانيها الفقهية كانت مقرَّرة لدى الأئمة المجتهدين، تعتبر أصولا علمية لهم يقيمون بها ويبنون عليها ويعلِّلون بها، وإن كانت لم تُفرَد بالتدوين قبل ذلك، ولم تأخذ الصياغة التي انتهت إليها فيما بعد، إلا الصقل والتحوير. It is “Jurisprudence” Which is the science decide the scientific method in the interpretation and understanding of texts and deduction of them, ([22]).

The adds Sheikh blue in his speech jurisprudence as saying: “The Hanafi school is the oldest of the four schools has been a major upper layers from earlier Vgahaúh to formulate those jurisprudential principles of college rules and formats invoked ... transfer them men of other schools what they want them”([23]).

And who was supported by the professor in saying Rockies: “The view of Abu Hanifa is earlier visible and building of other schools of Islamic jurisprudence other”However, his term with regard to jurisprudence books and precedence were the most accurate and gentler than mentioned Sheikh blue in it, where he was saying: “Older what we wrote the rules of jurisprudence - as far as we know- Is a small brochure for Hanafi jurist Abu al-Hasan al-Karkhi died in 340 AH, which includes a set of general rules jurisprudential doctrine of Imam Abu Hanifa God's mercy”, He added: “We can not go more than that; because that needs to be documented and scientific arguments”([24]).

The mentioned Sheikh blue in it similar to what was brought by Dr Ajil Jassim Nashmi in his article contained in the Journal of Sharia and Islamic Studies from the University of Kuwait in 1405, corresponding to 1984 m, b”Introductions in the science of jurisprudence”, Which reads in part: “Perhaps the first of the free bases and branches is said Imam: معين الدين أبو حامد محمد بن إبراهيم الجاجرمي الشافعي المتوفى سنة 617هـ، ولقد اهتمّ الأصوليون والفقهاء مع مطلع القرن السابع الهجري بفقه جديد وعلم دقيق يخدم علم الفقه خاصة في جانبه التطبيقي في الفروع، سميت بـالقواعد الفقهية أو الأشباه والنظائر، فأخذ العلماء بتحرير القواعد وجمع الفروع التي تحكمها تلك القواعد، وإدراجها تحتها، وجمع الفروع المتشابهة والمتناظرة أيضا، وإدراجها تحت تلك القواعد، ثم ذكْرِ الفروع المستثناة من تلك القواعد([25]).

He has responded by Dr. Rocky enough, which came in response to it, “With all this, the claim that the writing in the science of jurisprudence were not only at the beginning of the seventh century AH needs to evidence and bindings”([26]).

And back to what was said by Sheikh Zarka of the Hanafi school takes precedence from a historical perspective for the emergence of schools of Islamic jurisprudence, as well as scholars have had a head start in what has been written about the rules jurisprudential.

Vdrastna this focus on doctrinal rules without regard to the primacy of the doctrines and history of their appearance; because it is clear, has like we're not are dealing with.

With regard to the Hanafi school is the oldest doctrines big four, have been the upper layers of Vgahaúh earlier to formulate these principles jurisprudential college in formulas rules to protest, and their transfer of men other sects what they want them, is subject to consideration, and not easy to delivery to him as he went : “That needs to be documented and scientific arguments”.

And is thought most likely that there have been previous attempts but did not reach the hands of researchers; because that period is considered very accurate because of the scarcity of sources, so that researchers can be found, and then be referred to or praise holders, and thus reality show.

This may benefit us in also what the professor said in the Rockies, saying: “Before reviewing what has resulted authoring movement in jurisprudence from books and books and collections of normative jurisprudence, it was pointed out that there are two major categories of these books:

Class I: Wrote the dispute, or comparative jurisprudence; because the copyright in the dispute requires drinking one's fill in the inference models, and mastery of the Queen of the protest and theorizing, all need to take the rules of Jurisprudence and which give rise to its branches and its fractions; therefore this product came from books require heavy material of jurisprudential rules .

The most prominent of these books and Ogzarha the article are those interested Baltkhrig and subsidiarity; where scholars simplifies the remembrance of what underpin the branches and particles, and make his way counterproductive Vistardon branches and particles, then Ergonha to the origins and bases”([27]).

He said this as has already found what was written by the son of a pond in the introduction to his book “Whole” Which came: “This news of his interpretation of a long explanation, will not be hidden on the properties of our companions, God willing; because the book them, we have compiled, and them of our intention; because refer to them, and relying on them”([28]).

Vmank which came and wrote in the introduction to his book mosque, from which:

“ثم نبدأ بذكر الأخبار المروية عن النبيّ e التي تتعلق بها أحكام الشريعة، وإن كان الفقهاء قد اختلفوا في تأويلها وتنازعوا في صحة الحكم بها، لأنها قواعد الفقه وأصول دين الشريعة، لحاجة المتفقّه إلى ذلك، وقلّة استغنائه عن النظر فيه والاعتبار في معانيه، فالواجب عليه إذا أراد علم الفقه أن يتعرف أصول الفقه وأمهاته، ليكون بناؤه على أصول صحيحة ليجعل كل حكم في موضعه، ويحرص على سنّته، ويستدلّ على معرفة ذلك بالأدلة الصحيحة، والاحتاجاجات الواضحة، وأن لا يسمي العلة دليلا، ولا الدليل علة، والحجة علّة، وليفرق بين معاني ذلك، ليعلم افتراق حكم المفترق واتفاق المتفق”([29]).

If this is something that was in the book of Ibn Baraka, who cared Btaesel Jurisprudence and report its rules, and care as well as comparing the Ibadi jurisprudence of other doctrines, which Zadeh in the capacity of thought and strength in the corresponding.

Aware of the importance of the study of jurisprudence and consider the novels, and how to elicitation of Quranic verses, and re-branches of jurisprudence to the rules which he calls the sometimes mothers doctrine, and was able in his book that provides Five major rules Either Bolvazaa or a reference to it, as we find a lot of other jurisprudential rules, and those rules that took care of and treated is the base: “Uncertainty disappear, not the smallest doubt“, And base: “Habit Court“. He has authored his book named “Dating” To clarify the relationship between the rules, and his approach in that it alludes to the base with a lot of branches that it deems fit underneath; to confirm its origin, who walked in on the branch rule.

Kcolh in base Certainty shall not pass away doubt: “No doubt the opening did not generate the largest opening her senior or not, the basic principle is that it did not come out, do not come out of the imposed only certainty”([30]).

What is mentioned in this work has not come in the pages of this research, but it was an example of response and clarification that the mark was a pool from the former to the jurisprudence, but has not been referred to when Sheikh blue, like: Karkhi who took from Abu Taher Dabbas, which in turn is taken from Abu Zaid Abdullah bin Omar bin Isa الدبوسي-d. 430 of the imams of the tap in his book “Establishment of”.

In my view, as I pointed out in the past with mentioned Sheikh blue, and set Mr. Rocky said in the past, فالكتب or compositions that concern us in this regard and according to what we were able to stand it is:

Book “Whole” Imam Abu Muhammad bin Abdullah Ben Barka, who died in 342 AH ([31]).

1- Book “Rules” Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Karkhi, who died in 340 AH ([32]).

2- Book “Eyes evidence in matters of dispute among scholars of the regions” Abu al-Hasan bin Kassar al-Maliki, who died in 398 AH.

3- Book “Different scientists” Abu Jafar Tahawi Hanafi, who died in 321 AH.

4- Book “Establishment of” Abizaid Abdullah bin Omar الدبوسي Hanafi, who died in 430 AH.

5- Book “Overseeing matters of controversy” Qazi Abdul Wahab al-Maliki, d. 422 AH.

6- Book “Graduation branches on assets” Imam Zanjani Shafi'i (d. 656 AH).

7- “Durra concerned with occurred when dispute between Shaafa'is and Tap” Imam Abdul King Jouini, who died in 478 AH.

8- Book “Singer” For Ibn Qudamah Maqdisi, who died in 620 AH, which in comparative jurisprudence.

9- Book “Rules” In the jurisprudence of Shia Imami Jaafari, the ornaments, who died in 726 AH.

10- Book “Lafraid Gorgeous benefits and jurisprudential rules” Sheikh Mohammed Hamza Damascene Hanafi, was authored after the magazine judicial judgments, which is the latest and broadest collection of assets in the rules and jurisprudence on the doctrine of Hanafi([33]).

In addition to the three books mentioned by Sheikh blue, a:

1- Book “Provisions in the interests of the rules creatures” Imam Shafei Ezz El Din Abdel-Aziz ibn Abd al-Salam, who died in 660 AH.

2- And Book “Doctrinal differences” Imam Shahabuddin Ahmed bin Idris Quraafi, who died in 684 AH.

3- And Book “Rules” Hanbali jurist Abdul Rahman bin Rajab, who died in 790 AH.

They also stated that these books on the value of bone, does not include the rules in the sense that we have set for the word “Qaeda”([34]). Hence, the copyright in jurisprudence and rules of precedence which is very delicate and sensitive, can not be separated in it that easy; and it should be left to the owners regard and without مشاحة of the.

What we have mentioned about the authors and books jurisprudence imposes on us - and before moving this case to the other - to come if the example of one of the books mentioned to be the evidence of a witness to what we say:

Let those who made it to the top of the list in that, Abu Mohammed Ben Barka, Oman was born in the second half of the third century AH, one of the scientists who were interested Btaesel jurisprudence and report its rules, and care as well as comparing the jurisprudence Ibadhi doctrines other, and work on re-branches of jurisprudence to the rules .

It also had the author of several books including a book “Whole”, Which is in three parts, but it promised to exhaust time and it did not reach us, but the first and second part, has been achieved and printed parts in 1254 Newspaper, which he said in his introduction: “Obligatory if he wants Jurisprudence learned that recognizes the principles of jurisprudence and his mothers; to be built on the assets is correct, to make every rule in place and conducted his Sunan, and inferred learn the proper evidence to teach separation rule junction and agreed agreement ..”([35]).

If we look at what he said in his book is inferred Mosque which to base: “Uncertainty disappear, not the smallest doubt” The Prophet said to talk «not only light or sound Wind»([36]); Found says: “This news of his interpretation of a long explanation, will not be hidden on the properties of our companions, God willing; because the book them, we have compiled, and them of our intention”([37]).

A message at the base of independent and one of the major rules agreed upon a: “Habit Court”، He called the book: “Dating”, Which came in this book: “It is obligatory upon the blessed him with Islam and summed up the law of faith, to begin the education of assets before the branches, and that proves the rules of architecture before it raises Hoahq Chiefs of Staff, and knew the meaning of assets knew how to build it branches, and did not know the truth of assets was incumbent upon that concealed the provisions of sections”([38]).

Thus, after the definition of jurisprudence and eating has to do so, before entering in the way of extraction and the development of jurisprudence نعرج a little on the controls.

Jurisprudential controls:

Or idiosyncratic officer, a narrower base of jurisprudence; because it is limited to one jurisprudential theme, combining branches door jurisprudential and one. Suyooti said: “Al Qaeda branches gathered from various doors, and the officer collects branches from one door”([39]). Which confirmed it Alkdma in its definition of officer: “The officer collected branches from one door” ([40]).

And that given what was said by Ibn Najim saying: “The base combines various branches of the doors and the officer collected from one door”([41]).

That if we consider the meaning idiomatic special officer, but if you do not consider it and Anasrva to the conventional meaning of the year, it is not there a difference between the rules and regulations. It is what the Fayoumi, when interpreted by the officer base, which he did as well as Abdul Ghani Al-Nabulsi, when considered al-Qaeda officer words, and knew the definition of a single: “Overall it applicable to all fractions”([42]), Which is what you see when Imam al-Nawawi in his commentary on a range of jurisprudence, he gave her to provide one did not differentiate it between rules and controls, but the collateral between al Qaeda and the officer([43]).

Accordingly, rules and regulations I consider two sides of the same coin; because the specialists did not distinguish between them, or differentiate in anything, only that the rules broader than the controls in terms of the doors that تأويها and branches that followed, which is what we find in the words of Dr. Wahba Zoheily in saying that divides it between the rules and theories : “The rules are different for jurisprudential theories, they are doctrinal principles and controls each of which contains a provision years or Ogelbaa in worship or transactions, The theories are objective in the jurisprudence system includes several sections doctrinal”([44]).

And this was left to me what I'm saying at the controls, and therefore move on to the al-Qaeda elements and content of the jurisprudence absorption and things steadily and the majority, and the tightening of abstraction, as well as the illness and subsequent.

Al-Qaeda jurisprudential:

Elements intended jurisprudential rule is that basic scientific ingredients that make up the fact that al-Qaeda is gaining them what they are, and that is the self-regulatory jurisprudential base from which:

First: Absorption: It is fact that the rule include a provision collector for many branches, which was expressed in the definitions of the previous de jure applicability and الاندراج and inclusion, and completed the fact Altqaid only if the absorption of the force and intensity of flow so organized by the many branches, and issues doctrinal sections of the various.

Thus Fastieb the branches element of jurisprudential base([45]).

Secondly: Regularities or majority: Word regularities in the sense of language and continue to relay output and integrity([46])In the terminology: “Governance is what requires the presence of the illness, a correlation of permanence”([47]).

وبين المعنيين اللغوي والاصطلاحي تناسب ملحوظ؛ لأنه إذا كان وجود الحكم وثيقا بوجود العلة ارتباطَ تلازم؛ أي أنه كلما وُجدت العلة وُجد الحكم؛ فهذا هو عين التتابع والاستمرار والجريان والاستقامة، والأصلُ في حقيقة القاعدة أن تكون مطّردة؛ أي أنها تنطبق على كلِّ جزئياتها دون تخلّف أيّ جزئية منها، فتكون بذلك متتابعة يتبع بعضُ فروعِها بعضا في الحكم الجامع، وهذا هو الأصل في القاعدة، لكنّها قد يَخْتَلِف فيها عنصر الاطِّراد فتنتقلُ إلى مرتبة الأغلبية؛ أي أنّها تنطبق على أغلب جزئياتها لا على كلِّها.

Regularities or linked assimilation majority supplement and explain the link, if not at the base sustained nor rule Ogelba; then they do not deserve to be in the scientific sense base([48]).

Thirdly: Abstraction: The meaning of abstraction at the base and be in conformity with the rule of just about link partially described is to be together without some special, because if he was a special into partial object and not علتها; did not include him then base.

Valtjerid in language means erosion, and erosion has a special meaning as we have mentioned; because the rule jurisprudence where it is not an abstraction, but if the ruling closely the subject of fractions not Bzutha.

The loss of the base element of abstraction; makes it also lacks the element absorption, and if you lose the base element absorption; drag it into the regularities or loss majority to تلازمها the also provides([49]).

IV: Tighten the wording: By this I mean the provisions that formulated the jurisprudential base in the terms outlined and accurate, and the strongest indication of the judgment, which include the base, and should be words ممعنة in inclusiveness, general and soundly; until the rule does not come down to the rank and border controls and tariffs.

This lack of precision in the base loses fact Altqaid and what it is; that rule jurisprudence if formulated in sentences or a paragraph or more; did not lead her job, which is to collect branches and molecules in a single provision([50]).

Leaving us before entering the extraction methods and devise rules only clarify the hardship and illness; to our need for them sometimes in a relationship provisions, فنقف the them briefly is in breach of.


Hardship - stirring and tighten pollinator- Hardship and suffering breakers usually end in prospect([51]). والمشقَّة مثلا تختلف في السفر باختلاف وسائل النقل والمواصلات، كما تختلف من مصدر إلى مصدر آخر لما يجده المسافر من تعب وعناء متبايِن ومتفاوِت؛ فإنّ المشقة التي تلحق راكب الحافلات الوثيرة المجهَّزة بالمكيفات الهوائية، ووسائل التبريد أو القطارات السريعة التي تسبق الصوت، أو الطائرات الواسعة المريحة، أخفُّ بكثير من المشقَّة التي تلحق المسافر العادي أو المسافرَ الضاربَ على أكباد الإبل في الصحراء، كما أنّ الأفراد المترفين لا ينالهم من المشقّة ما ينال غيرهم من المسافرين.


The meaning of the illness language and idiomatically: Name the changed by winning thing, taking of the illness which is a disease; since their impact on the provision as a vowel effect in the same patient([52]).

The The malady legitimacy has differed in their definition of fundamentalists year and Mu'tazilis, many sayings of the most important:

AFor the first: Say Mu'tazilis: The reason is influential description in the same sentence; any offeror him, which is based on the base improvement and Altaqbih the mentally ill.

II: This is the view of al-Ghazali: That the reason is the description influential God in judgment by making him touching it, wanted Ghazali declare this that the description requires judgment and entails mind after God made him influential in it, it Ain defined Mu'tazilis, shall be null and void.

Third: Is the view الآمدي and son eyebrow: That the reason is the description motive power, has been interpreted as a motive Description contains the wisdom fit to be street from landing proceeded to judgment, it is not meant that it had sent the street and get him to governance legislation.

IV: The reason is defined description of the rule, it is the view of Imam Razi, favored by الأرموي and chosen Oval Abu Zaid الدبوسي from the tap, and criticized the law was issued in clarified that he is not objection to coverage of the mark, which is: What is known in the presence of the verdict is that the presence relates not confronted with the difference between them, which is that for us provisions added to the ills, as the king to purchase and retribution for murder([53]).

Terms of illness:

1- الوصفية: Be described, it is true that the name of the sex bug; that the provisions adopted on descriptions, not selves.

2- يُشترط في الوصف الجامع بين الأصل والفرع استطاعةُ العقل إدراكَه.

3- أن يكون هذا الوصف ظاهرا، فلا يجوز التعليل بالخفي، وهو الذي لا يدرَك بحاسّة من الحواس الظاهرة؛ لأن العلة معرِّفةٌ للحكم الشرعي الذي هو خفيٌّ.

4- أن يكون هذا الوصف منضبطا؛ أي يستوي بالنسبة له جميع الأفراد، وذلك كالسفر فإنّه علٌّة في قصر الصلاة، والسفر وصفٌ منضبط؛ لأن له حقيقةٌ لا تختلف باختلاف الأفراد والأحوال.

5- أن يكون هذا الوصف مناسبا للحكم، كالقتل العمد بالنسبة لإيجاب القصاص.

6- ألا تكون العلة مثبتةً حُكْمًا في نوعٍ يخالف النصَّ أو الإجماع([54]).

There is a difference between reason and wisdom and reason.

The difference between reason and wisdom:

Valalh: Description apparent uncontrolled built judged and linking its presence and عدما, it facing its existence and non-existent rule Badmh.

The wisdom is: Motive for government legislation, and the intended purpose of it, which is the interest that inadvertently Street achieved governance legislation, supplemented, or corrupting that inadvertently the street legislation governance درأها or the minimization([55]).

The difference between cause and reason:

It is they when some fundamentalists متباينان, reason regard to what is not between him and the referee is suitable, and the reason they Description appropriate to legislate judgment, فالسفر this view bug for the permissibility of the palace, and is not a reason for him, and the disappearance of the sun reason for noon prayers can not be called bug her([56]).

As the majority of the reason fundamentalists generally in its significance of the illness, Every Bug reason, and not all cause illness.

Extraction methods and devise rules:

After Tjona in jurisprudence and its definition of what has been said of checks and branches; Search brings us to how to extract these basic rules of their headwaters a: The book, year, and other supplements the foundations of this Shara True.

That means the process of communication followed by to تقعيد Qaeda jurist jurisprudence and the methods used in, and this whole can Ntelmush of during the previous conventional definition, a: “The rule entirely legitimate document to guide, drafted the formulation of abstract Court, applicable to fractions for regularities or majority”.

The first thing to note on this definition after careful consideration; understand that jurisprudential base looking reported in مظانها, and extracted from the forensic evidence as wholly legitimate judgment; because the shop that eviscerated legal judgment and draws him is a legitimate goal of directory: Quran and Sunnah, measurement, and other.

It is noted in the previous definition; jurisprudence that al-Qaeda as a legitimate مستنبطا the provision of forensic evidence; is placed Kamalieh and applicability on the particulars sustained or often, and there is no way to know that only by induction.

Through extrapolation can science faculty governance and check applies to particles, and by stability make sure that the applicability of the rule aggregate fractions is on the point of regularities or on the point of the majority; Because induction which will be fully; shall be applicable then steadily, and may be less; shall be applicable ([57]).

Hence it is clear to us that the idiosyncratic ways Altqaid and its courses; followed in jurisprudential access to the base through the elicitation and induction.

Because the base is made up of two key things: Governance overall, and Email of particles falling; Accordingly فالسبيل to science governance overall is elicitation, and extrapolation is science, including in the judgment of particles falling and regular in it, and in order to clear our image and is understanding; must clarify both the deduction and induction as مسلكين for تقعيد.

First: Elicitation:

Elicitation language: Extraction means, originally from Nabati - stir -, which is the water that comes out of the well, the first thing that burrow([58]), And then used in the extraction of thing of مأخذه, whether it's Al_husaat abstraction of water from the well, or in abstraction sentiment meanings of texts.

However, when used in eduction morale be a metaphor by metaphor, became elicitation sense: Interpretation and Signifying([59]).

Elicitation idiomatically: The terminology is also not far from the Department of linguistic meaning, they knew Jarjaani that: “Extract meaning from texts by excessive mind and strength Alqrihh”([60]).

It must be pointed out that the Department of inference that concerns us is limited in the elicitation idiosyncratic, and it is an extract of the provisions of the legality of the sources by fundamentalist rules that sit the process of interpretation of religious texts doctrinal.

And the origin of elicitation within his constituency this be text, If the ruling had reached al-Faqih for by analogy or Alastsahab the reclamation, or other evidence; named so diligent([61]).

Valastenbat permission comes from the first end to the introduction and extraction is the text, but this extraction or taking may be in a direct way, and it may be indirectly.

Thus Vamuslk the first to find a jurisprudential rule is the inference that put him scholars and linguistic purists rules and the rules of evidence, Kcolna: “It states that it is obligatory”, And”Prevention stating the prohibition”, And”The concept of the violation argument” And”Indefinite article in the context of benefit denials of Commons”.

These rules fundamentalism of all kinds, are several Faqih in تقعيد rules jurisprudential and devise its provisions college.

Secondly: Induction:

Induction in the language: Is a trace, I read country and Astgaritha the If Taatbatha, and came out of the land to the land([62]).

In the terminology: Ghazali knew that: “A surf things partial judgment on the order control includes those particles”([63]).

And came in his last definition: “The induction is that browsing the many molecules are included under the meaning of holistic, so if you find a sentence in the particulars; ruled on that total”([64]).

It is noticeable through the induction of these definitions that can only be done if we had one rule - whether it's legitimate, or mentally, or layman - and a series of molecules we want tested the اندراجها hand in it and it applies.

To extrapolate Mrtbtan: Rank where fully, and tidy where less.

1- Valastqra full: Is to prove the rule in every part of the total particles, and this kind not only be in mentalities, and called: Logical induction, and cutting benefits.

2- Incomplete induction: Means to prove in the overall governance is proven in more fractions, and this is meant when scholars([65]).

So we finish to to idiosyncratic Altqaid him مسلكان approval by Faqih, two: Deduction, induction, deduction first, and second induction. Valastenbat detection is its governance and in terms of the science is a legitimate rule, and its induction is science faculty that governance and قاعديته of([66]). This brings us to the types of Altqaid the idiosyncratic.

Assets Altqaid or jurisprudential rules:

Altqaid idiosyncratic is the scientific work carried out by al-Faqih accidentally assembly dispersed among the branches of jurisprudence and accountability, and this work does not take authoritative and legitimacy unless it was based on the assets and sources of legitimacy, and which derived its strength.

والفقهاءُ المتقدِّمون الذين اهتمّوا بالقواعد الفقهية وألَّفوا فيها بوجه من الوجوه، لم يجرِّدوا الحديثَ عن مصادرها الشرعية، ولم يقرِّروا لها بابا أو فصلا لبسْط الأُسس النظرية التي يُحَلَّلُ في ضوئها استمدادُ القواعد الفقهية شرعيّتَها وحجيتَها من أصولها، وكيفيةُ ذلك، ولكنَّهم كعادتهم في تناول مثل هذه المسائل تناولا مباشرا وبطريقة علمية تطبيقية، كانوا يَعرِضون القاعدةَ قبل تحليلها وذكرِ فروعها الفقهية، وما فيها من شذوذ واستثناء، ويُرجعونها إلى أصلها الشرعي من كتاب وسنة وإجماع وقياس.

These rules are not placed in Islamic jurisprudence so haphazardly or without a guide, but per base its catalog and proved, source of the book or the year or consensus or reasonable([67]).

The offer for each type of these sources and take him from the rules, and thus stand on what is known as the rules derived from the text, or by analogy, or by inference, or Batorgih, which:

First: Rules derived text:

And to the text when scholars and fundamentalists is the Quran and the Sunnah, and this kind of rules him photo:

1- To respond to modern verse or in an expression Brief constitutional collector; so that is for scholars College ready for legislative drafting, complete knitting, speaking its legitimacy; being a legitimate text.

2- That the Quranic text or talk pregnant general provision is valid for many branches particles, فيعمد of the jurists to and Istnbton it a rule or College.

The words Almighty: ﴿خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ﴾([68]).

This verse on Jazatha and a few words; include major legislative College, but you can not make every word of the Faculty of stand-alone.

Qurtubi said in its interpretation: “This verse from the three words included rules of in المأمورات the law and المنهيات, went in saying: (Take Amnesty); Link Alqataan, and amnesty for perpetrators, and kindness to the believers, and other ethics obedient, and came in saying: (He ordered convention); Link wombs, and the piety of halal and haram, ignoring eyes, and a willingness to House Resolution. In saying: (And introduce the ignorant (incitement to attachment to science, and symptoms of the origin of injustice, and hiking dispute foolish and ignorant idiots equality, and other good morals and good deeds”([69]).

For example, the base: “Hardship brings facilitation” Source says: ﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ﴾([70]).

The rules derived from the mismatch year saying e: «Do no harm»([71]).

And saying e: «Let the doubt for that which does not make you doubt»([72]).

The consensus was like his base: “Diligence does not invalidate the parable”([73]).

Secondly: Based on the measurement rules:

The measurement is the most fertile and wider source due to clerical rule in the sources mental, but the process Altqaid or jurisprudence is a standalone standard process, as long as the list in essence combining of Like and asymmetric branches and doctrinal issues; hence the jurists Aradfon sometimes between rules and measurement([74]).

Examples of jurisprudence in relation: “What's the use of campus campus taken”([75]).

As well as base: “What campus take given campus”([76]).

The branches of this rule:

– لا يجوز للمسلم أن يستأجر النائحة؛ لأنّ أخذ الأجرة على النُّوَاح لا يجوز شرعا، فيقاس عليه إعطاؤه([77]).

– لا يجوز للمسلم أن يستأجر المغنِّين؛ لأنَّ أُجرة المغنِّي لا تحلُّ له، فكان إعطاؤه له حراما أيضا.

– ومثله الزامر أيضا([78]).

And Odhaa Sheikh blue saying: “To be with evidence; evidence installed called based; any that has been shown to the judge in the Judicial Council Balbana, accidents or outcome of legitimacy; considered a fait accompli, like imperceptible scenes by sight, shall judge him based on this permanence, though there is a possibility or otherwise because of the ([79]).

The branches of this rule: Passport judgment status Baqraún if reported note or mistaking often, did not violate the letter([80]). Proof manner drinking limit odor.

And Baqraún governance conditions can be in the money and physical borders, and other rights of God or the rights of others([81]).

The base: “Hard with evidence Kalthabt by sight”([82]).

Jurisprudence based on heuristics:

Inferred in the language: Is a directory request. Or: Is the one who shows the way([83]).

In the terminology given to the four types:


  1. Sense inference revenue directory of the Koran and the Sunnah, and other measurement([84]).
  2. Inferred meaning the directory in which income is not a text, no consensus, no analogy([85]).
  3. Inferred meaning reclamation([86]). This release has been received on the tongues of many scholars and fundamentalists([87]).
  4. Sense الأقيسة that inference is not such measure representation. The measure is a representation of the measurement, which scientists call fundamentalist assets compared legitimate, or is it: Append the branch of the origin of the Islamic ruling, Bmsawathma in illness.

And measurement inference has many pictures of them: Measuring the contrary, the significance of measurement, and measurement Conjugate, also called gestational measurement, measurement extraordinary, also called relative cop([88]).

And in this sense inference widening his circle stenosis, according to the doctrines of the fundamentalists in the expanded and narrowed and forth with the opinion of the expanded; It includes plenty of evidence from which mental:

1- Alastsahab.

2- Initiated by us.

3- قول الصحابي.

4- Reclamation.

5- Induction.

6- قياس العكس.

7- قياس الدلالة.

8- القياس المنطقي بصورتيه.

The reasoning in all its forms this - except to say Companion -; refer to the measurement, if we can his constituency, and we look to him given away without adhering to the true meanings imposed by traditional jurisprudence.

Valastsahab is the ruling on a thing at this present time with the same government that has proven in the past decade, and this work record([89]).

And jurisprudential rules that many were built on inference, which branched into what sits them Balastsahab the and sat them the rest types الأقيسة that the previously mentioned. It follows:

First: Jurisprudential rules that were Balastsahab([90])

And be the fact Alastsahab the source of idiosyncratic تقعيد; any jurist has intentionally in the process Altqaid or base to extract idea Alastsahab and his approach, so it may rule on a number of branches and particles by virtue of a legitimate one, and attributed the Alastsahab.

In our example in: If the wife claims that her husband does not reach the estimated expenditure to it, and claimed the pair receipt, Saying saying Piminha the; because the basic survival after was fixed his trust, until the etc directory aware or نكول of the([91]).

It is the rules that origin Alastsahab the:

“Originally in the patent disclosure”([92]).

The branches of this rule:

If someone claimed that it has on our last;, this does not prove that the defendant's right but adoption by or evidence of the plaintiff; because the basic principle is in the custody of the defendant innocence of all religion, Vistsahb this asset to that is no evidence to the contrary([93]).

Secondly: Jurisprudence based on reclamation:

Reclamation when fundamentalists and scholars is to build jurisprudence interests may be sent, and to be sent interests: Absolute interests that did not want to in Shara text as not cancel([94]).

What is meant Baltqaid Balastslah to reach jurist to the provisions of the College through reclamation, under each one of them many branches; because reclamation also reached by the jurist to know the provisions partial Fatwa in facts and incidents Kalomthelh previous; same applies to reach him to find out colleges provisions, those are ([95]).

It jurisprudence built by scholars on reclamation:

– “Dam pretext and opened the responsibility of interest”:

Excuse the language: Is the means.

And to be out when scholars and fundamentalists are: What reach out to the evil shall be prohibited, or to the interest shall be required, in other words: Is what reach out to the legal provisions.

It means what lead Pfaolha to Muharram or hated; shall be filled chore.

It means what lead Pfaolha to duty or delegate; shall be opened duty or delegates([96]).

This rule is branching out by the many rules of jurisprudence, including:

“What leads to the Sacred haram”.

“What lead to the hated hated”.

“What stops should be to do it is the duty of”.

This rule is saying words: “What is not to be, but it is the duty of”.

The branches of this rule:

– أصل البيع الإباحةُ، لكن إذا تعلَّق بأمر اضطُّر إليه المسلمون؛ فإنه يصير في حقِّ البائع واجبا.

– النكاح مباحٌ، وقيل مندوبٌ، لكن الذي لا ينفكَّ عن الزنا إلا به وكان قادرا عليه؛ فهو واجبٌ عليه.

– تحصيل العلوم الشرعية واجبٌ على المسلمين على الكفاية؛ لأنَّها وسيلةٌ إلى الحفاظ على الشريعة([97]).

Thirdly: Rules-based inference measurement:

It was noted that measure reasoning includes الأقيسة that is not such as the measure of representation, as a measure of contrast, and measure the significance and other.

And scholars have been active much in Altqaid this الأقيسة, so that an important part of the rules that Donoha is of such rules, which was built to measure reasoning, which reveals the depth and breadth of mental jurisprudential Islamic, and have reached the maturity and completeness in the context of deepening search idiosyncratic and تأصيله.

And rules based on the measurement of reasoning means that scholars may يتوصلون to the provisions, but by contrast measurement, or measure the significance, or other forms of measurement inference.

It is based on the rules:

– إذا نذر المكلَّف صيامَ نصف يوم لزمه صيام يوم كلِّه؛ لأنَّ صيامَ اليوم لا يتجزَّأ.

– If he says to his wife: You are half Ttliqh divorced he must divorce; integral because divorce.

The base: “Fall destination requires fall means”([98]).

This wide base include countless branches of law; because Shar provisions relating to the acts charged.

The branches of this rule: That seek to Friday and duty; because it means to be a Friday, but the traveler and the patient drop them Friday, Vlzim, sought fall.

And its subsidiaries as well as: Lying haram; to Avdaúh to the grave evils, but if it is the same saving from destruction, the first destination falls into account, and drops it considered medium; they turn into a way conducive to the interests of([99]).

IV: Jurisprudence in which it operates shootout:

Weighting: Is giving priority to one of the manuals and strengthen it, and act upon it without the other, which is as follows:

Weighting language: Empowerment, التغليب and preference, said: Likely thing if Vdilth and Qoath([100]).

In the terminology: Is to strengthen one of the opposing manuals on the other to work([101]).

And weighting caused by a conflict between the two guides.

The fact that the conflict:

Conflict in the language interaction of supply - the annexation eye- It is the side, as if to speak and conflict stands partly in view some, Fimnah of access to where the face([102]).

In the terminology: Is the requirement for a two manuals other than as required by([103]).

And the meaning terminological and linguistic meaning clear relationship, فتعارض manuals require their differences in appearance, nor have the other as well, unless objected to one by the other so you do not tend one destination, and add conflict first it is a matter of metaphor; since the first in itself is contradictory, but arises .

To say conflict of the same evidence it needed say Sharia contradiction and different, and this leads to multiple sources say, it is impossible; because one source is God.

The scholars agreed that they do not differ where no contradiction, no conflict, and if none of that found in the texts, I originated due to understand and recognize the diligent scholars have, understand Mtfawton varying cognitive and mental abilities.

Causes of conflict:

Already mentioned there is no contradiction in the law, although one appeared Vospabh due to three things:

First: What transport is due to hand:

So that the opposing manuals may be Tardahma because that in one imbalance in Sindh and narrators, making it weaker, does not realize that industrious jurist, believed they were incompatible as well as.

II: What significance is due to hand:

So that the text may be legitimate segmental significance, and this is no area of ​​conflict, I think may be of significance and this wide range of different scholars on the one hand, and the emergence of a conflict of evidence in their minds and their interest in second hand.

Third: What is due to transcription:

So that the two apparently opposing guides may be Tardahma because that one burner to another; late because him and Rhoda, so it did not know of scholars believing they are incompatible.

Ibn al-Qayyim has collected these three reasons in Commenting on حديثين, the opposite in appearance, he said: “We say not opposed to the praise of God right between his speeches, if conflict occurred; either be a modern not his word e, was wrong when some of the narrators with being confidence ثبتا, Confidence mistakes. Or be a discrepancy in the understanding of the listener, not in his e. Two modern The correct Barhan contradictory of each face, not one in بناسخ of another, it does not already exists”([104]).

So what was with regard to the conflict, and this brings us back to talk to shootout.

Valtrgih also be back to him in partial provisions; the scholars are rushing to in total provisions as well, and this is to be being a source of jurisprudence.

ولتوضيح ذلك نسوق السؤال الذي سئل به عثمان بن عفان t عن الجمع بين الأختين بملك اليمين فأجاب: “Ahlthma of any حرمتهما of”([105]). It is intended that the verse: ﴿أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ﴾([106]). ويريد بالآية التي حرَّمتهما قوله تعالى: ﴿وَأَنْ تَجْمَعُوا بَيْنَ الأُخْتَيْنِ إِلاَّ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ﴾([107]).

The judgments are opposed and privacy solution - incompatibility between Dlalehma the- In a partial one, which is a combination of two sisters king right([108]). And scholars reckon here on the inviolability the sign of the solution; to be on the safe side; Because companions and Ancestors Were not combine.

The question that arises with regard to weighting is: The shootout is not legitimate evidence of partial provisions, nor the provisions of the college, how can be a source of rules of jurisprudence?.

The answer to that: That the shootout was not in itself proof of the legal provisions District, Klleha of, the work and duty, and the necessity of work by the evidence of the legitimacy and authoritative.

The evidence on the necessity of work is the consensus of the companions and advances if they opposed them two directories in one issue رجحوا Ogelbhma on conjecture, and did it without the other, and did not convey all of them that he violated this, it was their work Balrajeh of two opposing consensus guides them([109]).

It was released in shootout:

– ترجيحهم خبرَ عائشة في وجوب الغسل من التقاء الختانين، على خبر أبي هريرة الذي جاء فيه: «But the water from the water».

– ترجيحهم ما روت عائشة من أنَّ النبيّ e كان يصبح جُنبا وهو صائم، على ما رواه أبو هريرة من قوله e: «Became a side-not fast for him»([110]).

The mention in this shootout:

Is that Trgiham of the first opinion; which requires washing convergence الختانين, does not require the presence of water as mentioned text, is Yes weighting and opinion; because he took the precautionary, which relaxes one's conscience to his Lord and Savior religion.

The second thing: It is to give up what was narrated by Abu Huraira said e: «From the side, there is no fast became him, and weighting narrated from Aisha that the Prophet e was becoming side he is fasting. This is a bit of confusion at the other person probably runs with his wife until seen by dawn he does not know, here is acceptable, and take a bath at the time and looks at his command.

This is because in the end to something of confusion in either sense or other.

The formula contained in this and according to the true Muslim explain nuclear([111]), Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her that a man came to the Prophet e يستفتيه is heard from behind the door, he said: O Messenger of God, Tdrickna prayer and I side, Avosom? : And I Tdrickna prayer and I side Vosom the. Said: I'm not like us, O Messenger of God, may God forgive you what progress and future sins. Said: «God, I hope that I Okhchakm God and inform you, including those who fear».

And who understands from this hadith that the Prophet e has previously and become a side, and the time and bathed and fasted, and can not understand that the Messenger of Allah e was deliberately الإصباح the side it goes on the morning prayer. This, I believe, as apparent from the text of the question, an error that occurred when many people that the apostle e was becoming side and nothing in it.

And take a lot argument Vijama the family from the beginning of the night, and the only in the daytime, where a bath and pray, and most of them do it before noon, God forbid, both to be this principle of Prophet e, who came in saying: «God, I hope that I Okhchakm God and inform you, including those who fear». He warns and stresses the morning prayer at the right time and in the community, says: It's better than this world and everything in it, so how can overdo it as this nation and especially that this talk is in his own image, which stated that we are taking difficult or recognize the base of jurisprudence which we rely in the weighting of many branches and molecules and Conditions.

It refuses this weighting and الإصباح the side, what was right in the mosque for spring bin Habib said: It was narrated from Abu Obeida Urwah ibn al-Zubayr and Hasan al-Basri, and Ibrahim Nakha'i and a number of the companions of the Messenger of Allah e say: “Became side became fasting, the gifts him Atonement”([112]).

It came in so what Narrated by Bukhari word: «The Dawn realize which side of his family and then washed and fast»([113]). What I see in this according to a spring pads, as well as what came in this rule, a conflict between the license determination and made a determination on the license, the introduction of the determination on the license on the safe side of this license, pursuant to legitimate بالاحتياط.

So is to provide washing to الإصباح side, it is better and safer.

This may be what the scholars differed, and each opinion and argument([114]).

“If the base license conflicted determination and made a determination”:

Valazima: What began starting on the face of law prevails in the general conditions.

The license: What proceeded from the provisions in the conditions especially Castbahh the forbidden act when necessary, seize due to leave at the hardship and embarrassment([115]).

And the meaning of Rule: To designate whether it met in one case and resolve a license, it is likely to work determination on the license when some scholars, and is likely to work when others license.

This differences in out-Qaeda proved their differences with falls of branches([116]).

This rule is synonymous with the words of scholars: “If you met the ban and permitted the judgment of the ban”. Meaning that if the thing as halal, haram as another, it dominated the privacy side on the side of the ornament, pursuance of legitimate بالاحتياط; first because leaving forbidden from doing patency been to the act of Muharram.

This research concludes by mentioning Jurisprudence five Already and pointed it at the beginning of this subject, and her representation of some branches.

First: Base “Uncertainty disappear, not the smallest doubt”

This is a great rule out illegal, falls below what countless branches of jurisprudence in different doors, of worship, transactions and personal status, sanctions and districts.

What is mentioned in this rule about Suyooti it: “Intervention in all sections of jurisprudence, and extracted issues amounting to three-quarters of Jurisprudence and more”([117]).

The basis of this rule Hadith: «The devil comes one of you is in prayer فينفخ in إليتيه, do not leave until you hear a sound, or find a wind»([118]).

According to the book mosque of Ibn pool: “It is certain purity, and no doubt, did not generate or did not happen, it is the purity, and the proof is that certainty does not rise with skepticism; because he is certain his knowledge”([119]).

It is made by the branches'm blessing for the former base:

– “Of Nam leaning please his wudoo 'unless lying”([120]).

The argument that Purity sure, talk which requires re Purity is: «But Wudoo on from Nam lying», was true on e he leaned on his hand inflatable sleeping even stood and prayed([121]).

– If a woman was born and remained in her womb last, فليست Bnevsa, and do not let prayer. Said Abu Mohammed: “Unless put it in her womb pregnant, and is not permissible to be nifaas, she was pregnant at the time; pregnant because it prayer, and postpartum name to put pregnancy”([122]).

In fact, in such a case, according to what I see in this, Valenvas reality due to put her son first, and result in what must be a bleeding following childbirth, while she was pregnant, including remaining in the stomach, it does not cancel what I was born, and the consequent childbed and the subsequent provisions, .

Secondly: Base “العادة محكَّمَةٌ”

المراد بالعادة في هذه القاعدة هو العرف بنوعيه اللفظي والعملي.

فهي تُعَبِّر عن مكانةِ العرف واعتباره في الشريعة الإسلامية([123]).

واستدلُّوا لهذه القاعدة بقول الرسول e: «ما رآه المسلمون حسنا فهو عند الله حسن»

ولو رجعنا إلى كتاب “Dating” لابن بركة؛ لوجدنا فيه الكثيرَ لمثل هذه الفروع مما جاء فيه عن العرف والعادة، وما يسكن إليه القلب مما يحدُثُ بين الناس من التعامل.

Thirdly: Base “Hardship brings facilitation”

وهذه القاعدة تُعتبر من أُسس الشريعة في جميع المذاهب([124]). بما تمثِّله من سماحة الإسلام ويُسره.

ومما استُدِلَّ به لهذه القاعدة قوله تعالى: ﴿يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْر﴾([125]) وقولُه: ﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ﴾([126])، وقول الرسول e: «إن الله تعالى وضع عن أمتي الخطأ والنسيانَ وما استُكْرِهوا عليه»([127]).

What is meant hardship exiled texts and calling for mitigation and licensing under the rule; it is a hardship supra-normal limits, while natural hardship in regular border is usually required by the performance of duties, and to provide good necessitated by the good life; I do not mind where([128]).

Hence, we must know that the base: “Hardship brings facilitation” Is not steady or falling behind in all cases of hardship, but that the responsibility of facilitation to the provisions of forensic evidence, the Quran and Sunnah and consensus and measurement, and other prestigious religiously evidence, and was not considered in the forensic evidence cause; it is true Granting concessions do, every hardship not bring facilitation, nor .

وحصر بعض الفقهاء أسباب التخفيف في سبعة أسباب، وهو مجمَلة في: Travel, illness, and coercion, forgetfulness, ignorance, hardship, and general scourge, and natural shortage.

ومما يندرج تحت هذه القاعدة:

“Necessary exaggerated estimates”، وهي كالتخصيص للقاعدة الأمِّ؛ لأنَّ الذي يباح من المحظورات يكون بقدر الحاجة، ولا يزيد. كما جاء في قول ابن بركة: “ليس للمضطر أن يأكل من الميتة حتى يشبع؛ لأنَّ الإباحةَ وردت له بسبب الخوف، فإذا زال الخوف ارتفعت الحاجة”([129]). It was forced to purse other; eat it as much as the fear go away with him, and to ensure it is eaten([130]).

IV: Base “Things its purposes”

Things base is already benefiting from its purposes the assets of the law, where it stopped accepting business and its response, and health and corruption, because the intent and purpose are the basis for the work of the individual.

ومن الآيات التي يستند إليها في هذه القاعدة قوله تعالى: ﴿وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلاّ لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ﴾([131]). And saying: ﴿وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِيناً وَيَتِيماً وَأَسِيراً، إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ﴾([132]).

وكذلك قوله e: «إنما الأعمال بالنيات وإنما لكل امرئ ما نوى»([133]).

قد يعتبر كثير من العلماء أن هذا الحديث هو الأصل في تلك القاعدة، وجعلوه ثلث العلم ومنهم من قال ربعه([134]).

ومن الفروع التي تعبر عن هذه القاعدة حسب ما جاء في جامع ابن بركة “وجوب إحضار النية للطهارة وسائر العبادات بظواهر الأدلة التي ذكرناها”([135]).

V.: Base “Damage remains”

وهذه القاعدة أساسُها الحديث النبوي: «لا ضرر ولا ضرار في الإسلام»([136]).

Damage: إلحاقُ مَفسدة بالغير، والضرار: Interview damage damage.

ومِمَّا يشهد لهذه القاعدةِ قولُه تعالى: ) Have not Thompskohn harm to transgress (([137]), And saying: ) Nor harmed writer nor a martyr (([138]). وهي أساسٌ لمنع الفعل الضارِّ، وترتيب نتائجه في التعويض المالي والعقوبة.

نصّها ينفي الضرر نفيا، فيوجب منعَه مطلَقا، ويشمَل الضررَ الخاصَّ والعامَّ.

It is intended to prevent damage to deny the idea of ​​pure revenge, which increases the damage is not only beneficial to expand his circle([139]).

And here Enough of this subject, which was about the jurisprudential rules that roam the midst of Islamic jurisprudence from east to west, and I admit that I did not give him the right because of the shortness of both vessels, and this does not mean that we renew our thanks and gratitude in the end of the reason for such participation.

فلهم منَّا جميعا جزيلُ الشكر ولله الفضل على نعمائه، والحمد لله رب العالمين.

List of sources and references:

1- المعجم المفهرس لألفاظ القرآن الكريم، محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي، دار إحياء التراث العربي، بيروت.

2- الفروق لشهاب الدين القرافي، عالم الكتب، بيروت.

3- نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، د. محمد الروكي، ط1، دار الصفاء، دار ابن حزم، بيروت.

4- الأشباه والنظائر، لتاج الدين السبكي، ط1، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت.

5- لسان العرب لابن منظور، دار صادر، بيروت.

6- النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر، لمجد الدين أبي السعادات، المعروف بابن الأثير.

7- المدخل الفقهي العام، مصطفى أحمد الزرقاء، ط9، دمشق، 1968م.

8- قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، د. محمد الروكي، ط1، دار العلم، دمشق.

9- كتاب الجامع، لابن بركة البهلوي العماني، ط وزارة التراث القومي، عمان.

10- التعريفات للشريف علي الجرجاني، ط1، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت.

11- معجم لغة الفقهاء، محمد رواس قلعه جي، ط1، 1996، دار النفائس، بيروت.

12- أجوبة ابن خلفون، لأبي يعقوب بن خلفون المزاتي، تحقيق د. عمرو خليفة النامي، ط1، دار الفتح، بيروت.

13- الكليات، لأبي البقاء أيوب بن موسى الكنوي، ط8، 1982، دمشق.

14- الأدلة الاجتهادية، د. إبراهيم بن أحمد الكندي، ط1، دار البيان، القاهرة، 1999م.

15- الأشباه والنظائر، لزين الدين بن إبراهيم المعروف بابن نجيم، ط1، دار الفكر.

16- التحرير والتنوير، لمحمد الطاهر بن عاشور، الدار التونسية للنشر، 1984م.

17- المستصفى من علم الأصول، لأبي حامد الغزالي، طبعة بولاق.

18- الجامع لأحكام القرآن لأبي عبد الله محمد القرطبي، دار الكتب المصرية.

19- مجلة الأحكام العدلية، ط5، 1968م.

20- مختار الصحاح، لمحمد بن أبي بكر الرازي، مطبعة البابي الحلبي.

21- الأشباه والنظائر في النحو لجلال الدين السيوطي، دار الكتب العلمية، 1984م.

22- الإمام أبو عبيدة مسلم بن أبي كريمة وفقهه، مبارك الراشدي، ط1، عمان.

23- الحاصل من المحصول في أصول الفقه، لتاج الدين أبي عبد الله الأرموي، منشورات جامعة قاريونس.

24- معيار العلم، لأبي حامد الغزالي، دار المعارف، 1961.

25- نهاية السول في شرح منهاج الوصول، للأسنوي، مطبعة التوثيق، مصر.

26- الإحكام في أصول الأحكام، لسيف الدين أبي الحسن الآمدي، مطبعة صبيح، 1968.

27- زاد المعاد في هدي خير العباد، لابن قيم الجوزية، ط1، 1996.

28- مسند الربيع بن حبيب الأزدي، مسقط، عمان، 1994.

29- الأصول والضوابط، لأبي زكرياء يحي النووي، 1988، بيروت.

30- المنهاج الواضح في أصول الفقه، لعبد المجيد الديباني، ط1، جامعة قاريونس، بنغازي.

31- أحكام الإكراه في الفقه الإسلامي والقانون الوضعي، عيسى البجاحي، أطروحة دكتوراه دولة، جامعة محمد الخامس، المغرب.

[1]) حديث شريف.

[2]) Differences for Aqrafa, 1/312.

[3]) Word “النظائر” As well as “الأشباه” هما من أسماء القواعد الفقهية.

[4]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، للروكي، 16,

[5]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 2/10.

[6]) Ibid.

[7]) لسان العرب لابن منظور، مادة: Sat.

[8]) -البقرة، آية127.

[9]) النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر، لابن الأثير، 4/36.

[10]) San Arabs, substance: Sat.

[11]) المدخل الفقهي العام، مصطفى الزرقاء، 2/946.

[12]) Enlightening lamp, 2/72.

[13]) التعريفات للجرجاني، 2/72.

[14]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/947.

[15]) حاشية الحموي، 1/51، قواعد الفقه الإسلامي للروكي، 108.

[16]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي للروكي، 109.

[17]) الكلي، أو الكلية سمي بذلك نسبة إلى لفظة “كل”؛ لأن القاعدة غالبا ما تُصَدَّرُ بهذه اللفظة، كقول المَناطِقة: “كل متغير حادث”، وقول النحاة: “كلّ ما لا يعقل لا يُذَكَّر ولا يؤنَّث”، وقول الأصوليين: “كلُّ صيغة أمرٍ عريت عن القرائن فهي للوجوب”، وقول الفقهاء: “كل سلف جر نفعا فهو حرام” وهكذا… وحتى إذا لم تتصدر القاعدة بلفظة “كل”، فإنّ معناها يتضمنها.

قواعد الفقه الإسلامي للروكي، 108.

[18]) المراد بالأصول أصول الشرع وقواعده العامة التي يُتوصَّل إليها بواسطة استقراء النصوص، أو بواسطة تتبع مقاصد الشريعة. فالأصل أعم من النص، وقد يكون أقوى منه، ومن ثم كانت الأصول أوسع نطاقا وأقوى مدلولا من القواعد الفقهية.

قواعد الفقه الإسلامي للروكي، 108.

[19]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي للروكي، 108.

[20]) ألفاظ العموم في اصطلاح علم أصول الفقه هي الألفاظ الموضوعة لغة للدلالة بصيغتها أو بمعناها على أفراد كثيرة غير محصورة على سبيل الاستغراق. Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/947

[21]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/948-948.

[22]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/955.

[23]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/952.

[24]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، 140.

[25]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، 136-137.

[26]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، 136-137.

[27]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، 140-141.

[28]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/258.

[29]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/14.

[30]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 2/432.

[31]) Answers I'm Khalafon, 113.

[32]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/954.

[33]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/958.

[34]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/959.

[35]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/14.

[36]) حديث مشهور.

[37]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/258. ولنا عودة لهذا المصدر عند التمثيل للقواعد الفقهية.

[38]) التعارف، لابن بركة، 4.

[39]) الأشباه والنظائر في النحو، 1/9.

[40]) Abi stay colleges 4/48.

[41]) الأشباه والنظائر في النحو، 1/9.

[42]) نظرية التقعيد، 58.

[43]) الأصول والضوابط للنووي، 22؛ نظرية التقعيد، 58.

[44]) Ibid, 174.

[45]) نظرية التقعيد، 68-70.

[46]) San Arabs, substance: Expulsion.

[47]) التعريفات للجرجاني، 141.

[48]) نظرية التقعيد، 71.

[49]) نظرية التقعيد، 71.

[50]) نظرية التقعيد، 76-77.

[51]) معجم لغة الفقهاء، محمد رواس قلعجي، 401.

[52]) الحاصل من المحصول للأرموي، 2/863؛ الأدلة الاجتهادية، لإبراهيم الكندي، 118.

[53]) الحاصل من المحصول للأرموي، 2/863.

[54]) الأدلة الاجتهادية، لإبراهيم الكندي، 110-115.

[55]) الأدلة الاجتهادية، لإبراهيم الكندي، 110-115.

[56]) الأدلة الاجتهادية، لإبراهيم الكندي، 118.

[57]) قواعد الفقه الإسلامي، 78.

[58]) لسان العرب مادة: نبط.

[59]) التحرير والتنوير لابن عاشور، 5/141.

[60]) التعريفات للجرجاني، 22.

[61]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 80.

[62]) San Arabs, substance: قرأ.

[63]) Almstcefy, 1/51.

[64]) معيار العلم، 160.

[65]) نهاية السول للأسنوي، 3/114.

[66]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 86.

[67]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 89.

[68]) Norms, Aya 99.

[69]) الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، 7/344.

[70]) Hajj, verse 78.

[71]) رواه ابن ماجة في الأحكام.

[72]) Narrated by Women.

[73]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 71.

[74]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 102.

[75]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 102

[76]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 102.

[77]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 102.

[78]) الأشباه والنظائر، للسيوطي، 102.

[79]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/1055.

[80]) For example, there is a man with a foreign woman in one quilt, two moving and Adtrban, this presumption does not prove her adultery, despite its strength for the benefit of science, but acknowledges that the actor or evidenced by the four reverse so that they saw him in that where.

نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، ص141.

[81]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، ص141.

[82]) ورد في مجلة الأحكام العدلية، في المادة 75.

[83]) مختار الصحاح، ص229.

[84]) الإحكام للآمدي، 3/175.

[85]) الإحكام للآمدي، 3/175.

[86]) سيتم توضيحه فيما بعد.

[87]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 150.

[88]) من أراد التوسع فلينظر المصدر السابق، صفحات 151 And Beyond.

[89]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 153. ليس المقصود هنا بالقياس قياس التمثيل.

[90]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 157.

[91]) الأشباه والنظائر للسيوطي، 39؛ الأشباه والنظائر لابن نجيم، 64؛ مجلة الأحكام العدلية، المادة 8.

[92]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 150.

[93]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 167.

[94]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 168.

[95]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 169.

[96]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 174

[97]) Differences for Aqrafa, 2/33.

[98]) نظرية التقعيد، ص183.

[99]) نظرية التقعيد، ص183.

[100]) مختار الصحاح، 254.

[101]) نظرية التقعيد، ص572.

[102]) نظرية التقعيد، ص572.

[103]) نظرية التقعيد، ص572.

[104]) Zaad, 3/112.

[105]) الإحكام لابن حزم، 5/845.

[106]) المؤمنون، آية 6.

[107]) الأحزاب، آية 23.

[108]) المقصود بذلك الجمع بينهما للوطء.

[109]) نظرية التقعيد، ص193.

[110]) نظرية التقعيد، ص194.

[111]) ج4، ص224.

[112]) مسند الربيع بن حبيب، 83.

[113]) مبارك الراشدي، أبو عبيدة مسلم بن أبي كريمة التميمي وفقهه، 483.

[114]) وهذه القضية يطول الحديث فيها، وقد نأتي بها في حديث مستقلّ عن هذا البحث إن شاء الله.

[115]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 625.

[116]) نظرية التقعيد الفقهي، 625.

[117]) Nazaa'im for the resettlement, 108.

[118]) الجامع الصحيح، للربيع بن حبيب، 106.

[119]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/322.

[120]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/326.

[121]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/326.

[122]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 2/219.

[123]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/999.

[124]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/991.

[125]) Cow, verse 185.

[126]) Hajj, verse 78.

[127]) Celebrity talk; and the importance of this talk in the coercion theory and its provisions, has been studied in terms of acceptance and response to the significant and weighted, the subject of our mission in doctorate, which was entitled “أحكام الإكراه في الفقه الإسلامي والقانون الوضعي” جامعة محمد الخامس، في المغرب. ولمن أراد الوقف على ذلك الرجوع إلى الجزء الثاني ما بين ص53-64.

[128]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/992.

[129]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 2/77.

[130]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 2/84.

[131]) Evidence, Aya 5.

[132]) Rights, verse 8-9.

[133]) الجامع الصحيح للربيع بن حبيب.

[134]) الأشباه والنظائر للسيوطي.

[135]) كتاب الجامع لابن بركة، 1/266.

[136]) رواه الحاكم والدارقطني.

[137]) Cow, verse 231.

[138]) Cow, verse 282.

[139]) Entrance idiosyncratic year, 2/978.


* Jurisprudential evolution science symposium in Amman during the fourth century AH “Legal rules model”.

The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs _ Oman


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