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Relationship Grammar rules fundamentalism

Relationship Grammar rules fundamentalism *

A. D. Mahmoud Mustafa Aboud Harmoush


The Almstqri of the history of the emergence of fundamentalist rules finds that there is a close relationship between these rules and fundamentalism between grammatical or linguistic.

; Because the fundamentalist rules but developed to derive rulings on the legality of the evidence. The evidence of the original provisions to which they belong all the other evidence dependency but are texts of the Qur'aan and Sunnah, and those texts Arab science depends on the rules of Arabic science. It was not an Arab does not have to consider in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger u. Says Chatby God's mercy: “As the book and Sunni Arab; not right to consideration only English, while outlandish, printing does not have that consideration”([1]).

As the jurisprudence is to know “Signs of overall jurisprudence and how to use them and if the beneficiary “؛ فإنّ ذلك يتوقّف في جزء كبير منه على معرفة اللغة؛ لأنها السبيلُ الوحيدُ لاستثمار هذه الأدلّة وبيانِ كيفية الاستفادةِ منها؛ وذلك لأنّ الأدلّة الشرعيَّة تعتريها عوارضُ كثيرةٌ، فيعتريها العموم والخصوص، والإطلاق والتقييد، والحقيقة والمجاز، والصريح والكناية، والتأصيل والزيادة، والتأسيس والتوكيد، والحذف، والإضمار، والاشتراك، والترادف…، ونحو ذلك؛ لأنّ تلك الأدلةَ الجزئيةَ إنما صِيغتْ من النصوص العربية التي يعتريها كلُّ هذه العوارض، وكلُّ هذه العوارض مباحثُ لغويةٌ أُدخلت في صُلب علم أصول الفقه وهي مباحثُ أصليةٌ وليست عارية كما قال الشاطبي ـ رحمه الله ـ؛ فإنّه قد اعتبر “That each issue drawn in jurisprudence does not entail doctrinal branches Felict him”([2]). And unto as نوافقه to this rule, I do not agree that a lot of detective linguistic rule it out Shaatibi Square assets Kmbages common, lettering meanings, and the fact that language Toukafah or reform, but is one of the core assets in the same rooting who walked him Shaatibi God's mercy in that .

On the one hand, on the other hand, the rules of fundamentalism but dealing with the actions of law; and half the actions of law but rather the actions of قولية, and behaviors anecdotal where the general and particular, and all the restriction, and the truth and metaphor, and the establishment and assertion, and the joint, and the reference and the phrase, and so on, which means in .

As the legitimate discourse has responded in a language the Arabs understand and was dependent on the duty to know the language; was evidence of the need to know the language of the door: “What is not to be, but it is the duty of”, Which is called in jurisprudence: Introduction of Duty.


The first requirement: Similarities between the linguistic rules and rules fundamentalism

It is seen in these two technocracy Investigation noted that there is a similarity between linguistic rules and multiple aspects of fundamentalism:

A- In terms of sources: The language books as Sibawayh book, was a source of the message of the book of Imam Shafei God's mercy. Victab Sibawayh is the foundation in the science of grammar, and the book the message is the foundation in the science of jurisprudence; Rate Shafei God's mercy on solid foundations where the method adopted language is clear, and the eloquence of expression, has remained nearly twenty years in the study of English in their strongholds First, : “I wanted this, but the use of the Principles”([3]).

We also find senior imams assets Kalfajr Razi, and Acharazi, and Zarkashi, and Alosnue, and before oval and others; had been taken and transferred detective linguistic imams language Xebojh, and Nftaiwih, and Abu Ali Persian, and I'm taking, and Fox, and قطرب, the son of خالويه, glass, and الأخفش, .

With- In terms of the detective: The co-wrote assets with a lot of Investigation language, such as admonishing the commands and prohibitions, and Detectives truth and metaphor, and Detectives common verbal and Investigation tandem and assertion, and Detectives derivation and connotations and Investigation conflict and weighting, and other matters set out in the books of assets, and the Sea Ocean installment fully in that.

C- In terms of terminologyُ: There are strict conformity in scientific terms between these two flags. For example: That linguists divided linguistic provisions to compromise, and discretionary, Nkulaih, and standard; and so did the purists. And divided Moved to frequent and individual; linguists as well as the Department of linguistic rule to duty, and forbidden, good, ugly, and other than the first; and so did the purists;, where they divided the ruling to these sections.

D- In terms of sources: فعلماء adopted language Quran source of the language, as well as the year, and consensus, Alastsahab, and approbation, and induction as did Suyooti in the proposal, and I'm taking in properties, and the son of Anbari and Sibawayh in the book and many others. I will introduce this evidence in some definition and representation with the fundamentalist approach in comparison to these sources.

Here is a statement of these terms: In the area of ​​audio guide, text Suyooti in the proposal that all what was read; may be invoked in Arabic, whether it is frequent, or Ahada, or abnormal, he said “Has engulfed people to protest anomalies in Arabic reading even bucked measurement”. This is the view of fundamentalists, the text Shafi'i and his companions on the audience that the abnormal reading argument is the view of Abu Hanifa and his companions, a Hanbali doctrine. And their evidence: That the transferee is not free to be either read or a year and on التقديرين must work([4]).

The protest when linguists year they may نصوا on it. Suyooti said God's mercy: “As for his u Fastdl the what proved to be said on irrigated word and it is very rare”, And is intended Suyooti God's mercy that he does not invoke including Roy in meaning; because some narrators Oaajm, and this is what the purists; they stipulated to the health of the novel in the sense that the narrator jurist language Arabs known methods and secrets, it was outlandish, copyright did not accept him the novel sense.

Said Abu al-Hasan ibn lost ([5]): “Tjoaz novel sense is why I have to leave imams Xebojh and others cite to prove to speak languages, and relied on the Koran. Son of the owner have been cited on the language “Oklona fleas”Correct speech: “Ataaqbon you, angels, night and daytime angels,. ([6])”, Some scholars have first word helmed talk about the protest in this language, but this language is correct Quran came out in the verse: ) And captured النجوى who wronged (([7]).

The reasoning unanimously text of Ibn-taking in properties([8]) On authoritative consensus Basra and Kufa, he said: “But be an argument if you did not violate the prescribed nor measured, otherwise it is not; because he did not want in the Koran and the year they gather on the error”([9]). This is unlike legitimate consensus in matters it is stated the nation بعصمة directory with unanimous.

Taking might like a son to deduce the consensus of the people by denying Abu Abbas language passport to provide news “Not”It has it argues that the said: This vacation Sibawayh and all our companions Also الكوفيون, If this is the doctrine of the two countries; shall be to alienate otherwise.

Suyuti said: “Arabs also consensus argument, but how we stand it”([10]).

This is what Imam Ahmad said in the consensus of the nation on a legitimate government; said: “What يدريه that the nation met, but at least we do not know the difference”([11]) He also: “Claimed consensus is a liar, but at least: We do not know people disagreed”([12]).

And Imam Ahmad does not deny the authoritative consensus, but more rigorous in the way of the transfer; because as the text in terms of honor, it must be transported in prevention. Linguists spoke about consensus السكوتي the way fundamentalists, and spoke about the inadmissibility bring the words of the third, as did the fundamentalists. Said Suyooti in the proposal: “The people of the same age if they differed on two views; those who came after them may bring about a third said, and this is known from the assets of Sharia; portable language assets on the assets of Sharia”([13]).

This text Suyooti weighed in gold leaf because it reveals about the relationship between language assets Sharia.

وأما استدلالهم بالقياس فإنهم بحثوا في باب القياس على نفس النمط الذي بحثه علماء الأصول فقد تكلم كل من ابن الأنباري في كتابه اللمع في أصول النحو الذي بدا فيه متأثراً بكتاب اللمع في أصول الفقه للإمام الشرازي وكذلك الإمام السيوطي في كتاب الاقتراح الذي سار فيه على غرار ابن الأنباري وابن جني في الخصائص وغيرهم، تكلموا على القياس فعرّفوه وذكروا أنواعه وأركانه؛ وهي الأصل والفرع والعلة، ثم تكلَّموا على شروط العلة ومسالكها وقوادحها، فذكروا المسالكَ والقوادحَ نفسَها التي ذكرها علماء أصول الفقه، وعرَّفوها بالتعريفات نفسِها التي ذكرها علماء أصول الفقه، حتى إنه ليُخيَّل للقارئ وهو يتصفَّح هذه العناوين أنَّه يقرأ في كتب أصول الفقه.

Here are examples:

First: They knew that carry measurement is movable to immovable if in the mean. I'm Anbari said; said: “Which most of the evidence as a reliable in Ghalib accountability.”([14]) This is the definition of measurable fundamentalists; they knew that pregnancy is provided on the set if shared with him in the illness.

Secondly: They mentioned pillars measurement in a language they have four corners: Out of which measured it, which is measured Branch, judgment, and bug University([15]).

ووضعوا شروطاً لهذه الأركان تشبه كثيراً شروط الأصوليين له، كما أنّهم قسّموا القياس في اللغة إلى قياس الأولى والمساوي وقياس الأدون، ومثلوا للأوَّل بإعلال الجمع قياساً على المفرد، من ذلك قولهم قِيَمٌ ودِيَمٌ في قيمة وديمة، ومثَّلوا للثاني بإعلال المصدر لإعلال فعله، وتصحيحُه لصحَّته، كقُمْت قياماً وقاومْت قواماً، ومثَّلوا للثالث بأفعل التفضيل وأفعل التعجب، فإنّهم منعوا أفعل التفضيل أن يرفع الظاهر؛ لشبهه بأفعل التعجب وزناً وأصلاً وإفادة للمبالغة، وأجازوا تصغير أفعل في التعجب؛ لشبهه بأفعل التفضيل في ذلك.

They kinds of ills, فذكروا illness Statistics and which is located reasoning from one side, and a vehicle that is the reasoning in several ways, and mentioned malady minor and differed in their reasoning. These types of illness, as well as the difference in reasoning Balqasrh the mentioned purists of the same pattern ([16]). Likeness: These Muslims of the original: Mslamue Vqlapt waw J for two each positive for the heart: One waw meeting and the Omega, the first of them previously peace, quiet and the other that J. speaker never breaking character that before; فوجب heart waw J. and Adgamha can break what followed.

They said that the courses of illness have Consensus: Any Arab consensus of the people of the bug that this provision as well as.

II- Textُّ: That the Arab states of illness. Abu Amr said: “I heard right, say so and so weariness my Vaanqrha book came to him, he said to him: أتقول came to him in writing?!, Said: Yes, not a newspaper?”.

Third- Nodding: As some people have said the Prophet e: We sons Gyan, he said: You are the sons of Rashdan. He pointed out that Alpha and Noon Zaúdtan of the even you do not يتفوهوا this, is that the derivation him from error is like our saying we: That Alpha and Noon Zaúdtan of the([17]).

IV- Sounding division: That little faces potential, and then testing what works for him, which is the same definition of fundamentalists sounding and division. Likeness: His son also reap: If asked about the weight of Marwan then one can be either “Flan”Or “Vawala”, Or Mfala the”, Then spoil being Mfala or Vawala they are not examples Ajaia was left only Flan. The same way fundamentalists.

V- Appropriate: Namely, that holds the branch parent بالعلة that commented upon judgment originally, Lamb did not name the perpetrator on the actor in illness attribution lifting the.

VI- Similarities: Ibn al-Anbari: Branch is to carry on the original hit of the similarities is the illness which the provision commented originally. And like him to explain express the present tense that specializes After Hiall, as that Islam specializes after Hiall of the was expressed as the name, and the correct vowel is to remove the confusion. Said: “And measure similarities measuring correctly may stick with it as a measure of illness”.

It is close to the fundamentalists definition of semi-which is one of the pathways of illness It is close to the fitting of the face is expulsion from the face of another; so-called Bcbh the likeness بالأمرين.

VII- Expulsion: Ibn al-Anbari: With whom there is appropriate governance and lag behind, and this is very close to the definition of assets scientists. Ibn al-Subki: “The parcel is compared to the description of the rule is appropriate”([18]). Linguists disagreed in Authentic expulsion, said people: Not a pretext; just because expulsion does not necessitate the predominance of conjecture. This is the view of the fundamentalists.

Ibn Subki said in Exhilarating: “The judge said Abu Bakr and Mr. الاسفرايني: March Shara rules and expulsion Astjaz he Haze Sharia مستخف seizure”([19]).

The Qoadh illness when grammarians are the same when fundamentalists, and disagree with something only examples, Valenhah represent examples of expression, and purists representing branches jurisprudential.

Of these Alqoadh: “Veto”, Knew'm Anbari that: “The presence of the illness without judging”.

Thus knew purists “Veto”They said,: “The veto is a description causal without verdict”([20]).

The veto when grammarians imagine on the doctrine does not see the allocation of the illness, and this is the view of the scientists assets; they said: “But imagine veto on the doctrine does not see the allocation of vowels”([21]).

It Alqoadh “Not influence”, And knew that grammarians: “Description which has no effect”.

Ibn al-Anbari: “Most of it is not permissible append DESCRIPTION بالعلة with the non Alakhalh; any event, it is a filler in illness”. The exchange appeared to him after “Pregnant”; Because at the end of a thousand feminization cabin, he recalled cabin stuffing; because it does not impact his illness; because A. feminine does not deserve to be a viable cause of exchange for being limited, but for being the only feminization. Do not you see that the outstretched blocker also cause.

Fundamentalists have stated that lack of influence: That the description is directly proportional to the occasion, likeness: Hanafi said in a morning prayer, for example, does not restrict prayer, it offers ears on the time, such as Morocco, Failure extrusive palace in providing no suitable Athan([22]).

It Alqoadh “Say credited”, Has been defined by grammarians define himself fundamentalists;, where they knew that: “Delivery discount Mstdl a taken positive for the bug with the dispute”. And knew that fundamentalists: “Interceptor manual delivery opponent with the survival of the conflict in governance”([23]).

The detective suffered by the fundamentalist linguists issues in “Conflict and weighting”, And mentioned the issues of this section weighting accidentally attribution, and weighting accidentally Metn, and Altrajih between الأقيسة, and months of speaking to this detective is the son of Anbari and I'm taking in the properties, as well as spoken in conflict and weighting while back to significance on the same pattern scholars of jurisprudence.

The evidence demonstrated by language: Approbation, Alastsahab, and induction.

And representing the desirability to leave the lightest to the heaviest of need, and a reference to work بنقيض the measurement that is rescinding the issue for analogues, which is a particular term fundamentalists. Where they knew plaudits as: “Reverse analogues for the issue unnecessarily requires reverse”, Entree bathroom, the measurement should not be true to the ignorance of the time it takes rights therein; and ignorance of the amount of water that he spends on himself, but جوزوا so well received.

The evidence demonstrated by language “Alastsahab”, Knew'm Anbari that: “Keep if what he deserves pronunciation originally transport when not in evidence from the original, which is of evidence considered Castsahab the case of origin of the names which express so no proof construction, and the state of origin of the acts which construction until there is evidence to express”([24]).

I: This is called in jurisprudence Bastsahab the original patent until there is about the origin of carrier is permitted, the basic principle in things permitted until evidence is reported to the carrier obligatory or privacy([25]).

Anbari said in fairness: “استصحاب case one considered evidence”([26]).

Razi said in crop “We have selected that Alastsahab argument”.

He said Quraafi: “The argument Alastsahab when the owner of God's mercy”([27]).

With this agreement shows grammarians and fundamentalists on invoking Balastsahab; thus shows kin آصرة between these two great flags.

The evidence demonstrated by the Language Guide “Induction”, And the highlight quoted speech is limited in the Arab noun and verb and Crafts, and their evidence full induction; they Browse our What is the effect of the Arabs of speech Fujdo that no more than three assets: Name, Function, and Crafts.

The induction of the evidence considered when fundamentalists also, He knew that he: “Follow the rule in fractions unchanged thinks it most likely that in the form of the conflict on those case, Castqra the hypothesis in fractions that does not lead to late; Vaiglb conjecture that if the tendon was presumably what led to the late”. Said Quraafi: “This is probably our argument and when scholars”([28])..

These similarities between the science of grammar, science of jurisprudence in terms of sources and terminology.

Finally, there is a similarity in the names of some books and titles, there are books likes and isotopes in the way, and wrote تسمت the same name in explaining the rules of jurisprudence, which caused the knowledge assets, such as a book likes and isotopes to the son of agent Shafei, likes and isotopes for the resettlement, and likes and isotopes to Ibn Najim al-Hanafi.

And there is an address mentioned by Ibn Hisham in singer Labee has translated to him by saying: “Male college graduate things it is not confined to partial images”([29]).

Suyuti said in a likes: “The second book: In the rules of college graduates not only of partial images”.

The second requirement: Grammar relationship branches jurisprudential

As the rules of the assets but found to adjust the branches, and it was recognized that the each base painted in jurisprudence does not underpin branches in Jurisprudence فليست of assets in something, and what he has evidence of a relationship as assets; this required him to be represent the relationship between the rules . This is self-evident, a door relationship assets branches.

Many have alerted scientists to kinship occurring between these two flags.

Dr. Radwan says Ben Mokhtar Ben Gharbia in his introduction to the book Accessories brides([30]):

“And the beholder in the books of branches at the level of schools, he realizes without suffering many issues rulings based on grammatical rules. Especially those books nuclear Kalmjmua, and kindergarten, and wrote Ibn Qudamah Kalmgne, and convincing, and adequate and others, sources Maaliki including ammunition for Aqrafa, and precious gems in the doctrine of the world of the city to the son of Shas, a book of the Great Mosque of Mohammed bin Hassan Shaibani, a mayor of sources at all on the subject of graduation branches ”اهـ.

The most prominent of took care of a statement as the branches relationship jurisprudential:

The first of the cradle of this science is linguistic Imam then fundamentalist al-Faqih: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaibani God's mercy, the owner of Abu Hanifa through the book “Oaths”Great Mosque; where he managed many doctrinal Investigation on the basis of grammatical and linguistic praised by Zamakhshari detailed in his book, said God's mercy: “Is Svhoa opinion Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaibani God's mercy in the Book of Faith filed”([31]).

It who Nbgua in this art what the sapphire in the dictionary writers([32]) That the world as fur was a day when Mohammed bin Hassan Vtmacarua in jurisprudence, grammar preferred to fur as jurisprudence, and Fadel Muhammad ibn al-Hasan as he said jurisprudence fur: “Say a man peering in Arabic and wanted another note, but easy for him”, Said Mohammed bin Hassan: “O Abu Zakaria, may be considered in depth and ask Arab door Jurisprudence”, Said: “Hat God's blessing”, Said to him,: “What do you say to a man peace Vsha in his prayers, and worshiped the two prostrations of forgetfulness Vsha where?”, Fur فتفكر hour and then said: “Do not have to do anything”Muhammad said to him: “لِمَ؟”, Said: “Because miniaturization We have not him out, but the prostration of forgetfulness fully prayer and not for Tamam Tamam”, Said Mohammed bin Hassan: “What I thought آدميا was generating just like you”.

Zubaidi tells the in grammarians layers and linguists([33]) Has been debate between Imam as Alexaii, and the jurist Abu Yusuf God's mercy. Said: “Abu Yusuf income on good governance and Alexaii Amazha Abu Yusuf said to him,: This Kufi has Astafrgk and thinks you. Said: O Abu Yusuf, he comes to me things included in my heart. Turned to Alexaii on Abu Yusuf said: O Abu Yusuf, do you question? : About or jurisprudence? : But jurisprudence. He laughed good even examine his foot, then said: Receive the father of Joseph accordingly! Said: Yes, he said: O Abu Yusuf, what do you say to a man who said to his wife,: I divorce you entered the house?, He said,: The house entered divorced. Said: Erred O Abu Yusuf. Rasheed laughed and said: How do the right thing? : If he said: “The”Film must not divorce, though he said: “That”It must act and signed the divorce, he said: Was Abu Yusuf then do not let that come Alexaii…”.

It was reported by Ibn Hisham God's mercy in his book singer Labee([34]) What it looks like, which is: “That good night wrote to the judge Abu Yusuf asking him about words of the poet:

The Trfiqi the O India Valrvq the Ayman
You divorce, and divorce determination
The Takrgi O India Vakherq the أشأم
Three It violates lumber and darker

Said: What the three necessary if upgraded, and installed?!.

Abu Yusuf said: I said: This issue of doctrinal grammatical, not safe where wrong if I say my opinion, I came Alexaii which is in bed, he said: The lifting “Three”Divorced one; because he said: You are divorced, and then told that the full divorce three, although it installed divorced three times; Because meaning you are divorced three times and everything in between, inter contestant, I wrote this to the good, sent prizes drew them to Alexaii the”.

Then successively scientists in the independent rating books to demonstrate the interdependence between grammatical rules and jurisprudence branches.

Was the first of the books in this art Imam Jamal al-Din Abdul Rahim Alosnue Shafei book “Planets الدرية in Download Branches jurisprudence on grammatical rules”.

First, it is noteworthy grammatical issue a revised polite, and then followed by mentioning among other things the ramifications of branches jurisprudential.

Then came Ibn Abdul Hadi he put his book named: “Accessories brides from the party and valuables”In graduation branches jurisprudence on linguistic rules, with it being not allocated for this purpose, but classified in graduation branches jurisprudence on assets, but it is allocated Private Investigations in the Grammar.

One of these books Book: “Graduation branches on assets”Imam Shihab al-Din Mahmud bin Ahmad Zanjani who died in 656 AH.

Investigation has within his linguistic output branches jurisprudential, Kmbages and the commands and prohibitions, the absolute and unrestrained, the general requirement, admonishing general, common, and flow measurement in the language, and the fact and metaphor Investigation and other.

And including a book: “Access key to building branches on assets”([35]), Authored mark Sharif Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Tlemceni Maliki who died in 771 AH.

Has within it the author Investigation linguistic output by some branches such as jurisprudence: Detectives assertion of incorporation, and the truth Investigation and metaphor, and other detective.

And including a book: “Boot in graduation branches on assets”Imam Gamal El Din Alosnue, who died in 772 AH. Achieved and commented upon Dr.. Mohamed Hassan Hito.

Male author in this book Pope dedicated in languages, he mentioned the issue of the situation and the fact that languages ​​Toukafah or idiomatic, and then spoke to act, then he mentioned derivatives and synonyms and common, and Detectives truth and metaphor, and the issue of incorporation and emphasis, and spoke on ABC meanings, and sections of significance, and other Investigation .

And including a book: “Fundamentalist rules and benefits and related provisions of sub-”([36]) Of the Hanbali Alaa mark Din Ali Bin Abbas rainfed known as Ibn Welding, who died in 803 E. The author wire-style Alosnue in “Boot”; Investigation, where he stated, linguistic, and then branch branches doctrinal. There are contemporary draw wrote recently have been affected in this way; stating Investigation linguistic the jurisprudential branches built.

Of these books - as far as I know- Book: “The impact of differences in the rules in different fundamentalist scholars”Of Galilee Professor Mustafa Said الخن, a book Jalil fate, in which he stated the author Investigation language, such as: Investigation and Prevention, and the general public, and connotations, then branch them many branches of jurisprudence.

One of these books Book: “The impact of the differences in language hardworking”Dr. Abdel Wahab Abdel Salam long([37]), In which he stated the truth and metaphor Investigation, and co-verbal, general and particular Investigation, lettering meanings and connotations Investigation, then he mentioned doctrinal issues, and practical examples of superbly Sunnah.

And Abdul poor two major books in this area, either the first book is a book: “Qaeda college: The realization of the first to speak of neglect and its impact on assets”, Which have reported such language Investigation: Detectives fact and metaphor, and joint verbal and Investigation indications, and a printed book and trader([38]). The second book is: “Book too hoped to clarify the branches of assets”([39]), Has been reported in which a lot of detective linguistic Kmbages commands and prohibitions, and the fact that language Toukafah or idiomatic, and Detectives fact and metaphor, lettering meanings, commands and prohibitions, and Investigation of Commons, and the present tense installer and exiled, and the tandem and assertion, and Detectives connotations, and stated its branches doctrinal many. And book a decision on the Islamic university students in Lebanon.

وبعد هذا العرض لبيان علاقة اللغة بالأصول وعلاقة الأصول بالفروع، لا بدّ من الإشارة السريعة إلى بيان أمثلة ونماذج تطبيقية تبرز وشيجة القربي وآصرة الصلة بين القواعد اللغوية من جهة، وبين القواعد الأصولية والفروع الفقهية من جهة أخرى، وهي في الأصول كثيرة جدًّا يضيق عن ذكرها المقام، لكن نقتصر على بعض القواعد التي تؤدّي إلى بيان المقصود من مباحث الفعل المضارع المثبت والمنفي، وفعل الأمر، ومباحث الترادف والاشتراك، ومباحث الحقيقة والمجاز، ومباحث الدلالة، ومباحث الحروف، مكتفياً بشرح بعض القواعد المتعلّقة بكلّ مبحث من هذه المباحث بما يُلقي الضوءَ على هذه العلاقة على سبيل الإيجاز.

Third requirement: In doctrines linguists in the present tense

And below the bases:

First: In the present tense installer

Like: Zaid, in a joint between the case and the receiver, which is the apparent meaning of the words Sibawayh([40]) Said the son of the owner: However, the swinging case when impartiality.

The second: The fact that in the case at the reception metaphor

And third: Reversed.

And fourth: It is in fact the case, nor was originally used in the receiver neither the fact nor metaphorically.

And V: Reversed.

This is a rule language has been introduced in the jurisprudence as the anecdotal taxpayers behaviors often fall installer using the present tense, is carrying his case or reception?, And when it is in fact one of them metaphorically in the other?.

And Frawa to this rule are many branches of jurisprudence.

Of these branches:

– If he says to his wife: طلقي yourself, she said: Launched myself, it is located in case something; reception because the absolute. The woman said: I wanted construction; occurred in the case.

– If he said: I swear to God to Avaln, launched, فالأصح it be right or holds the promise.

– If you were told of an unbeliever: Believed in God, or safest God, came infidel form the present tense, he said: I believe, or the safest;, it would be a believer, and also bear the promise of analogy to the above in swear well, move Rafii curriculum for papillary and approved.

– If the defendant said: I recognized the claims, the said: The present tense in fact the case only; recognition, although we said: Only in the future; not; because it promised, we said: It is a common joint and make us all sense if you do not presumption; was recognition, though we said: Does not hold, the Josna use; asked to be and work with it.

It was reported Alosnue([41]) These faces are all affected, including the view of the scientists at the origin of language they base.

Second: Exiled in the act of the present tense

Exiled present tense “Without”Get rid of receive when Sibawayh, said الأخفش([42]): It remains on the validity of two things, chosen by the son of the owner at the facility, entered it “L”Getting Started, or obtained exile “Bliss”Or “What”; On his appointment to if Mzhban; الأكثرون it to be, then corrected the son of the owner etc..

This linguistic base shows significant grammatical tense exiled “Without”, And what was inside the actions of anecdotal designate, ادخلوها in and Frawa assets many branches.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

Them if the mortgagee authorized staked the ransoming of the current mortgaged reportedly said permission: Not أعتقه, then أعتقه; endured sided.

Including if said guardian: Do not accept this commandment; it would be in response to her as averred by Rafii in the counterpart of the agency.

Including if he has: I swear, he said: Do not swear; it be Nacla for the right.

Including if said: I do not deny the claim;, it would be in recognition of. Said Alosnue,: Because nobody act took place in the context of exile Vivid Commons shall be recognition([43]).

Fourth requirement to do it

And below the five bases:

First: “It's what the disposal of it Komrt Zaid such and such, and telling Companion: The Messenger of Allah e, ​​in fact say signifier situation the request of the act”([44])

Vcolhm: “Signifier situation” Refers to the development of the people of the language; because inserter three: Language, who are the former, and the people of Islam by removing them linguistic facts to the realities of a new legitimacy may not be known to the people of the language, and the people by custom to use and customize the linguistic realities of some of its members.

The fundamentalists took this as a base attached to the actions of anecdotal designate, and Frawa by branches:

– Them if he said to his wife: Your order with your hand, or: Delegated to you order;, it would be a euphemism for divorce; as averred by Rafii; because if we say: It is a common or as joint; must be the intention of excellence to be. But if we say: In fact say the student to a private act; shall be used in other metaphor, and metaphor which must intent.

– Including invalidity of reasoning by saying e: «Ordered to prostrate on seven greatest should be put hands, knees and feet in prostration([45]).

Second: “This abstract presumption; benefit obligatory”This is the view of the public, stated by Ahmad, a Maalikis and Shaafa'is and Ashari.

Then the scholars differed in the order: Are you suggesting that it is obligatory develop language or Sharia?, Which Mzhban: The first is being a situation; moved in proof Shafei then chose that Sharia. There is a saying for Qervani it shows the mind([46]). In this issue fundamentalist doctrines delivers it to fifteen doctrine([47]).

These linguistic base and significance came by way of the situation as he went to some fundamentalists, and then used by fundamentalists to the fact that the command of the attributes of legitimate discourse, the discourse might be legitimate, or forbid, was an order be compliance with the verse for the devil: ) What kept you not prostrate as I have commanded you (([48]). And Moses said to Aaron: ﴿أَفَعَصَيْتَ أَمْرِي﴾([49]). فأخذوا من هذه الآية مقدِّمة صغرى، فقالوا: تارِك الأمرِ عاصٍ، ثم قالوا: And every sinner deserves fire on him: ) Those who disobey Allah and His Messenger, the fire of hell (([50]). Became the result: One who does it is worth a shot, is not worth a fire to leave it unless it is obligatory.

Then Frawa them branches of:

– The certification must be on her back; for the verse: ﴿وأشهدوا ذَوَيْ عدلٍ منكم﴾([51]).

– Including the opening takbeer; e for saying the Bedouin: «If you have to magnify prayer»([52])، That is, it is obligatory.

Third: “Command after the ban stating permissibility”, Is the view of the public([53]), And was told: Mustahabb, said Qazi Hussain of Shaafa'is. It was: Requires obligatory, as if led by ban. This is correct when Imam Fakhr al-Din and his followers, and was narrated by Ibn proof الباقلاني and the Mu'tazili الآمدي.

The purists Branch on this rule including branches:

– Permissible to visit the graves of being enjoined came out after the ban, which is saying e: «You've نهيتكم about visiting graves not Vzorōha, and some said: It shows the scars; saying e: «They remember the Hereafter»([54]).

– This view of the fiancée, is after the ban; requires a permissible construction of the base, and some said: It shows mustahabb; saying e: «It is more likely that يؤدم between you»([55]).

– Command overwrites came after prohibition; writing as the sale of money with his money, a person abstention undoubtedly([56]).

Fourth: “Absolute command does not work immediately, not slackening”([57]).

The absolute does not benefit immediately or inaction; because sometimes adhere Balfour, and sometimes lax.

The branches of this rule:

– Differences in the necessity of Atonement Is it on the spot or lax ?, as well as the fulfillment of the vow. As well as the variation of Abu Hanifa, Shafi'i mercy of God in pilgrimage Is it on the spot or inaction?, He went on to say Abu Hanifa: It immediately, and said Shafei: It is lax, and the origin of their differences in a positive command Is it immediately or inaction?.

– Eliminate debt humans when prompted Is it on the spot or inaction? At issue are two faces when owners Ahmed.

– Differences in the district of prayers levies, is it on the spot or inaction? Based on this rule.

Fifth: “Is it forbidden thing about him? ”

This is the view of the public and was told: It's not the same thing Prevention of antibody, but entails mind. It was: It is something not forbid him the language nor reason; because the sheriff may be unaware of the antibody when it directs him, while negligence shall not be enjoined thing.

– It branches: Assigned to was enjoined the sustainability of the marriage; ending was sending three shots; because that is against sustainability, was ending with him.

Fifth requirement: In forbidding Investigation

And below the base: “Forbidding the absolute benefit prohibition and said hatred”.

Prevention of Investigation language purists has taken him this rule; to the fact that the legitimate discourse may be contained forbidden, if the Lord forbidden should benefit the prohibition or dislike?. The most correct upon which the public that the prohibition if the strips for clues. Stipulated Shafei in the letter at the door of the ills in conversations([58]).

Has been Frawa by branches of:

– Prohibition of sale of ambiguity, as well as the artificial inflation of prices, and the prohibition of sale to sell his brother, as well as the marriage on his marriage. And other branches that are not confined.

However, the fundamentalists have increased things to the people of the language.

They said,: The prohibition is either forbidden or part of it, and either contained a description of the descriptions.

If you responded to the contract, for example; reported nullity as well as if responded to segment. The first example: Forbidding the sale of artificial inflation of prices, and the second example: Prevention of sale Almlaqih which embryos in the wombs of their mothers.

If you responded to describe this may be a comparative description of the hold Kalnha on sale dirhams Bdrhmin, or Mnevka him Kalnha about selling the time of the appeal, this benefit corruption. This detail Faucet; they split up between nullity and corruption, but they said falsehood unless prescribed due to his not described background, and corrupt proceeded due to his without background described([59]).

Sixth demand: In the rules of reality and metaphor

And below the six rules:

And exposing the truth legitimate discourse. The metaphor may be of significance to the real meaning may be metaphorical.

The exposure linguists and scientists statement of assets to the definition of truth and came unsatisfactory in matters defined([60]).

And the best of what has been said is: “Pronunciation guide put him first in a conversational convention”, And saying: “In a conversational convention” Enter the three facts: Linguistic, customary, and legitimacy; Where got conversational got kind of truth so conversational, the language was Bastalah people are linguistic, lion predator animal, albeit Bastalah the people they are custom customary, Kaldaph the animal proprioceptive, and legitimacy Klfez the prayer and pilgrimage.

The metaphor is not enabled passport in the sense: Transit, says: جزت of such and such a place; if crossed, originally “Mjos”, فنقلت movement waw to the gym static فتحركت the waw before it opened and she became “Allowed”; Because the word if used inappropriately has exceeded the original position and then became a metaphor([61]).

This definition language.

The terminology; has known Abdul omnipotent Jarjaani and said: “Is the word I want is what put him in the development and fabricators to note between the first and second”([62]).

And defined by Ibn al-Atheer saying: “Metaphor is what I want to do is meaning Thread him in out of the language”.

Among the most important linguistic rules that were introduced to the science of jurisprudence:

Base: “Originally to speak the truth”.

The base: “If you can not be the truth so they can be a metaphor”.

The base: “If the realization of speech can not neglect”.

The base: “If the truth interferes with the truth linguistic legitimacy provided legitimacy”.

The base: “If the truth interferes with the truth language provided customary law”.

There are other rules as a base: “Pan metaphor”, And base: “تعارض الحقيقة المرجوجة مع المجاز الراجح”.

وسوف أتناول هذه القواعد بشيء من الشرح وبيان تفريع العلماء عليها على سبيل الإيجاز.

The first rule: “Originally to speak the truth”

معنى القاعدة هو: That the correct view of the words of charge at all to carry on its true meaning; because it Almtpadr to mind when ever. And does not carry the metaphor; originally because the truth is to speak, and the foundation should download the words designate it. The metaphor behind the truth, there carries with him the words of charge unless Unable truth([63]).

The subsidiarity by scientists; This is a base of branches bit too much, which is the subject of an agreement at all imams, and has branches in various doors.

It branches:

– If stood on his son or recommended him, will enter his son was born in suspension or commandment?.

The majority of the Hanafi and Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali and his companions to the judge that the boy was born does not enter into this endowment or commandment([64]).

– If recommended to widows Brown So; فالوصية for women who lost their husbands, and this went public.

But do you enter the men who lost their wives in the matter?, Two sides:

First: Do not enter; because the widow fact in women, and the launch of a widower men metaphor, originally to speak the truth. The second: Walk; because he has called the loss of his wife widowed and in the words of Greer.

I spent all widows may need it to need this male widower

Hence, the relationship assets Language, and how scientists Sisters assets resorting to the language scholarly view.

I'm Anbari has denied this saying and its their fault, and the hair that quoted argument is they do not them, it if the word “Widows” Includes male and female he would have said: Need; since there is no disagreement between the people of the tongue that word when it was a male and female and then replied conscience; defeated him utter recall and conscience, when the conscience response to the female; aware that the subject of their monopoly, and named “Widower” تجوزا; analogy them; therefore described himself as a male([65]).

Thus invoked Islamic scholars and assets to what is prescribed in the rules of the language.

– If recommended for the firstborn children of so and so; not enter infected بالفجور, Will enters the unmarried men in the commandment to build on the health of the launch of pristine them?; Kcolh e: «Pristine Babakr a hundred lashes and exile years»([66]). وإذا دخلوا؛ فهل من باب الحقيقة أو المجاز؟، والراجح أنّهم يدخلون من باب المجاز، والأصل في الكلام الحقيقة.

Said in Badai: “وإطلاق البكر على الذكر من باب المجاز”([67]).

The second rule: “إذا تعذّرت الحقيقة يصار إلى المجاز”

The general meaning of the base is: That the truth if you can not be or abandoned; appoint determination to metaphor.

The impossibility of three types:

First: Mental impossibility, as if to say to anyone who is older than him: You and I have, metaphorically carries on emancipation that was a slave.

Secondly: Impossibility normal or customary law and, if mind,, NATO someone who does not eat from this tree فينعقد fruit.

Thirdly: Legal impossibility, like marriage, it in fact a metaphor intercourse in the contract, if he told foreign: I Nkank of such and such, فينصرف to a contract metaphor for Could not legally truth; is marrying foreign intercourse with her sense.

The second reason of the reasons for leaving the truth: To be abandoned, which imagines accessible only reason that people abandoned([68]), Which are two.

First: That be deserted the norm, like NATO does not eat from this flour, Faihnt eating bread and cake and pie.

II: Be the Sharia Kaltokel is deserted in the rivalry, and rivalry essence of the dispute, which is legally forbidden to verse: ﴿وَلاَ تَنَازَعُوا﴾، فتنصرف الوكالة مجازاً إلى الجواب مطلقاً إنكاراً أو إقراراً.

وهناك أسبابٌ لترك الحقيقة والمصير إلى المجاز، وهي الدلالة، وهي أربعة أقسام: Significance in the same speech, and significance in the context of the speech, and the significance of the custom, and the significance of returning to the intention of the speaker and his intention([69]).

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

It branches:

إذا أوصى أو وقف على أولاده وليس له إلا أولاد أولاد فإنّه يصحّ وصية أو وقفاً عليهم([70]).

لو حلف لا يأكل من هذه الشجرة فأكل من ثمرها أو ثمنها؛ فإنّ يمينَه تنصرف إلى ما يخرج منها إن كان مأكولاً أو إلى ثمنها إن لم يُخرجْ منها ما يؤكل؛ لتعذّر الحقيقة وهي أكلُ عينِ الشجرة([71]).

Has gone through many of the branches of this rule during the stated reasons for leaving the truth, such as mental impossibility, as if to say to anyone who is older than him: You are my son.

Such customary impossibility: NATO someone who does not eat so much, was held to solve it right.

Such legal impossibility: Like utter marriage if launched on foreign and departed metaphorically to the contract, and so many.

The third rule: “Which if not the realization of speech neglected”

If he can not industrious that carries the words designate for what it is not permitted; it يهمله and becomes useless Goa.

The reasons for the neglect of pronunciation:

The word may be neglected بسببين presidents:

First: Not in reality and in the realization of one of the types of bypass impossibility previous.

The second: To be a common word among those involved and there is no likely one over the other, and this is when the tap and chosen when Razi and his followers.

But when Shafei and Abu Bakr الباقلاني the joint is not considered negligible; passport to get the common word to all the meanings they have.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

It is this rule branches:

– لو ادّعى أحدٌ في حقّ من هو أكبرُ منه سناً ومعروفُ النسب من غيره أنَّه ابنه فهو لغوٌ؛ لظهور كذبِه عقلاً وشرعاً، فلا يمكن إعماله حقيقة في إثبات نسبه ولا مجازاً عن إعتاقه، وهذا مذهب جمهور الأئمة المالكية والشافعية والحنابلة، وخالف في ذلك أبو حنيفة ـ رحمه الله ـ؛ فأعملَ كلامَه مجازاً عن الحرية؛ لأنَّ أبا حنيفة يعتبر المجازَ خلفاً عن الحقيقة باعتبار التكلُّم، وغيره يعتبره خلفاً عنها باعتبار الحُكم؛ يعني إذا تعذَّر انعقادُ الكلام للحكم الأصلي؛ تعذَّر انعقاده للحكم الخلفي، وبُنُوَّةُ الأكبر للأصغر متعذِّرةٌ؛ لذلك لا تصلُح مجازاً عن الحرية([72]).

– If he said to his wife, a well-known proportions of other: This is my daughter, do not fall band between them, and a positive this talk prove descent has become religiously مكذبا, located his words to Goa when all scholars, including Abu Hanifa God's mercy. As for canceled when the public is evident, a denial-Shara and the sense of him, but when Abu Hanifa; is because it is not a positive way of recognizing words in his own, but is positive proof of descent may lie Shara is located to Goa.

– If he said: This commandment to Moulay, and has a sire of the highest, Mr. and Molly from the bottom of a slave, and the commandment is valid for two; because if they were to master it as thanks for his hands white, and if the slave is a pity and compassion, Vtlgo commandment to not fact and metaphor.

RULE: “If the truth interferes with the truth linguistic legitimacy provided legitimacy”

Branches of this rule:

– Carrying words of the Prophet e: «Wandering prayers House»([73]) Legitimacy until the required in circumambulation purity, and not on prayer language that is absolute supplication.

– Carry the word of the Prophet e: «I am if I fast»([74]) When it enters the wives and says to them: Are Andkin the food? : No, he said: «I would be fast, carries on the fast forensic linguistic without an absolute constipation.

– Carry the word of the Prophet e: «The two older group»([75]) On the legitimate meaning, which is the rule of the group legally in terms of Altamir to travel, and prayer on Friday; where they were being held Friday prayers, and not on linguistic truth, a passport naming three of the group in terms of language; the fact that the Prophet e has sent a statement legitimacies([76]).

Here, provided legitimacy to the linguistic truth; to the fact that the Prophet e sent to legitimacies statement and not a statement of facts language.

Fifth base: “If the linguistic truth interferes with the truth made known customary use”

And its subsidiaries:

– If he says to his wife: If I sat on the rug under the roof in the light of the OS you are divorced, sat on the ground under the sky in the light of the sun, does not release with that God called the land carpet, and the sky ceiling preserved, and the sun a lamp and Haga; due to provide the truth customary; Because people but يتخاطبون Palmshahur of .

– If he said: I do not eat meat, he ate fish, not unkept, and God called flesh; because people do not call for custom meat([77]).

– Lu said: God, do not enter the house, he went in the bathroom does not unkept, although he called the Prophet as saying beta e: «Evil bathroom House»; so as to provide custom language([78]).

Seventh in the demand rules concerning Bembages of joint verbal

Known imams language and scholars of many common definitions of assets, and the best of what was defined as: “Thread pronunciation of facts, or more than a first position in terms of two well”.

Saying: “The facts” Beware of individual names.

And saying: “The first situation” Out what is indicated above facts, but on some truth and others بالمجاز; therefore said first situation to come out metaphor.

It is the rules that have an impact on branches jurisprudential base: “The realization of the common sense”.

This has happened in this rule dispute between fundamentalists.

Hanafis and Abu Hashim and Abu Hussein visual Mu'tazilis Karkhi and the imam in the crop to say, the subscriber is not permissible to work, it is a total work depends on the Rod presumption set out from the street([79]).

He kind of tap “Has no pan”; Any common is not used in more than one meaning.

And went Shafei God's mercy and the judge Abu Bakr الباقلاني to passport common use in all sense. This is the view of fiscal and Abdul-Jabbar the Mu'tazili of the.

Quoted the first team that the author of the language if you put in words for concepts to monopolize either have been developed, however, to sum, or put it to them, the said that what put the total; Fastamalh to benefit the total use of the term when it is not put to him and that it is not permissible.

But if we say that the total mode then one either be used for the benefit of the total and alone, or his testimony with the benefit of individuals, was the first word is not a Mvhomath.

But if we say that he used in the statement of total and individuals to combine it stores; because his testimony to the total sufficiency means that not only gets them, and his testimony to Single-sufficiency means that each and every one gets the collection between the two extremes, which stores([80]) Affirmed that the joint where it is common can not be used to benefit Mvhomath for combining([81]).

Shafei argument God's mercy:

Quoted Shafi, saying the Almighty: ﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوُابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ﴾([82]). It also said: ) Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet (([83]).

God has wanted all the meanings of which are to undergo prostration; because it is meant by the mountains and the trees and the stars and the animals. And wanted to put the front on the ground; because it is meant by the people. The prayer of God's mercy, and angels for forgiveness, and pray for believers, God has wanted all these meanings of the word prayer.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

– It is said to Abdo: If I saw a kind; you are free. He saw the current or the seeing, or the freeing spy; and the realization of a joint in all sense.

– If he says to his wife: Trbesa yourself three Read- The word Alqra joint venture between menstruation and purity -, it is common to carry all sense; allows her to invoke one of them; any Balehidhat or pure for the allowance, the woman was the diligence of the people of God accept them self with each of them rather than the other.

Said Sebojh: “قول الآخر لغيره: الويل لك؛ دعاءٌ وخبرٌ”، فجعله مفيداً لكلا الأمرين، فثبتت بذلك أنّ أصل هذه القاعدة من قواعد اللغة العربية.

المطلب الثامن في مباحث الترادف والتوكيد

ومن المباحث اللغوية التي لها علاقة بعلم أصول الفقه؛ مبحث الترادف والتوكيد. وذلك؛ لأنهما من العوارض التي تعرض للكلام العربي الذي ورد فيه الخطاب الشرعي. It is of anecdotal actions when fundamentalists; therefore brought him to the attention of Jurisprudence.

Meaning of synonymy in language:

Synonymy in language taken from the reserve, which is riding on two animal.

In the said convention Oval: Is a succession of individual words function on a single named as one, كالإنسان and humans. It may be linguistically synonymy. كالإنسان and humans, or legitimate Calverd and the duty, or customary a lion and seven, or as bilingual as God / Khaddaa / Farsi.

The rules prescribed in this section, you need to lead every other of Almtradwin erected so that true Pronunciation either one in installation is required to correct pronunciation in another installation?.

The doctrine of many of the people of the language that you do not have to; because your installation might occur which prevents the use of the other, and his statement of the object, including:

– True to say: Pass holder Zaid, is not correct to say: Pass relegated Zaid, but is synonymous with the owner.

– Including the act of absent Khiaat name: After words, is one who does not separate conscience visible after only, do not say: What crying to the moon, but Zaid, not crying to the moon, but it is, true with (After).

And Some fundamentalists son went to the eyebrow that it was necessary and healthy; because the purpose of installation but is without meaning pronunciation.

Oval and went to the health If Almitredvan than one language, and of the two languages ​​is not valid; because one of the other languages ​​for neglected, Fajtlat the necessary languages ​​him careless included to users, and this is not true.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

And jurisprudential branches on this rule:

– Opening takbeer not valid non-Arab who improves Arabic, and is valid for those who do not improve,. The translation in the marriage, and irreversibility, and peace wherein three aspects, Osahha in first two absolutely Health, and in detail the peace between Arab improves and improves.

– Rafii, including what he said in the book claims: That if the judge said: Say God and said,: Rahman, he was Nacla for the right.

– The modern novel, in the sense in which the doctrines, graduating some of the controversy mentioned in al-Qaida.

Demand ninth in the assertion

Emphasis in the language: Strengthen the meaning of what Another word, which is either moral, according to your word: The folk all أجمعون, either verbal; any particular re-wording, according to your word: The folk folk came.

It is relevant linguistic rules knowledge base assets: “Incorporation of the first assertion”([84]), And the meaning of this rule: That the word of the street or the words of charge if between the House make him a useful new meaning;, that is better than him to return, but they said: “The first to benefit from return”.

This rule branches:

It branches:

– If he says to his wife: You are divorced, you are divorced, you are divorced, three times, carrying his foundation; located divorce irrevocably three; lamb on incorporation. فإن قال أردت التوكيد صُدِّق دِيانَةً لا قضاءً؛ لأن القاضي مأمور باتّباع الظاهر عند أبي حنيفة ومالك([85]). وقال الشافعي وأحمد لا يلزمه إلا واحدة([86]).

And its subsidiaries:

– If NATO is doing, then NATO Council or in the Council and one never does, then he did, does bear his right second and third on the foundation until the answer each right of expiation, or even on the assertion he is obliged to offer one expiation?. A dispute between scholars.

Some of them holds the second and third right on the incorporation assertion never intentionally or not he meant, and they tap([87]), And some of them carried on the foundation, but is intended to emphasize, is the view of the Shafi'i school([88]), المرجوح in the Maliki school([89]), And some of them carried on religion assertion does not spend a doctrine Karkhi from the tap, and some of them carried on the assertion they Hanbali.

But what went tap Shaafa'is and some Maaliki is closest to the base.

Many branches of al-Qaeda absorbed in a book to explain the rule college of the first speech of neglect p 290.

X requirement in the rules that specializes peek

House of Commons in the language: The inclusion of a command to another.

In the terminology: Is the word takes all what works for him to develop and push one of but not limited to.

There are words indicate the general formulas called the House of Commons, or general words, such as word: All and all, and the rest, as a whole, and in general, and O Socialized, and all.

It is also general words connected names such as: , Etc., and أخواتهما, and the names of the condition, and local b “AL”, Whether was a solely Kcolh the name says: ) And Allah has permitted trading and forbidden usury (([90]), Or the name of the genus, such as: “Man” In the verse: ) And that the human era for in lost (([91]), As well as the indefinite article in the context of exile, and the indefinite article in the context of the condition. وكلُّ صيغة من هذه الصيغ هي قاعدة، ولها من الفروع الشيءُ الكثير بيَّنتُها في كتابي “غاية المأمول في توضيح الفروع للأصول”، وكثيرٌ منها مذكورٌ في كتب تخريج الفروع على الأصول.

These formulas developed by scientists for the benefit of the whole language and inclusiveness, has been taken for the people of language purists. They decided during their words for a public indication that the significance of through language, and the people of the language but they put these words to denote Overall Alastgraca the certainty, until he decided to tap a general indication of its members peremptory connotation, which is what we want to be explained in the following rule.

من قواعد العموم أنّ العام دلالته على أفراده قطعية عند الحنفية، وعند الجمهور ظنيةٌ.

Quoted the public that there is no general only his income allocation, The tap was quoted linguistic truth, the people of the language and put these words but they put the public Alastgraca which is useful for cutting Had useful for لظن of was used in is what put him([92]).

وهكذا نرى أثر اللغة على القواعد الأصولية وصِلَةَ القربى بين النوعين من القواعد.

وقد تفرَّع عن هذه القاعدة مسائلُ أصوليةٌ منها:

– The first issue: “إذا تعارض العامّ مع الخاصّ قُدِّمَ الخاصُّ”; The lack of reward between the public and private sectors, there is no contradiction between the two, but also offers a private year, this is when the audience, and when you tap on your public offers; denote the year because they have peremptory.

– The second issue: “العام إذا كان قطعي الدلالة فلا يصح تخصيصه بالقياس ولا بخبر الواحد، وأما إذا كانت دلالته ظنية فيجوز تخصيصه بالقياس وبخبر الواحد”.

But this rule of countless branches.


Eleventh requirement: In the which specializes بالدلالة rules on verbal way speakers

Semantics is divided into verbal operative, and the concept of.

Valmntoq: ما دلّ عليه اللفظُ في محلّ النطق، مثل قوله تعالى: ) And Allah has permitted trading and forbidden usury (([93]).

والمفهوم: ما دلّ عليه اللفظ لا في محلّ النطق، كدلالة قوله تعالى: (وَلاَ تَقُل لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ(([94]) على تحريم الضرب من باب أولى.

ثم قَسَّموا المنطوقَ إلى: منطوقٍ صريح، ومنطوق غير صريح.

فالصريح: ما دلّ عليه اللفظ مطابقةً، أو تضمُّناً.

وعرّفوا دلالة المطابقة: بأنّها دلالةُ اللفظ على تمام المعنى، كدلالة الإنسان على الحيوان الناطق.

وأمّا دلالة التضمن: فهي دلالة اللفظ على جزءِ معناه، كدلالة الإنسان على الحيوان فقط، أو الناطق فقط.

The operative is frank: It is a sign on the road meaning pronunciation commitment.

And Ksmoh into three sections:

1- Indication signal: It is a word sign unintentional necessary for the speaker, a sign says: ﴿وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلاثُونَ شَهْرا﴾([95])، مع قوله تعالى: ﴿وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ﴾([96]); That less gestation period of six months, by subtracting the twenty-four months of breastfeeding remains six months to less than the duration of pregnancy.

2- Require significant: وهي دلالة اللفظ على لازمٍ مقصودٍ للمتكلِّم لولاه لما صحَّ الكلام عقلاً ولا شرعاً. ومثلوا لها بقوله تعالى: ﴿وَاسْأَلِ القَرْيَةَ﴾([97])، ولتصحيحه عقلاً قدَّروا كلمةَ “People”. وبقوله e: «Raise my ummah for mistakes and forgetting what they are forced him»([98]). The corrected religiously estimated “Raise sin”, Any error sin and forgetfulness, and the incidence in the nation.

3- Denote alert and gesture: They signify the word needed intentional speaker does not depend upon the sincerity of speech or health reason or religiously, but it depends eloquence of speech.

And what's more due to be sentenced as an association or a condition, if not bug description and the condition of the rule; was to associate breach in the eyes of the people of Language.

وقسّموا المفهومَ إلى: مفهوم موافَقة، ومفهوم مخالَفة.

وعرفوا مفهوم الموافقة بأنه: “دلالة اللفظ على ثبوت حكم المنطوق للمسكوت عنه وموافقتِة له نفياً وإثباتاً”([99]).

وقسّموه إلى: مفهوم مساوٍ، ومفهوم أولى.

The verdict was in silent equal to the operative part of it; is the concept of equal.

The verdict was in the first Untold Story of operative governance; first is the concept of.

The first example: تحريمُ حرقِ مالِ اليتيم، فإنّه مساوٍ لتحريم أكله.

ومثال الثاني: تحريم ضرب الوالدين، فإنّه أولى من تحريم التأفيف؛ لأن الإيذاءَ فيه أشدُّ.

وأمّا مفهوم المخالفة فقد عرفوه بأنه: دلالة اللفظ على حكم في المسكوت مخالِفٍ للمنطوق، وهو أنواع: مفهوم الصفة، ومفهوم الشرط، ومفهوم الغاية، ومفهوم الزمان، ومفهوم المكان، ومفهوم اللقب عند البعض([100]).

وقالوا إنّ تعليقَ الحكم بأحَد هذه القيود؛ يدُلُُّ على انتفاءِ الحكم عند انتفاء قيدٍ منها.

The rules prescribed in this topic: “To restrict the rule in one of my recipe indicates the absence of self-governance when the absence of capacity”.

The fate of this rule is to prove the concept of Authentic offense, is the view of the public: المالكية والشافعية والحنابلة.

وذهب الحنفية إلى اعتبار مفهوم المخالفة من الأدلّة الفاسدة.

Imams protested the public that the language may have worked sense and considered argument, including Imam Abu Obeid Bin Qasim peace, and Imam Shafi'i, two of the senior leaders of the language is indisputably.

واحتجّ الحنفية بأنّ الاحتجاجَ بالمفهوم أدّى إلى لازم باطل، من ذلك قوله تعالى: ﴿وَلا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاءِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَ تَحَصُّناً﴾([101]). فمفهوم الآية أنّ الفتيات إن لم يردن التحصنَ، يجوز إكراههن، وهو لازمٌ باطل، فما أدّى إليه -وهو العمل بالمفهوم- يكون باطلاً.

وأيضاً قوله تعالى: ﴿وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللاَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم﴾([102]), Said: If Rababh outside stone; passport it is necessary to marry her, a void.

They cited them many examples does not say the public sense it; fact that concept into a necessity, if loomed for the hard-working any sense; is understood from the fact that enrollment went way out often, or statement of fact, or left exit dramatize the verdict, or magnification ordered, or opposed operative, the concept .

وهكذا ظهر لنا كيف احتكم جمهور الأصوليين إلى ما قرَّره أئمَّة اللغةِ؛ فإنهم لما سمعوا قول الرسول e: «مطْلُ الغني ظلم»([103]); Said that this shows that the proposed view is not injustice, they imams language, if it was mentioned constraint to Goa; would have been a breach of the statement and eloquence; because the word of God and the words of the Messenger of Allah e idle and should be protected from tampering.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

من أهمّ الفروع على هذه القاعدة:

1- Scientists differ in biblical marriage of the nation at the loss of free length.

فقد ذهب الجمهور إلى عدم جواز ذلك أخذاً من قوله تعالى: ) And you could not marry the chaste women throughout believing what it is proprietary of your girls believing (([104])، فمفهوم الآية يشير إلى تحريم الأمة الكتابية لواجدِ طوْل الحرّة.

وذهب الحنفية إلى جواز نكاح الأمة الكتابية عملاً بالعموم الوارد في قوله تعالى: ﴿وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَلِكُمْ﴾([105]).

2- Differences in the marriage of the nation along with free.

وقد اختلف فيها الجمهور مع الحنفية على غرار الخلاف السابق.

3- Fad prove good for the concept of the words of the Apostle e: «من أحدث في ديننا ما ليس منه فهو ردٌّ»([106]). فلو أُحدث في الدين ما هو منه ومندرجٌ تحت أصلٍ من أصوله أو كليٍّ من كلّياته؛ فليس بردٍّ؛ لأن للمفهوم اعتبارُه في الشرع؛ لأنه دليل من الأدلة المعتبرة.

وهناك فروع كثيرة تُثبت حجيّة المفهوم المخالِف، وقد اضطُرَّ الحنفية لإثباته في كلام الفقهاء، لكن ليس من طريق اللغة كالجمهور، بل من طريق العُرف.

المطلب الثاني عشر: في مباحث الحروف وتحته قواعد

One of the most important language paints a relationship with the knowledge of the principles of jurisprudence; letters meanings mentioned by the Imams of language such as: Son OS in assets, and Zamakhshari in the model, and Abu Hayyan in the ocean sea, and Ghazna in Budaiya, and the son of the owner in the proof and others, and the Persian letters, and Almagay in paving buildings, Hassan Bin Qasim Moradi in Jana proximal, and other imams grammar, language.

وحروف المعاني كثيرة، نكتفي بإيراد بعض الأمثلة التي يتّضح بها المقصود ويَظهر من خلالها علاقة اللغة بأصول الفقه.

وأبدأ بحرف “الفاء”:

قال المرادي في الجنى الداني: “وأصول أقسام الفاء ثلاثة: عاطفة، وجوابية، وزائدة. أما العاطفة فهي من الحروف التي تشرِك في الإعراب والحكم، ومعناها التعقيب، فإذا قلت: قام زيد فعمرو؛ دلّت على أنّ قيام عمرو بعد زيد بلا مهلة، فتشارك “Then” في إفادة الترتيب، وتفارقها في أنها تفيد الاتصال، و “Then” تفيد الانفصال، وهذا مذهب البصريين”([107]).

وذهب قومٌ منهم ابن مالك إلى أنّ “الفاء” قد تكون للمهلة بمعنى “Then” وجعل من ذلك قوله تعالى: ﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَتُصْبِحُ الأَرْضُ مُخْضَرَّةً إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ﴾([108])، وردّ بأنها للتعقيب وتعقيبُ كلّ شيء بحسبه.

وذهب الفَرّاء إلى أنّ ما بعد “الفاء” قد يكون سابقاً إذا كان في الكلام ما يدل عليه كقوله تعالى: ﴿وَكَمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا فَجَاءَهَا بَأْسُنَا بَيَاتًا أَوْ هُمْ قَائِلُونَ﴾([109]). والبأسُ في الوجود واقعٌ قبل الإهلاك. وأجيب بأن معنى الآية: وكم من قرية أردنا إهلاكها، كقولهم: “إذا أكلت فسمّ الله ” وقيل غيرُ ذلك.

وذهب بعضهم إلى أن “الفاء” قد تأتي لمطلق الجمع كـ “الواو”، وقال به الجرمي في الأماكن والمطر خاصّة، تقول نزلتُ نجداً فتِهامَة، ونزل المطرُ نجداً فتهامة، وإن كان ابتداءُ النـزول بتهامة أولاً.

قال المرادي([110]): “وقد اتّضح بما ذكرته من هذه الأقوال أنَّ ما نقله بعضهم من الإجماع على أنّ الفاءَ للتعقيب غير صحيح”، وللفاء العاطفة أحكام يضيق عن ذكرها المقامُ.

The “الفاء” الجوابية فمعناها الربط وتلازمها السببية، وقال بعضهم والترتيب أيضاً كما في العاطفة ثمَّ إنّ هذه الفاءَ قد تكون جواباً لأمرين: أحدهما الشرط “بإن” وأخواتها، والثاني ما فيه معنى الشرط نحو “The”.

The “الفاء” الزائدة فضربان: أحدهما الفاء الداخلية على خبر المتبدأ إذا تضمن معنى الشرط، نحو: الذي يأتي فله درهم، فهذه “الفاء” شبيهة بـ “فاء” A requirement, but they made redundant with the meaning of the condition include being; Mstgn that the news link Balambtdo alleyway, but debutante like what the name of the condition; entered ta experience in analogy to the answer, and her testimony this sense does not preclude the designation of redundant.

الثانية الفاء الداخلة على الفعل المقدَّم معمولُه في الأمر والنهي، مثل: زيداً فاضربه وعمرواً لا تُهِنْ، فذهب قومٌ
-منهم الفارسي- To increase, and people who went to it a passion, and they said originally Zaid Vadharb; alert Vadharb Zaid, Valfa emotion on alert, and then delete it act Almattov Vlzim delay ta lest located breaststroke; therefore provided by the applicable.

وذكر النحاة معانيَ أخرى للفاء، أحدها الناصبة للفعل في جواب الطلب، نحو: لا تختلفوا فتختلفَ قلوبكم.

ومذهب البصريين أنّ هذه الفاء عاطفة، والفعل منصوب بأنْ مضمرة بعد الفاء، ويسمّونها “فاء السببية” نحو قوله e: «لا تشدّدوا فيُشدَّدَ عليكم».

The neighbor, a fulfillment of the Lord, but grammarians being weakened neighbor, but that drag is the Lord, so I'm told Bird and son of the owner Alnhoyen consensus that the traction in the Lord is not deleted Balvae.

وتأتي للاستئناف نحو قوله تعالى: ﴿أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ﴾([111])، وهي عند التحقيق فاءُ العطف.

وتأتي بمعنى حتى كقوله تعالى: ﴿فَهُمْ فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ﴾([112]). والتحقيق أنها فاءُ العطف.

وتأتي بمعنى إلى، ذكره بعض الكوفيين ومثّلوا له بقول القائل: هو أحسنُ الناس ما بين قرن فقدم، أي إلى قدمٍ وقد ضُعِّف ذلك.

الفاء عند الأصوليين:

أما عند الأصوليين فأكثر ما تأتي أولاً للترتيب مع التعقيب، وممن ذهب إلى هذا المذهب: ابن النجار في شرح الكوكب المنير([113]); Because the basic principle ta be for an arrangement with the comment, quoted on the consensus of the people of the language. Imam Razi: “But said she reached for comment; intercourse with the people of the language”([114]).

(I) نقلُ الإجماع غير مسلّم، فقد نفى المراديّ في الجنى الداني نقل الإجماع عن أهل اللغة حيث قال: “وقد اتّضح بما ذكرته من هذه الأقوال أنّ ما نقله بعضهم من الإجماع على أنّ الفاء للتعقيب غيرُ صحيح”([115]).

وتأتي عندهم للجزاء، وقد حدث خلاف بين الأصوليين في أنّ “فاء” الجزاء هل تفيد التعقيب أوْ لاً، فذهب أبو إسحاق الإسفراييني إلى القول بأنها تفيد التعقيب، أما الباجي فقال: إنها لا تفيد التعقيب.

ثم اختلفوا في الفاء إذا وقعت في جواب الأمر والنهي هل تفيد التعقيب؟، فذهب الرازي إلى أنّها لا تفيد التعقيب([116])، وأما المعتزلة فقالوا إنها تفيد التعقيب واستدلّوا عليه بقوله تعالى: ﴿كُن فَيَكُونُ﴾([117]).

وتأتي عندهم للسببية كقوله تعالى: ﴿وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَاأُولِي الأَلْبَابِ﴾([118]).

After presenting this brief statements; we can observe that there is disagreement between grammarians and linguists in use ta, but that the use of linguists have wider use of fundamentalists, fundamentalists and did not use them because of the extra base planned in the science of jurisprudence and assets is that: “The realization of the first speech of neglect”, And crafts plus if it means that he neglected has no meaning and interest in it, and this is what it serviced street wise words, as preserved by the wise words of his mind as to. كما نُلاحظ سلطانَ الإجماع واشتراكَ اللغويِّين مع الأصوليين في الاحتجاج به والنظر في طريقة نقله. وهذا يكشف عن صلة القربى بين هذين النوعين من القواعد.

Most important branches jurisprudence that branched off on this rule:

It is these branches:

– If he says to his wife: The entered the house فكلمت Zaid; you are divorced, conditions shall be met in the fall for access first and then Tclem the Zaid, as asserted by Rafii in the door of divorce([119]).

– If he says to his wife before entering: أنت طالق فطالق; فإنها تطلق بالأولى ولا يلحقها ما بعدها سواء في ذلك التعليق والتنجيز([120]).

الكلام على “Then”:

المشهور أن “ثم” According to the order when more linguists, and they have emotions that benefit arrangement with lax.

And went الأخفش, Abu Asim al-Abadi of Shaafa'is that they do not benefit arrangement; adherent, saying the Almighty: ﴿خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا﴾([121])، وبقوله تعالى: ﴿وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الإِنْسَانِ مِن طِينٍ، ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِن مَاءٍ مَهِينٍ، ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِهِ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالأَبْصَارَ وَالأَفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلاً مَا تَشْكُرُونَ﴾([122]).

وقد أجيب عن الآيات بأجوبة لا مجال لذكرها هنا([123]).

وقالوا إنها تأتي زائدةً؛ لذا قال ابن هشام في المغني ([124]): “وأجرى الكوفيون “Then” مجرى الفاء والواو في جواز نصب المضارع المقرون بها بعد فعل الشرط”([125]).

The purists argued that “Then” According favorably with arrangement and inaction, said Imam Haramain: “As for “Then” It's emotions, but an arrangement with lax”([126]), Said Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi: “And arranging for inaction and put him “Then” “، وقال ابن اللحام الحنبلي: “ثم من حروف العطف وهي تفيد الترتيب لكن بمهلة”([127])، وذكر الطوفي الحنبلي أنّ هذا مذهب أكثر أصحاب الإمام أحمد رضي الله عنه([128]).

وهنا نلاحظ أنّ الأصوليين قد حصروا استعمال “Then” في كونها عاطفة، وأنها تفيد الترتيب مع التراخي، وهي ليست عندهم زائدةً؛ لأن الزيادة تفضي إلى الإهمال، وإعمال الكلام أولى من إهماله.

Subsidiarity scientists on this rule:

Branches of this rule:

– If he told his agent: Take financial support from my wife, then Khalaha, was taking money before dislocation unlike what if بالواو; it is not required to provide to take the money on divorce.

إذا وقف على أولاده، ثم أولاد أولاده ثم على المساكين، فينتقل الموقوف إلى الموقوف عليهم على هذا الترتيب.

الكلام على “Alaba”:

الباء للإلصاق سواءٌ دخلت على فعل لازم أو متعدٍّ عند جمهور أهل اللغة، وذهب الأصوليون إلى أنّ الباء إذا اتّصل بالكلام مع الاستغناء عنه أفاد تبعيضاً ومنه قوله تعالى: ﴿وامْسَحُوا بِرُؤُوسِكُم﴾([129])، وأنكره ابنُ جني كما في البرهان للجويني([130]). وقال الشافعي ـ رحمه الله ـ تأتي الباءُ بمعنى علا، كما في قوله تعالى: ﴿وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ إِنْ تَأْمَنْهُ بِدِينَارٍ لا يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ﴾([131]);: على دينار([132]).

وتأتي الباء للاستعانة، نحو: كتبتُ بالقلم وضربتُ بالسيف.

وتأتي بمعنى المصاحبة، نحو: قولهم اشتريتُ الفرسَ بسِرْجه؛ أي مع سِرْجه.

وبمعنى الظرف، نحو: جلستُ بالسوق.

وللتعدية، مثل: مررتُ بزيد.

الباء عند الأصوليين:

The purists increasingly using Alaba Tbaad and Altaadih, which Razi in crop selection, and oval, and attributed to Shafi'i.

واختار بعضهم أن تكون للسببية والطرفية، وهو اختيار ابن عبد الهادي من الحنابلة، وأنكرَ ابن جني من اللغويين مجيئها للتبعيض، وقال: لم يذكره أحدٌ، قال في البحر المحيط: قلتُ أثبته جماعة منهم ابن مالك وقال ذكره الفارسي في التذكرة.

إلا أنّ عامَّة الأصوليين قد أثبتوا كونَها للتبعيض، منهم: Son السمعاني and Mawardi and Ghazali as in the ocean sea for Zrkachi, quoted on that, saying the Almighty: ﴿وامْسَحُوا بِرُؤُوسِكُم﴾.

I: What gone to him الأصولين is closest to the apparent book says: ﴿عَيْنا يَّشْرَبُ بِهَا عِبَادُ اللَهِ﴾؛ أي: يشرب منها، فلما حلّت محل “Of” التبعيضية دلّت على التبعيض.

تفريع العلماء على القاعدة:

– If he says to his wife: The disobey your travel; then you are divorced, the intent Balba causality; divorced because of travel, but did not intend to travel but accidentally Masatha; did not fire because of travel, but that got sin, albeit unintentionally situational; Do not fire unless disobeyed They do not travel before or after([133]).

– Lu said: اعتقتُ هذا بهذا، أو طلَّقتُ هذه بهذه، فإن أراد السببية لم يُعتق الثاني ولم تطلَّق الثانية، وإن أراد الطرفية بمعنى “In” عُتِقَ وطُلِّقَتْ.

– If he says to his wife: أنت طالق طلقة بطلقتين، فإن أراد الظرفية؛ طُلّقت ثلاثاً، وإن أراد تعدل طلقتين طُلّقت طلقتين، وإن أراد الاستصحاب؛ أي مع طلقتين؛ طلقت ثلاثاً والله أعلم

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29- الرسالة للشافعي، تحقيق أحمد شاكر، ط1، 1940م.

30- Kindergarten students of Sheikh Yahya bin Sharaf al-Din nuclear program, the Islamic Bureau of Printing and Publishing.

31- Sunan Ibn Majah, photography: Istanbul portal and Issa al-Halabi, the order: Mohamed Fouad Abdel Baki.

32- Sunan Abu Dawood, photography: Istanbul.

33- سنن الدارقطني، دار المحاسن للطباعة.

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36- شرح التلويح على التوضيح، نشر: مطبعة محمد علي صبيح.

37- شرح تنقيح الفصول للقرافي، دار الفكر، ط1.

38- الشرح الكبير للدردير، المطبوع على هامش حاشية الدسوقي، المطبعة الأميرية ببولاق، وطبعة البابي الحلبي.

39- شرح الجمل على المنهج، المطبوع بهامش حاشية الجمل، دار إحياء التراث العربي.

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41- شرح مجلة الأحكام العدلية، للأتاسي، مطبعة حمص، 1349 E / 1930 M.

42- شرح المنار، لابن العيني المطبوع على هامش شرح المنار لابن الملك، 1385هـ.

43- شرح المنهاج، للبدخشي، مطبعة محمد علي صبيح.

44- شرح المهذب، تكملة المطيعي، مطبعة عاطف.

45- صحيح البخاري، تصوير: اسطنبول، ودار إحياء التراث العربي، ترتيب: Mohamed Fouad Abdel Baki.

46- صحيح مسلم، تصوير: اسطنبول، وطبعة محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي.

47- الطراز للعلوي، يحيى بن حمزة العلوي اليمني، طبعة المقتضب، 1332هـ.

48- العدة في أصول الفقه، للقاضي أبي يعلى الحنبلي، ت: د.أحمد سير المباركي، مؤسسة الرسالة، ط1، 1980م.

49- العضد على مختصر ابن الحاجب، مكتبة الكليات الأزهرية.

50- غاية المأمول في توضيح الفروع للأصول، د.محمود عبود، ط1، 1994م، مكتبة البحوث الثقافية طرابلس.

51- الفتح الكبير للنبهاني، مطبعة مصطفى البابي الحلبي، 1350هـ.

52- فواتح الرحموت شرح مسلم الثبوت للأنصاري، المطبوع مع المستصفى، دار إحياء التراث العربي.

53- القاعدة الكلية إعمال الكلام أولى من إهماله وأثرها في الأصول، د.محمود عبود، دار مجد، ط1، 1406هـ.

54- القاموس المحيط للفيروزأبادي (على المادة).

55- Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali rules, Dar El-Baz for publication and distribution, and a library colleges Azhar.

56- I'm welding rules, i 1, Dar knowledge.

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58- كشف الأسرار على أصول البزدوي لعبد العزيز البخاري، طبعة بلاق.

59- San Arabs to the son of perspective (على المادة).

60- اللمع، في أصول الفقه لأبي إسحاق الشرازي، ط1.

61- المبسوط، للسرخسي، ط2، نشر دار المعرفة.

62- المحصول في علم أصول الفقه للرازي، دراسة وتحقيق: د.طه العلواني، ط1، مطبوعات جامعة محمد بن سعود بالرياض.

63- المحلَّى لابن حزم، مكتبة الجمهورية العربية.

64- مختصر الروضة للطوفي، ميكروفيلم في قسم المخطوطات التابع لجامعة الملك ابن سعود في الرياض.

65- Entries major Sahnoun, first edition Bblaq, and edition issued Beirut, Dar knowledge.

66- Almstcefy Ghazali, Blaq.

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[1]) الموافقات للشاطبي، ج3 /22، دار الكتب العلمية، ط1، 1991م.

[2]) المرجع السابق، ج1/29.

[3]) Look: مقدمة غرر المقالة في شرح غريب الرسالة، ص60، ومقدمة زينة العرائس من الطرف والنفائس، د.رضوان مختار، ص46.

[4]) Look: الاقتراح، للسيوطي، ص24 وأثر الاختلاف للخن، ص389.

[5]) هو علي بن محمد المعروف بابن الضائع، توفي سنة 680 E.

[6]) Narrated by Bukhari in Prayer 2/41 Interview (210) 632, And see proposal.

[7]) Prophets, Aya 3.

[8]) 1/189-190.

[9]) Ibid.

[10]) The proposal, p 56.

[11]) Draft Al Taymiyyah, pp. 316 and preparing to Abu second to none (Manuscript).

[12]) Imam Ahmad assets, d. Turkish Abdullah, p 320.

[13]) The proposal, p 58.

[14]) Characteristics, the son reap 1/122.

[15]) The proposal, p 60.

([16]) Look: الخصائص، 1/173 والاقتراح، ص70-75.

17) Look: Characteristics, the son reap 1/248 والاقتراح، ص83.

[18])- الاقتراح، ص87 والإيهاج شرح المنهاج 3/56.

[19])- المراجع السابقة.

[20])- غاية المأمول، ص379.

[21])- المرجع السابق، ص379.

[22])- غاية المأمول، ص382.

[23])- الاقتراح، 91، وغاية المأمول، ص383.

[24])- الاقتراح، ص101.

[25])- So hopefully, p 442.

[26])- Look: Equity 1/ 300.

[27])- Explain the revision of the chapters, p 444.

[28])- Ibid, p 494.

29)- Look: Likes for the resettlement, PO Box 101, Supreme National Library in Lebanon.

30) P 49.

31)- Ibid, p 50.

32)- 1/ 15.

33)- P 127 by book Accessories brides, p 52.

[34])- Book singer Labee, authored: Ibn Hisham, achieve: مازن المبارك ومحمد على حمد الله، دار الفكر، ط2، سنة 1969م.

35)- حققه، د. محمد علي فركوس، ونال به درجة الدكتوراه في كلية أصول الدين جامعة الجزائر.

36)- مطبوع بتحقيق الشيخ محمد حامد الفقي دار الكتب العلمية: Beirut, Year 1403.

37)- This book is printed edition of Dar es Salaam in Cairo, Year 2000.

38)- Specific enterprise edition of Scientific Institute for Research, Publishing and Distribution, Year 1987.

39)- It is a great travel edition of Cultural Research Foundation in Tripoli year, 1994.

[40])- هو عمر بن قنبر، أعلم الناس بالنحو بعد الخليل، توفي سنة 161هـ، له كتاب في النحو اسمه “The book” سماه العلماء: قرآن النحو.

41)- Look: التمهيد للأسنوي، ص145 مؤسسة الرسالة، 1980، ط4.

42)- التمهيد، ص149.

43)- التمهيد، ص149.

44)- التمهيد، ص264، ونهاية السول، 2/ 4. والإبهاج، 2/ 2.

45)- التمهيد، ص265.

46)- قواعد ابن اللحام، ص159.

47)- المراجع السابقة والنظر المستصفى 1/164 والإبهاج 2/15.

48) Norms, Aya 12.

49) طه، آية 93.

[50]) الجن، آية 23.

[51]) Divorce, Aya 2.

[52]) Narrated by Muslim.

[53]) Look: المحصول 2/129 والكاشف 1/ 292 والإبهاج 2/26 والتبصرة، ص38 ومختصر ابن الحاجب 2/ 91.

[54]) Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh 1517 كتبا الجنائز باب الرخصة في زيارة القبور.

[55]) رواه مسلم في باب النكاح 74 And 75 وابن ماجه في النكاح 9.

[56]) قواعد ابن اللحام، ص165، والتمهيد للأسنوي، ص272.

[57]) المراجع السابقة.

[58]) Look: التمهيد للأسنوي، ص290 والرسالة للشافعي، ص211، بتحقيق: أحمد شاكر.

[59]) Looks very book is hoped to clarify the branches of assets, p 210.

[60]) Look: Characteristics, the son reap where he said in definition: “إن الحقيقة ما أُقر في الاستعمال على أصل وضعه في اللغة”. الخصائص، 2/ 442 Dar al-Kutub, and knew Jorjani said: “هي كل كلمة أريدَ بها نفس ما وقعت له في وضع واضع وقوعاً لا يستند فيه إلى غيره كالأسد للبهيمة المخصوصة”. Look: أسرار البلاغة 1/398، ط1.

[61]) Look: القاموس للفيروزر أبادي ولسان العرب لابن منطور وتاج العروس للزبيدي مادة (جَوَز).

[62]) أسرار البلاغة ص398، ط1، والطراز للعلوي 1/67.

[63]) ينظر شرح هذه القاعدة في كتاب القاعدة الكلية إعمال الكلام أولى من إهماله وأثرها في الأصول، ص105.

[64]) Look: أشباه ابن نجيم، ص7 والمدونة 4/344 وشرح المهذب للمطيعي 14/222 مطيعة عاطف والمغني لابن قدامة 5/618.

[65]) Singer 6/54 / 55، والمجموع 14/ 376.

[66]) Narrated by Muslim.

[67]) Badaa'i Sanai Cassani 10/4877. And then.

[68]) Fouath Rahmot 1/221 The origins of the second 34, and Nasafi Manar with Hashah the الرهاوي, p 410.

[69]) Look: Overall realization of the rule book first speech of the neglected for Abdul poor, pp. 211, 201.

[70]) Look: شرح المجلة لعلي حيدر1/ 45 والأشباه لابن نجيم، ص136 والتمهيد للأسنوي/ 230 والبهجة شرح التحفة 2/ 312 And meaning 5/608 وشرح المهذب للمطيعي 19/ 342 والبدائع للكاساني 4/1708.

[71]) Look: حاشية الرهاوي على شرح المنار، ص410 وشرح المجلة للاتاسي 1/ 73 وأصول الشاشي 1/ 185 والمدونة الكبرى 2/ 127 والأشباه للسيوطي، ص70 وقواعد ابن رجب الحنبلي، ص277.

[72]) Look: أصول الرخمسي(References: Perhaps: Sarkhasi) 1/ 162 والشرح الكبير للدردير على هامش حاشية الدسوقي 3/ 412. وشرح الجمل على المنهج 3/ 447 وشرح المهذب للمطيعي 2/306 والمغني 9/332.

[73]) أخرجه النسائي عن طاووس عن رجل أدرك النبي، في كتاب: المناسك، باب: إباحة الكلام في الطواف، ص136 تصوير: اسطانبول.

[74]) أخرجه النسائي من طرق متعددة وكلها عن عائشة في كتاب: الصوم، باب، 67، ج4/193، تصوير: اسطانبول.

[75]) رواه البخاري عن أبي هريرة في كتاب الأذان باب /35/جـ1/160 تصوير استانبول.

[76]) Badaa'i Trades 4/1695 وحاشية الدسوقي على الشرح الكبير 2/128 Dar thought.

[77]) المحصول جـ، 1 ق1 ص479 والفتوحي في شرح الكوكب 1/153 والبدائع 4/1650 وحاشية الدسوقي 2/129.

[78]) الحديث أخرجه ذكره النبهاني في الفتح الكبير وعزاه للبيهقي في شعب الإيمان الفتح الكبير 2/9.

[79]) المحصول للرازي جـ1، ق1، ص372.

[80]) المحصول للرازي جـ1، ق1، ص373.

[81]) Ibid.

[82]) Hajj, verse 18.

[83]) الأحزاب، آية 56.

[84]) الأشباه للسيوطي، ص135 وابن نجيم، ص149 والتمهيد للأسنوي، ص287 ومجلة الاحكام لعلي حيدر افندي 1/53.

[85]) تبيين الحقائق للزيلعي 2/ 218 والشرح الصغير للدردير 3/ 386.

[86]) الأشباه للسيوطي 135- والمهذب للشيرازي 2/ 58 والإنصاف للمرداوي 9/ 22.

[87]) Look: Badaa'i Trades 3/ 10.

[88]) الروضة للنووي 11/ 16.

[89]) أسهل المدارك 2/ 30 و/31.

[90]) Cow, verse 275.

[91]) العصر، الآيتان1-2.

[92]) راجع التلويح على التوضيح 1/ 38 وفواتح الرحموت 1/ 266 والمناهج الأصولية للدريني، ص303.

[93]) Cow, verse 275.

[94]) Isra, verse 32.

[95]) الأحقاف، آية 15.

[96]) لقمان، آية 14.

[97]) Joseph, verse 182.

[98]) شرح العضد 2/ 172.

[99]) شرح العضد على ابن الحاجب 1/ 172.

[100]) كابن الدقاق من الشافعية.

[101]) Noor, verse 33.

[102]) Women, Aya 101.

[103]) الحديث جزء من حديث طويل رواه البخاري عن أبي بكر الصديق، كتاب: وجوب الزكاة، باب: زكاة الغنم م1، ج2، ص146، تصوير: اسطانبول.

[104]) Women, Aya 25.

[105]) Women, Aya 24.

[106]) الحديث رواه البخاري برقم (2697)، ومسلم برقم (1718).

[107]) الجنى الداني، ص61 وما بعدها.

[108]) Hajj, verse 63.

[109]) Norms, Aya 04.

[110]) الجنى الداني، ص63.

[111]) Prophets, Aya 108.

[112]) An'am, verse 139.

[113]) شرح الكوكب 1/34.

[114]) Ibid.

[115]) الجنى الداني، ص63.

[116]) Explain the planet enlightening 1/ 234.

[117]) مريم، آية 35.

[118]) Cow, verse 197.

[119]) التمهيد للأسنوي، ص214.

[120]) قواعد ابن اللحام، ص138.

[121]) الزمر، آية 6.

[122]) السجدة، آية 7-9.

[123]) قواعد ابن اللحام، ص140.

[124]) 1/ 199.

[125]) زينة العرائس لابن عبد الهادي، ص293.

[126]) Proof 1/ 184.

[127]) قواعد ابن اللحام، ص138.

[128]) Look: قواعد ابن اللحام/ 138 وشرح الكوكب المنير 1/237.

[129]) Table, Aya 6.

[130]) Proof 1/81.

[131]) Al-Imran, verse 75.

[132]) Ibid.

[133]) من زينة العرائس لابن عبد الهادي (Adapted)، ص243.


* Jurisprudential evolution science symposium in Amman during the fourth century AH “Legal rules model”.

The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs _ Oman


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  1. جزاكم الله خيرا عن هدا العمل

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