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Fates of the city and civic Islamic

Fates of the city and civic Islamic
Renewable jurisprudence demands of civilization and urbanization *

Preparation: Meets all the conditions legitimacy. D. Radwan Mr.

( Professor of Islamic studies and intellectual Lebanese University )

First: Islamic city

Visualization, structure, and functions of jurists

We have four major types of literature “Islamic city”, A([1]): Writings of historians, usually dealing with the emergence of cities in Islam, such as Basra and Kufa, Wasit, Baghdad. And the writings of these often do not bother only the first phase of the Genesis, and the divisions of the inner city for the first outdated. Therefore, it remains important to point familiar with the ways of thinking and appreciation during construction, but the diets among the key features of an urban stable: House emirate, and the Jama Masjid, and the market, and neighborhoods or quarters, and finally the courtyard or Rabd user of public goods inside or outside the fences. The second type of types of writing about the city is the writings of geographers and travelers They come after the writings of historians more than two centuries.

Addresses the main attractions of the cities of Dar al-Islam or later some ways the third century of migration. And scientists from among geographers such as sapphire Hamwi” Lexicon countries” Care transport for historians on the beginnings of the city, with the exception that there is talk varies in length and stately homes as previously stated landmarks Chairperson of the city such as the mosque, or mosques, university, schools, and groups of the population and ethnic sectarianism, and the elite scientific them, and the different markets where they are located and commodities trading . If historian interested primarily the modalities for the establishment of the city, the geographical and travelers interested primarily in two mostly two things:

Types and commodities markets, and scientific elites and their movement between mosques and schools suspended.

The third type: Types of writing about it is the writings of philosophers cities, and among those particular Farabi (339E). If the writings of historians and travelers historic and realistic and does not include mostly theoretical issues, the writings of philosophers do not include non-perceptions of the city, as a room for the exercise of civil power eligible for it to become a city or state utopia.

The fourth type: Types of writing about the city in our heritage is the writings of scholars, and is concerned with بالأمرين: Visualization, and process specifications of the capital city, or Egyptian([2]). That this characterization is that you mentioned the types of writing about the city or Islamic city in Islam, but it is an initial characterization. Son Khaldoun (-808E) Historian, and Maqrizi of his plans, do not they only ate select the beginnings of cities, for example, but that of the city with them and other functions related to Bmvhomanma Urban Imran. On the other hand for the Ibn Khaldun; it relates to the process of sense the nervous state of the inheritance and bloody Balbadah, and even termination to the city. And philosophers vision for the city / state a bit different to the Ibn Sina reported to the Al-Farabi, though under one conceptual model. In the writings of geographers has controlled the seven geographic Ptolemy their territories to author, goes away to talk about “Image of the earth” From that point of view, almost oblivious to the basic sightseeing only slightly([3]). What you have mentioned biographies of scientists in the city on such date of Baghdad and the date of Damascus and take in the news of Granada, it does not hardly find the information only for the elite scientist, the authors of these books are mostly of scholars and modern, and this is evidence of the importance of civil for scientists.

Thus, we do not find in exploring the perception of ” Islamic city” The reality in its time mediator (Ie between the third century AH and the second century AH), A model closer to what we are dealing with doctrinal writings.

Nor should understand that as Tmdha or praise, he imagine منمط to a large extent has specific functions in mind Faqih and consciousness, relate Bmaheh the city, and its functions, among “تمصير” Prophet PBUH to Yathrib, and تمصير Omar ibn al-Khattab of the seven corner of ([4]) And to the time regardless of its distance jurist geographical or historical era of the emergence of the notions of soldiers and Egyptian in Early Islam([5]).

Based on all these considerations, I Saljo to a few quotations from philosophers of politics and history, the ideas and perceptions I think it influenced the scholars directly or indirectly.

Then focus on the “Islamic city”, Also settled awareness of the scholars, the origin then to talk about the expiration of the model Muslim civil, and imposed on the scholars, who have changed too, of the faces of awareness of new and present the Arab and Muslim world, at the level of ideas, and the level of orientation, and the level of seeing the world, and the ability to .

Farabi says (339 E) ([6]): “.. No rights can be obtained perfect for which it was to have made only instinct many collaborators group meetings, each one for each one and some of what is needed in texture, and to reach perfection. For this people abounded rights Vhsaloa in all the globe of the earth And there were including meetings humanity, some are full and which are not full. The full three: Super junior, central and. Valazmy meetings of the entire group in the world, and nation meeting in the middle part of the globe. And Lesser meeting people in a part of city dwelling nation… Incomplete and meeting the people of the village and the people of the camp meeting, then a meeting in a house, then a meeting in a house… فالخير Far, Far perfect but gets the city's first meeting which is not reduced them…” Thus, the meeting humanitarian or human Farabi innate need, in order to meet the basic human collaboration needs. But beyond it is also necessary to achieve human perfection; perfect because in the eyes of Al-Farabi can be achieved only in the city([7])9).

You do not have to complete a quote on this Platonic conception of the city and connected to perfect; because it ends to reduce all that the President, which is not watched it jurists. But I would like to draw attention to the affected jurists since the fourth century this perception of civil virtues of the meeting. Since they are not confined and Mawardi like them in when praise on the city and Egyptian to enforce immigration time prophecy, and the Lord of the negative effects on the agricultural and rural Badia but they add that features three of the city: Complete religious obligation (Friday prayers), And the existence of the regulatory authority and recognized for the security and stability than the villages, and the ability to exercise scientific and commercial activities([8]).

City jurists to do and Features

– يقول الماوردي في أنواع الأمصار أو المدن: It is of two types([9]): Corner of farms and darkening, and the corner of opportunity and Trade, which means so that the regions have predominantly in the establishment and continuation of its presence in the region of fertile agricultural, some of which is why he can trade opportunities and earning a great for having a big river or beach. Interestingly, he does not mention the «caravans cities» that are in an oasis in the desert or on Hashi

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