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Control over markets, rules and fields

Control over markets The bases and areas *

Preparation: D. Abdul Sattar Abu gland

(Chairman of the Shariah standard of Albaraka Banking Group, and a member of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy)

Presentation
Praise be to God, prayer and peace be upon the Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.
Obvious importance of markets in the economic sphere, and has signed to take care of in the heart of Islam and beyond from the era, and trade flourished and industries, and the values ​​and ethics Mraeih, in addition to the provisions of the Sharia, and before traders advocates their behavior before address them to people in the far reaches of the globe publishers of Islam.

The market has received court supervision through Hisbah which is a dual system of nature, where dealing with various aspects of religious, moral and technical and economic.

This brief paper highlights the literature censorship (Accountability) On the markets, with modern, sophisticated intake control which proved to be adapted from the calculation of the system during the early publication and translation of arithmetic books by Orientalists, and God bless.

Trade and Market

Trade: من أسس النظام الاقتصادي الذي به قوام المجتمعات والدول, Sharia has been urged by the verses and sayings known, Islamic jurisprudence included pictures of trade and related transactions including contracts took a quarter of Jurisprudence.

And trade as defined by pride Razi: A disposition of the money,Whether present, Or to request disclosure Profit.

Ibn Khaldun and defined: As an attempt to gain its own money to purchase goods licenses and sold Balglae the, Whatever the Item, Flour, Or plant, or animal, or canvas, so much so-called developing profitable([1]).

And as defined in the Egyptian Commercial Law: As Crops trading and money and others to bring profit, Either by transfer or swap or change of raw materials, which include industry([2]).

After these three definitions doctrinal, social and legal, The home is a trade markets. Here are some data on the market in Islamic literature:

Origination market in Islam

Muslims deal since the era of the Prophet PBUH and his companions establishment of financial markets, It was reported that the Prophet PBUH established an Islamic market instead of Jews called market (Kinka market); Has Tabaraani narrated: «That a man came to the Prophet PBUH said: I saw the subject of the market do not look at it? : Yes. Stood with him until he came into the market when he saw him liked and ran with his foot, and said: Yes, سوقكم this, neither bent nor bring him closer abscess ».

The Muslims are interested in the establishment of markets in all Islamic countries, especially in big cities, General markets were dealing with all kinds of trade, It was her supervisors, workers, or the governors ATP organize her, and watching what is going on and are appointed by the State([3]).

Then Caliphs meant the market and control; has appointed Omar bin Khattab factor on the market wandering around in the market himself sometimes and prevent fraud in sales([4]).

It turns scholars working conditions given by the Imam or his deputy is this market, which is: أن يكون حرا بالغا عاقلا عادلا قادرا، حتى يخرج منه الصبيّ والمجنون والكافر ويدخل فيه آحاد الرعايا، ويجوز أن تتولاه المرأة، فقد عيَّن رسول الله صلعم وعمر بن الخطاب المرأة على الحسبة كما سيأتي، وأدخلا في أعمالها الإشراف على السوق، ذكر في الإصابة أن النبيَّ صلعم عيَّن امرأة على السوق هي سمراء بنت نهيك الأسدية، وكانت تَمرّ في الأسواق تأمر بالمعروف وتنهى عن المنكر، وتنهى عن ذلك بسوط كان معها الأنصارية([5]).

The legitimate origin of the control on the markets

There are roots for the control of the markets on the subject of calculation, which has become a system of platforms for the reform of society.

The calculation: The name of the (Calculation) Said: Such and such could only awarded([6]), And awarded it to so and so denied it, reward: Savings when God.

And called for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice: Anticipation and computation; because the parent has to do the person to pay and reward and not for the hypocrisy and reputation, or show altitude or pride, and derives the provisions of the calculation in the sentence of the provisions of the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice is clear and Joppema in the Qur'an and Sunnah and does not accommodate primarily to mention.

And charged: Is laid by the ruler or his deputy to look into the conditions of the parish and their detection and interests([7]), As it is called on a volunteer mission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, with excellence controls its mission charged appointed one of the first command([8]).

Terms of the observer on the markets:

Received an important control on the markets in the doctrinal heritage as a dual mission, they both saw an imbalance in the market (Charged volunteer), And assigned this task (Charged Mawla) And أوردوا conditions related to these types of control, supply the right ones for the contemporary application.

It is those conditions: أن يكون عالما بما يراقبه، قادرا على التغيير والقيام به، وبالنسبة لشرط القدرة على التغيير اختلف في طريقته، فإذا كانت بالتنبيه والوعظ بلسانه فلا تحتاج الرقابة أو الحسبة على السوق إلى إذن له من الإمام أو أحد الحكام، أما إن كان التغيير بالمباشرة بإذهاب عين المنكر، أو التخويف بما يناسب المقام ـ مِمَّا لعله يؤدي إلى فتن وافتئات على السلطان ـ فهذا النوع ينبغي أن يتوقف عنه من لم يؤذن له فيه خشية مِمَّا يؤول إليه من المناكر([9]).

And mattresses control or change of evil under both types of calculation voluntary or state levels:

1 / Definition and statement of one who knows that it is the ignorance of what it should be.

2/ Preaching and intimidation in God and warning of maturity and his festival and punishment.

3/ Restraining and censure the tongue and distress to say and those who appeared denial of it falling into the evil principles they did not benefit the preaching.

4/ Change the initiation of those who caught the hand money Mgsob, or was Moaqaa for disobedience.

5/ Change the appropriate punishment, those who wear the evils and can be paid only so.

It is worth mentioning that if you did not even know the evils occurred, or is not able to pay was left only discretionary and reduce it to the referees([10]).

This, though calculation system is one of the States (Departments) Upon which the State, has been referred to books Bowl provisions such as: Book Mawardi and dad second to none, and others.

The system of calculation is based on the allocation of an organ or body assigned to monitor the markets, has been cited by Ibn Abd al-Barr in absorption and Ibn Hajar in injury as formalities administrative Abdul Hai flaxen «that the Prophet صلعم used Saeed bin Aas on the market Mecca» said Sakba «it صلعم .

القائمون بالرقابة، وتخصصهم ، وأخلاقياتهم

Must choose Control (Or calculation) Trustees markets reversed knowledgeable what must be denounced, although singled out (Judge) Each market and cut-throat Secretary of them consider that act according to his diligence and the need([11]).

The observer must (Calculated) أن يقصد بقوله وفعله وجه الله تعالى وطلب مرضاته، وأن يكون خالص النية، لا يشوبه في طويته رياء ولا مراء، ويتجنب منافسة الخلق ومفاخرة أبناء الجنس، لينشر الله عليه رداء القبول، وعلم التوفيق، ويقذف له في القلوب مهابة وجلالة ومبادرة إلى قوله بالسمع والطاعة.

And to be chaste Amul people, Matturaa about accepting a gift from Almtaychen industries and employers, the bribe, has said PBUH: «God damn the briber and the bribed, and because abstinence from that safeguard to display and I prestige.

And be Himth kindness, Lin say, facial versatility, and ease of morality when his people and prohibitions; it reported in winning over the hearts, and intended for, and because Aliglaz in Sturgeon perhaps enticed sin([12]), And taunting بالموعظة the estranged hearts.

And holding son Mofleh in (Islamic etiquette) A chapter entitled: Denial to the people of the market, which cited the words of Ibn al-: Of uncertainty in the market always an evil being or at a particular time and is able to change; not permissible for him to fall so him Balqaud in his home, but he does get out, as much as on the other he must change([13]).

Importance of market control (Accountability)

In regard to the calculation of Imam Abu Ali says in his book: “Calculation of the rules of religious matters, and it was the first Imam Sadr Apashrunha themselves; Pan validity and ĚŇíá reward”([14]), Which is enjoining what is good if the back left, and forbidding what is evil if it appears to do, and reform among the people”([15]).

And Ibn Almnasf says: Do change the evil, and a specific duty, and the imposition of'm sure in some cases, it is not one of law only and should him kindness command and forbidding what is evil. The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Saw of you an evil let him change it with his hand, the he could not Vbulsana, the could not فبقلبه and that is the weakest of faith»([16]). It is the governors, judges, and other rulers enjoined confirmed; because these have enabled the change up, a hand must obey them and compliance, and energizes the hands of governors and Sultan in terms of verse) who if We establish them in the land, establish prayer and pay the zakat and ordered the good and forbid evil (([17])([18]). Imam al-Ghazali: The Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice is a pole greatest in debt, which is important ابتعث God has prophets companions, even foldable simplicity and neglected his knowledge and his work for the disrupted prophecy and decayed religion, and spread sedition, and Fasht misguidance, and the spread of ignorance, and spread corruption, and widened the breach, and ruined the country and perished slaves ([19]).

Requirements for the conduct of official censorship

Does not have to be declared what is authorized and what is forbidden by the account control and punishment, Ibn Almnasf said: “Should apply to people rulers announce the call and declare the punishment for Atsama people so Vigtenboh, should lose such species (Of evil) In the streets, shops, and where it seems a manifest تفقدا impact tending to his family and a deterrent for like”([20]). For the present era must publicize laws and regulations, and decisions concerning the markets in terms of their status and its technical and health conditions.

The observer must also market to absorb what was issued from thereon systems, to be monitored for the markets of a substantive nature and not personally varies between one and another.

Faces detect evil in the oversight process (Or calculation)

Know what is evil, and needs to consider disclosure and diligence, according to the evidence, and must leave from espionage is apparent reason for the verse: ) Nor spied (and also must not reveal what conceals the perpetrator thought that evil, which is not certain that the verse denier: ﴿إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ﴾، ولكن إن ظهر ما يدل عَلَى المنكر كسماع أصوات أو رائحة عمل منكر، أو إذا اشتهر فساد ما فيجب الاجتهاد والفحص وتفقد المظانّ للردع عن المنكر.

Things surveillance

Include things worthy of censorship on religious aspects of the moral, ethical, and physical aspects of the (Economy and Maashih of).

It is what religious censorship Ghazali cited legal requirements to deal'm investigator for compromise) except it be a trade amongst you (by mutual consent([21]).

When markets closed Friday prayers:

Of that neglect of many people and the people of the markets and trades and salaried witnesses Friday prayers, one of the hypotheses of the Senate, has Tmalo many people Sanai today and wage-earners and others on the left and do not attend to their work in time due to attend a prayer, then forced universally witnesses Friday([22]).

Under the title “Evils markets” He said: “Of the usual evils in the markets lying in Murabaha and hide the defect: It is said: I bought this item ten and win well, and punk was a liar he is, and who knew that the buyer tells a lie, minted into account the heart of the seller was his partner in treason and disobeyed acquiescence. As well as if aware of it then he has to call a flaw buyer it, otherwise it was satisfied with the loss of money his Muslim brother is haram.

As well as the disparity in the arm and weights and measures must be both defined by the change himself, or submit it to the governor to change it. As well as in conditions corrupt usual between people should be denial, it corrupts contracts. As well as in the whole Raboyat a controlling interest. As well as other corrupt acts.

As well as selling silk clothing and Qlans gold and silk that are not suitable only for men, or works by customs of the country that do not dress only men; All of that is prohibited denier. As well as the sale gets used dresses cabin vulgar that wears on people Baksartha and allegedly new; This act is haram and interdiction from duty. As well as dressing Ankrac clothes Balrvo What leads to confusion. As well as all types of contracts leading to التلبيسات of([23]).

Control market knowledge to the provisions of

Said Omar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him: “Does not sell in our market only may تفقه in debt”([24]) This is because non-compliance with the provisions of trade leads to a foul-Shara, here it is stated in the seriousness of what is happening in the markets say Salman imbalances may Allah be pleased with him: “Thou if you can not first to enter the market, nor the last to come out of them; they battle the devil, and the focus banner”([25]). Prophet PBUH said to the people of alkyl and balance: «You may be two things perished two above before you Nations»([26])In this says Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali when informed his earning.. The statement Terms Shara: “I know that the collection aware of this section is the duty of every Muslim unearned; Because Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim, but it is the application of science in need him, and AIDS needs to be aware of gain, and no matter what happens aware of this door stop on the things that invalidate the transaction Fatekayaa, and deviated by the branches of the problem .

Had he said: Not the oldest science, but I endure to lie to me the incident then it learn أستفتي, said to him: وبم تعلم وقوع الواقعة إذا لم تعلم جمل مفسدات العقود، فإنه يستمر في التصرفات ويظنها صحيحة مباحة، فلا بد له من هذا القدر من علم التجارة ليتميز له المباح عن المحظور، وموضع الإشكال عن موضع الوضوح”([27]).

Reprehensible and different transactions in banned or Abaanha

As for of reprehensible كالشراء transactions and sales and prevent corrupt Shara him with inaction by the contractors, if agreed on the block; For to calculation undeniable and prevention of it, and restraining him, and ordered him in a different discipline depending on the circumstances and severity of the ban.

As for what the scholars differed in blocked permissible not to him in denying entrance, only to be than twice the dispute, which is an excuse to usury women agreed to be forbidden with stirrups received, enters the undeniable arbiter of its mandate.

The between Islam provisions organizing market, كوجوب the View Item in its market and leave its owner until it reaches the market Faardha and knows the price, says Dr. Ahmed Assal: “At that reduce mediation between producer and consumer is till the item does not assume increased expenditures, an increase of hands dealt, and in particular types of food to the intensity needed”([28]), Narrated that Ibn Abbas t said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Not received stirrups, nor sold lectured for iPad»([29]), Narrated that Abu Hurayrah said the Prophet PBUH: «To have a fetch, received man Fabtall the owner of the lot where the option if the market responded»([30])Ibn Omar said: Were dining Eptaon in higher market Vipheonh in place, «فنهاهم the Prophet PBUH that Pieauh in place until transmit»([31]).

Prevent artificial inflation of prices: Item enjoined display honesty and integrity in the market only, to enable everyone to purchase, and to facilitate the goods to the people, and the lack of price manipulation and control; narrated that Ibn Umar «The Messenger PBUH artificial inflation of prices and artificial inflation of prices: The increase in the price of the item offered for sale not to buy but to tempt so others, and called Nagha; because it raises the desire and raise the price([32]).

To prevent a monopoly Muharram as well; for saying PBUH: 'Fetcher Marzouk and monopolist cursed([33]).

Prevent ambiguity: And to prevent the sale of wool on the sheep's back, and buy in the belly of the cattle, and buy milk in the udder, and other sales ambiguity([34]).

Pints ​​and control scales: The duties of working on the market monitor weights and measures that were of many kinds Mstalma in Islamic cities, which generates unrest and differences require solution, as likely to be of his arbitration in disputes that arise between the self-employed, has been a function of factor on the market tax collection markets ([35]).

Prevent usury: Companions were thinking that does not deal in the market riba or Hbhth of a time of the Prophet PBUH and continued after him.

Market supervision of the highest authority

Market subject to the control officer special called factor on the market, appointed by the Prince, which has some of the judicial authorities and the executive, and provides some of the agents who help him to carry out his duties, and sometimes it was the caliph or prince himself takes control of the market, it was stated Ibn Khalkan that Omar ibn al-Khattab was wandering around in the ([36]).

* Ethical oversight:

The ethical oversight on the markets they are than you should show him all the time, especially in the markets, where frequently careful Alastzadh of the profits and benefits, Anciaca with فطرت upon souls, but Taatzaky morality) and brought selves stinginess () has returned from زكاها (and the law as . The etiquette is the etiquette of market trading, including:

– شعور الأخوة بين المتعاملين، وقد تمثل هذا في التكافل بين أصحاب المهن في السوق بالتعاون والتآزر، ورفع الضرر عمّن تضرر، وتسهيل مزاولته العمل، ولذا وجد ما سمّي (Ensure market) That adopt Sheikh market or a senior merchant traders to ensure new on the market, or collecting money for re-engaged in his work affected.

– الصدق والأمانة، ويكفي شرح ذلك بقوله صلعم: «Trader Saduq Secretary with the prophets and the saints and martyrs»([37]).

– النصح «الدين النصيحة… God and His Messenger and the imams of the Muslims and their common folk »([38]).

– النهي عن تطفيف الكيل والميزان ﴿وَيْلٌ لِّلْمُطَفِّفِينَ﴾، وروي أنه لَمَّا قدم النبيّ صلعم المدينة كانوا من أخبث الناس كيلا، فلما نزلت أحسَنوا الكيل بعد ذلك([39]).

– السماحة في البيع والشراء والقضاء والاقتضاء، وفي الحديث: «God bless the man Simha if sold, if you bought and, if necessary»([40]).

– الرقابة على الإعلانات في السوق لإخلائها مِمَّا يخلّ بالدين أو الخلق.

– ضبط الترويج للسلع لمنع التغرير بالناس.

– تجنب المبالغة في التسويق بسلوك أساليب غير صحيحة.

* Technical control (Professional):

Not only control the markets to take into account the provisions of legitimacy and moral values, but I mean whatever aspects of care professional to demonstrate the safety and crafts shops in the market of impurities satisfaction detects what is located where the manipulation and malfunction.

And technical control, including the space occupied by the market and its contents shops of goods and industries.

To prove the depth of the organization, which bedazzled by the Orientalists فبادروا for the dissemination and translation of books calculation, and استمدوا including systems of municipal and related, reported the following provisions of the heritage without interference, but abbreviated; to confirm this statement, but obeisance efforts of scholars in this field, we have dealt with texts:

– أماكن السوق العامة (Squares) Utilities.

– محلات لِمزاولة المهن والتجارة.

The son of brotherhood under the title: “Calculation on the evils markets”: “The narrow road is not permissible for a of Alsoqh sit where, in his shop terrace output for SMT pillars porches to the corridor; because aggression, and narrows to pedestrians, should be charged to remove and prevention than done because of the to حوق damage to people.

Thus, the output separators, suites and planting trees and Deka monument in the narrow roads denier should ban it, but if a monument bench on the door of the house and planted a tree; it is the owners of Shafi'i said: It is permissible if not damaged by passers-by, and then said: Not exclusive courtyard of his home, but if spacing Jazz, and the money Qazi Hussain. Said Sheikh Abu Mohamed Jouini: May not planter in the street, Deka high in its meaning, and to look at widening the road and bothered, the comrades may collide at night, and crowded with swarms of beasts, and join him that it might be confused on the length of time shop construction and planter, and cut off the impact of entitlement roads. As well as what the damage, and damage to the dwelling. As well as the road linking the animals by narrow roads and entrapment المجتازين denier should ban it, except to the extent required disembark and ride; street because the common benefit, and not for one that specializes only to the extent needed. As well as put up sweeping the vicinity of roads, and dispel the watermelon peel, or water spray so feared gliding and falling.

As well as the water from the gutters director of faeces to the narrow roads, it defiles the road narrows dresses. As well as leave the rain water and mud on the roads of Sweeping is, it's all evil, and not a specialty of the particular person; For charged to instruct the people to carry out.

Should calculated to prevent loads of firewood and Oaadal hay and Rwaya water and sliced ​​Alsrgen ashes, and loads the Allies and forks, so torn clothes of people, it is evil can be stretched and annexation so as not to tear the dresses something, the possible reverse it to a position wider, but not prevent it needed people of the country .

And ordering firewood and straw holders tiles and sulfur, turnips and watermelon earring if they stood in the Aeras (Squares) To put them on the emergence of animals; because if they stood up and loads it Odhartha, and that was to torture her, was «The Messenger of Allah PBUH animal torture is his food». And ordering people markets Pknasseha and cleaned of dirt combined, and so to the detriment of the people; because the Prophet PBUH said: «No damage and no harm».

No one may look on the neighbors of Alstohat and windows, and that the men sit in the streets of women is needed; Whoever does something that عزره charged.

In another text for contraband in the market places Ibn Almnasf says: Such as home (Places) Corruption and Elf known sin, such as the sale of wine and the combination of evildoers, and so on, such as: Finery women Almtserfat the ornamental types Badia, and the apparent reasons for beautification case swagger in the walk, and the use of diffuse Tayeb, and memorization calls for sedition; such people should be prevented from acting on this case.

As well as taking some people construed to harm and harassment of Muslims in the streets them, Ktkds what is extracted from the rubble and waste left in the narrow positions..

As well as Qatar ميازيب the place with a washing machine and impurity in the position of not tight passing delivers almost Cherarha. The security of harm, or sandals, as if collected Rahadh the extent that transmits is slackening frequently, or a man stopped his mount (His car) On the road as much as riding down or pull a lamb or puts, or annexation of the owner of thorns or wood limbs and tighten so often does not hurt, or passed out in the wide positions.. All that is permissible; because people need to like it, do not stop him at all true only on condition the existence of harm, or the predominance of occurrence known habit([41]).

* Control stores (Professions):

I'm cited fraternity doors related professions holders in markets, and included: معرفة القناطير والأرطال والمثاقيل ومعرفة الموازين والمكاييل والأذرع، والعلافين والطحانين والفرانين والخبازين والشوايين والنقانقيين والكبوديين والبوارديين والجزارين والرواسيين والطباخين والشرائحيين والهراسيين وقلايي السمك، وقلايي الزلابية، والحلوانيين والشرابيين والعطارين واللبانين والبزازين والدلالين والخياطين والرفائين والقصارين والحريريين والصباغين والقطانين والكتانيين والصيارفة والصباغين والنحاسين والحدادين والأساكفة والبياطرة وباعة قدور الخزف والكيزان والفخاريين والخضارين والأبارين والمسلاتيين والمرادنيين والحناويين وغشهم، والأمشاطيين ومعاصر الشبرج والزيت والغرابلين واللبوديين والفرائين والحصريين العبداني والكركر والتبانين والخشابين والقشاشين والنجارين والنشارين والبنائين والدهانين والمبيضين والضببين والجباسين([42]), Has preferred to cite these professions to a statement the inclusion of control over all the shops and markets selling things, where you control to detect what goes into those professions of irregularities or fraud or fraud.

And which relates to transactions:

Sales fraud, and fraud prices, Vinl prevents him, disciplined him, according to the case([43]).

And if this fraud بتدليس the buyer and hidden from him, he spoke harshly Algchoc forbidden and denial by the crudest, and discipline the most, although it is no secret buyer was lighter Moosma, and Allen denial, seen in the buyer the bought to sell on the other directed denial seller Bgchh the buyer .

It also said the fraud prices, has said Ahmed in the novel Jaafar bin Mohammed: Those who bought a thousand dirhams Bdnanar, some horses and some fake and some Kohl; bought what is not lawful, and sold what is not lawful”.

Abu Ali said Mawardi and before that, which takes the governors of calculation of the people of the Trades in three varieties markets:

1/ فمنهم من يراعى عمله في الوفاء والتقصير، مثل: Doctor and teacher… Etc..

2/ Some of them take into account the situation in the Secretariat and betrayal like: Goldsmiths and diamond tool, Alqsarin and dyers; maybe they fled money people Veraay people confidence and the Secretariat of them, Fikarham and away from his infidelity emerged, famed for his command so as not to be deceived by those who do not know. It has been said: The mother-in-law and the governors of aid specifically given in these conditions of and governors calculation; because a betrayal of theft.

3/ Some of them take into account his work in quality and mediocrity, which is thus unique consideration and governors of calculation, and for them to deny them in the House of Commons work and corruption so bad, although it is not ready.

فأما في عمل مخصوص اعتاد الصانع فيه الفساد والتدليس، فإذا استعداه الخصم قابل عليه بالإنكار والزجر، فإن تعلق بذلك غرم روعي حال الغرم، فإن افتقر إِلَى تقدير، أو تقويم لم يكن للمحتسب أن ينظر فيه لافتقاره إِلَى اجتهاد حكمي، وكان القاضي بالنظر فيه أحق، وإن لم يفتقر إِلَى تقدير ولا تقويم واستحق فيه المثل الذي لا اجتهاد فيه ولا تنازع فللمحتسب أن ينظر فيه بإلزام الغرم والتأديب؛ لأنه أخذ بالتناصف وزجر عن التعدي.

* Control over the markets in modern systems

This, though control over the markets concerned in terms of places and their contents (Municipalities)The licenses are from the affairs of the ministries of trade, economics and the like of Titles.

Municipal systems have addressed two important aspects of the two control: Places (Namely the creation of markets), Merchandise sales and in terms of health conditions.

The following are two forms of those laws or decisions of the Organization of the municipal councils, and municipalities that are managed by it, one of Kuwait's legislation, and the other from the legislation of the United Arab Emirates.

The law included the Kuwait Municipality([44]) That the municipal council regard to, inter alia,:

First: Monitor the implementation of laws and regulations relating to public health, regulation, buildings and acquisitions, and the division of land and public places, and other laws and regulations on public utilities.

Secondly: Urban projects report, and city beautification projects and construction of roads and villages, streets, squares and expanded, and connect the sewer, and the establishment of parks, street planting, and the development of systems for the ads, and all that leads to beautify the city and save its glory.

Thirdly: Report the creation of markets and altars and tombs and develop their own systems.

He cited the aforementioned law under the title: Terms of reference of the municipal (Article 19 It):

“Municipal works in general on the progress of construction and the provision of municipal services to the population, and holds particular territory, and the organization of cities, villages and beautified, and public health prevention to ensure the safety of food, and maintain comfort and cleanliness. And have a mayor and a municipal council executive and in accordance with the provisions of this law”.

As reported in the article (15) Between the functions of the director of the municipality comes under the sixth paragraph:

Sixthly: Take the necessary measures to maintain the health and safety of the population and comfort within the jurisdiction of the municipality. Particular attention the following matters:

1/ The work of cleaning the streets and roads, the demolition of dilapidated buildings or repair.

2/ Market surveillance, inspection of food for the authentication of the validity.

3/ Monitoring public shops, to check the availability of health conditions, and to give municipal licenses, and pulled not inconsistent with the jurisdiction of the other parties in accordance with the laws and regulations.

4/ Monitoring places where there are flammable materials, and determine the amounts permitted by placing them in these places.

5/ Means of extinguishing the fire and prevent it, and the tyranny of water.

6/ How hearses and funeral and burial, and to maintain the sanctity of graves.

The organization of the municipal council([45]) Abu Dhabi came in it under Article IX:

Specialization municipal administration under the supervision of the Council, in particular in the following areas:

1/ Supervision and control of the buildings in accordance with the laws and regulations.

2/ Overseeing the implementation of paving roads and streets clean, and not dilapidated buildings and repair.

3/ Monitor the hygiene and cleanliness of the market, and food inspection to ensure safety.

4/ Monitoring public shops to check the availability of the right conditions, and the granting of licenses and towed not inconsistent with the terms of reference of other parties in accordance with the laws and regulations.

5/ Monitor public places where there are flammable materials, and quantitation limit viewing in these places.

6/ Control means of extinguishing the fire and prevent it.

7/ Land reclamation and burial of low-lying areas and swamps.

8/ Monitor the implementation of beautification of the city, street planting and establishment and maintenance of parks (And after five items not related markets).

* Then cited in Article XII for health affairs of the markets and fields: Include both:

1- المطاعم بأنواعها ومحلات الكافيتريا.

2- محلات بيع المرطبات، وبيع الحلوى.

3- محلات البقالة والبرادات واللحوم المثلجة.

4- المخابز ومحلات صنع البسكويت والكعك والحلوى.

5- محلات اللحوم الطازجة والدواجن والأسماك.

6- محلات صنع المياه الغازية، أو تحضير الألبان.

7- محلات بيع الخضروات والفواكه.

8- مخازن المواد الغذائية سواء كانت معلبة أو طازجة.

9- محلات غسيل الملابس أو المصابغ.

10- محلات الصناعات المؤذية كالدباغة أو الصبغة.

11- الورش الصناعية.

Then cited in the article (12) Health conditions for which markets shops: May not license management of any place of shops that manufacture or handling food only after it meets the following conditions of public health: -) Lighting and ventilation are Mtovrtin all over the shop.

1) تزويد النوافذ والأبواب وفتحات التهوية بشبك من السلك الناعم وأن تفتح الأبواب عَلَى الخارج وتزود بجهاز يجعلها تقفل تلقائيا، وذلك لمنع دخول الحشرات.

2) تبلط أرضية المحل بالبلاط الأملس ليسهل غسلها وتنظيفها.

3) يزود المحل بمخزن خاص ومنفصل حسب الحاجة إليه، وبشرط أن يراعى استيفاء الشروط الواردة بالفئة الثامنة من الشروط الخاصة الواردة في المدة (14) This system of.

4) يحافظ عَلَى النظافة العامة بجميع أقسام المحل، وكذلك بنظافة المعدات والأدوات والأوعية المستعملة في تداول المواد الغذائية.

5) تستعمل المياه الجارية لكافة أغراض العمل والساخنة لأغراض الغسيل، وبشرط أن توصل المياه إِلَى المحل بواسطة مواسير من شبكة التوزيع العام وتستثنى المحلات الصغيرة من هذا الشرط، وبموجب موافقة السلطات الصحية في البلدية.

6) توضع القمامة والنفايات المتخلفة من المحل في وعاء خاص من الحديد المجلفن أو الصاج المدهون أو البلاستيك محكم الغطاء في مكان خاص بالمحل، وذلك لحين مرور عمال البلدية ورفعها.

7) يرتدي كل من يعمل في المحل رداء أبيضا نظيفا أثناء العمل مع غطاء الرأس.

8) لا يستعمل المحل أو المخزن التابع له لغرض السكن، ولا يحتفظ بالحيوانات الأليفة داخل أي محل أو مخزن.

9) يخضع كل من يعمل بالمحل بما في ذَلِك صاحب المحل للكشف الطبي الأولى قبل مزاولة العمل، وكذلك الكشف الطبي الدوري كل ستة أشهر بانتظام، ويسلك كل شخص يثبت الكشف الطبي خلوه من الأمراض، شهادة بذلك من قبل إدارة الطب الوقائي ترخصه للعمل في أي محل من المحلات الخاضعة لأحكام هذا النظام، وعلى كل من حاز عَلَى مثل هَذِه الشهادة الاحتفاظ بها وتقديمها لدى كل طلب من قبل السلطات المسئولة عند التفتيش عَلَى المحل، وعند إعادة الكشف الطبي الدوري.

10) يقدم كل صاحب محل طلبا عَلَى قسم الصحة بوزارة البلديات عن طريق قسم الترخيص بالوزارة لإجراء المعاينة والتحقق من ملاءة المحل من الناحية الصحية، واستخراج شهادة تسجيل خاصة به، وذلك عند افتتاح محل جديد، وفي خلال الشهر الأول من كل سنة ميلادية.

11) لا يجوز لأي صاحب محل أو من ينوب عنه الاعتراض عَلَى طلب أي مفتش صحة عامة مسئول لإجراء التفتيش الصحي عَلَى المحل وما به من سلع ومعدات، وعلى كل من يعمل به في أي وقت كان وبدون أي إنذار سابق.

12) تكون المواد الغذائية المعروضة للبيع خالية من الغش في التركيب، أو التلاعب في البيانات الواردة عَلَى غلافها كحذف أو إضافة أو استبدال بيانات خاصة بالصنع أو المحتويات، أو الكمية أو الصنف.

13) يحظر استعمال الموازين غير الدقيقة أو غير المطابقة لمواصفات دائرة البلدية وشروطها.

14) عَلَى صاحب كل محل العمل عَلَى فرز السلع المعروضة للبيع في فترات معينة وبانتظام، وجمع الفاسد منها أو المشتبه في أمرها وإيداعها في مكان خاص بالمحل، والامتناع عن بيعها، ـ وذلك لحين عرضها عَلَى مفتش الصحة العامة المسئول بدائرة البلدية لإبداء الرأي.

In this case, the inspector mentioned examination on those goods outwardly and judged, if proven corruption apparently decided to destroy, and if suspected inspector in charge at her sent a sample to the laboratory government to express an opinion, according to the results of analyzes, and to prevent the owner of the shop to view the rest of the goods suspected of her .

In the case of the report of the execution of damaged goods frees Inspector official minutes of this three pictures prove the following:

1- اسم مفتش الصحة العامة الذي ضبط المخالفة.

2- اسم وعنوان المحل الذي ضبطت فيه المخالفة، واسم المخالف.

3- تاريخ ووقت ضبط المخالفة.

4- قائمة بنوع وكميات المصادرات([46]).

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.


[1]) Razi interpretation, 2/77.

[2]) Introduction of Ibn Khaldun, p 348.

[3]) Major classes of Ibn Saad, 5/130. Sobh A'sha, 5/452.

[4]) Abdul Hai Kanani: Administrative formalities, 1/240.

[5]) Ibn Khalkan: Notables mortality, 5/345.

[6]) Look: Ocean dictionary, and Raghib vocabulary, and the basis rhetoric for Zmkhcri, the and lexicon mediator, (Material: By).

[7]) I'm fraternity: Landmarks Girba in sensory terms, p.7. Hezari: End of Rank in the provisions of the calculation, 6.

[8]) Jurisprudence Encyclopedia, 17/233.

[9]) I'm Almnasf: Alert on provisions sockets rulers, the Turkish publishing house, Tunisia, CT 1988/1357 AH, Mustafa Albany, PO Box 314, 317-318.

[10]) Ibid, pp. 321-323 for the last line.

[11]) Alert rulers, p 329.

[12]) Parameters Girba, pp. 12-16.

[13]) I'm Mofleh: Arts legitimacy, 1/209.

[14]) I'm fraternity: Parameters Girba, p.7.

[15]) Abu Ali: Provisions Bowl, p 268.

[16]) Bukhari.

[17]) Al-Hajj: 41.

[18]) I'm Almnasf: Alert rulers, p 310.

[19]) Ghazali: The revival of the science of religion, 2/413. The chapter about the matter Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice in the following pages, up to 2/477, as cited With regard to Bal_husbh, 2/421.

[20]) Alert rulers, p 337. He cited examples of evil things going on in the markets of his day, p 338.

[21]) Nisa: 29.

[22]) I'm Almnasf: Alert rulers, p 33.

[23]) Ghazali: The revival of the science of religion, 2/454.

[24]) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, (Jama benefits of Jama assets and Zawaa'id), No. 4606.

[25]) Sahih Muslim, 7/144.

[26]) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, no 4603.

[27]) Ghazali: The revival of the science of religion, 2/93. Having reviewed the most important contracts and terms, 2/91, 103.

[28]) Economic System in Islam, p 175.

[29]) Agreed.

[30]) Narrated congregation but Bukhari, Neil Awtaar, 5/176.

[31]) Narrated by Bukhari, the ways of peace, 2/340.

[32]) The ways of peace, 2/336.

[33]) Narrated by Muslim.

[34]) Ibn Bassam: End of Rank in the calculation request, p 71. Almkelde: Facilitation in pricing, pp. 35, 55, 406, 409. D / Ahmed El Assal and Fathi Abdul Karim: Economic System in Islam, p 175.

[35]) Dr. / Saleh Ali: Social and economic organizations in Basra.

[36]) Kettani: Administrative formalities, i Dar al-Arqam, Beirut, 2/12.

[37]) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, and the governor, the small mosque.

[38]) Narrated by Muslim, 1/53.

[39]) أخرجه ابن ماجه.

[40]) Narrated by Bukhari, collect benefits, 1/436.

[41]) Alert rulers, 339. And a reference to overloading beasts (Cars) Excess loads.

[42]) Landmarks drawing closer to the son of the brothers, and so end Rank Chezra.

[43]) Muslim and al-Tirmidhi narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet e: «Deceives not one of us».

[44]) Law (11) For the year 1964 On the Kuwait Municipality.

[45]) System of the Municipal Council of the city of Abu Dhabi (9) For the year 1972.

[46]) System of public hygiene and health conditions for shops.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان “ الفقه الحضاري، فقه العمران”

Held during the period: (18-21) April 1431 / (3-6) April 2010:

Oman- The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

This article contains Comment (1)

One Response “Control over markets, rules and fields”

  1. Lulu says:

    Very cool God íÚŘíß ÇáÚÇÝíĺ

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