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Provisions of the mosque and its components in Islamic law

Provisions of the mosque and its components in Islamic law *
Study on Origin and legislation

Preparation: A. Dr. Mahmoud Mustafa Aboud Al Harmoush

(Professor assets and jurisprudence at the University of Jinan, the Lebanese Republic)

The first requirement: The meaning of the word mosque

Said Sebojh: “The mosque, they made him a name for the house and did not come to do do”, Son of the Bedouin: Mosque open gym niche houses, chapel groups mosque broke the gym and mosques collected. Said Sheikh Mahmoud Shukri al-Alusi: Roy mosque conquest measurement If he heard only the fraction([1]).

Said Zarkashi: “..As the prostrate Ashraf acts prayer near a person of his Lord place derives its name from him and was told: Mosque, did not say: مركع It says open ole and calming seconds, and a third break. The intended mosque in the eyes of their people but in general and in particular every Masjid Mosque and not every mosque inclusive, has singled out the whole place where they performed combining prayer and holidays”([2]).

In Maqrizi plans([3]) لَمَّا فتح عمر البلدان كتب إلى أبي موسى الأشعري وهو على البصرة يأمره بأن يتخذ مسجداً للجماعة ويتخذ للقبائل مسجداً فإذا كان يوم الجمعة انضموا إلى مسجد الجماعة، وكتب إلى سعد بن أبي وقاص وهو على الكوفة بمثل ذلك، وكتب إلى عمرو بن العاص وهو على مصر بمثل ذلك، وكتب إلى أمراء الأجناد بالشام ألا يتبددوا إلى القرى وأن ينزلوا المدائن وأن يتخذوا في كل مدينة مسجداً واحداً ولا تتخذ القبائل مساجد، فكان الناس متمسكين بأمر عمر وعهده.

Taqi al-Din Subki: The Damascus from Fattouh age to his day in its wall is not only one F([4]). This tells us that the mosque was dedicated to the F and holidays and that Muslims not Aaddoa Friday in more than a mosque in the words of Subki, Sheikh Jamal al-Din Al Qasimi followed that he had held in his three mosques: Collector Khalakhan and was delivering the son of values, and collector تنكز, and Albga Mosque.

Khatib al-Baghdadi said in its history([5]) That the first multi Friday allowed within the same country is Caliph المعتضد Billah died in 219 AH, and was told: First stated by a tender ibn Abi Rabah Tabi, who died in 115 AH.

Nowadays the mosque and the mosque became one sense there is no longer a mosque sermon in it and another does not preaching it, all mosques today became the pulpits of mosques and preachers.

The second requirement: Islamic mosques idea

عندما يتحدث المستشرقون عن بناء المساجد فإنه يتبادر إلى أذهانهم أن المسلمين تأثروا بمعابد اليهود والنصارى وكنائسهم، ظناً منهم أن فكرة بناء المساجد لم ترد في خاطر المسلمين إِلاَّ بعد احتكاكهم باليهود والنصارى الذين كانوا منتشرين في مصر وسورية وبلاد الشام عامة التي فتحها الخلفاء الراشدون، ومن هؤلاء الأمير ليون كاتيا في كتابه “Annals of Islam”, It has been thought that the Muslims did not take mosques, but after the death of the Prophet PBUH.

Commented Mr. Ahmad in his intellectual “Mosque of Kairouan” Says: “The idea of ​​religion is solely dictated by the Mosque of the Prophet PBUH regime, and that I want to develop this system that works for one very performance is prayer, and pray one religion is Islam”([6]).

Elsewhere in the same book says: “The purpose of religious alone is that you put the assets of the system of the mosque and it is not for the effects of architecture that preceded Islam impact of what author of this system, and the idea that the complexity of building the mosque differ markedly from those of the complexity of the system Coptic, or Egyptian temples, these effects . The mosque, Islam is in contrast to that branched from the idea does not stand in front of space at the end or the end of([7]).

Thus, it is clear to us that the Islamic mosque is fundamentally different from other temples of the people of boredom, especially bees Christianity, Valmntalqat the formal and religious data in the mosque are others in other temples.

Third requirement: Importance of the mosque in Islam:

Did not consider Muslims in the history of civilization to the mosque in a negative or priestly performed the routine actions monotonous, but also looked to look realistic make them public institutions engaged in within the walls of their lives, and planning under أروقتها In addition to the walls organizing their community to raise the level of their people and maintain their entity, the ([8]), It has been the mosque along with his religious causes at the same time, his civilization in the various faces of human activities experienced by human beings and they need, and this was expressed by the French writer Gustave Le Bon in his book values “Arab civilization ” Where he says: “Mosque center of the real life of the Arabs”.

فالمسجد بني في أوّل أمره ليكون داراً للعبادة، ولكن العبادة في الإسلام ليست كالعبادة في الأديان الأخرى؛ لأنّ العبادة في الإسلام ليست طقوساً شكلية وليست حركات روتينية، ولكن العبادة هي علاقة الإنسان بربه وعلاقته بالمجتمع والكون والحياة.

The mosque in Islam is the spiritual center of worship, and the Center for the start of civilization, was confirmed by the French writer ” Lebon” This fact when he said,([9]): Arabs make of the mosque object of the meeting, and worship, education, and housing, where appropriate… And shelters for strangers and references to patients not only of worship such as the sale of the Christians, and aftershocks mosques on public pools, hotels, and Osabl, hospitals, schools, and thus reflected the mixing of religious life to civilian life for Muslims in their mosques.

Fourth requirement: Concerns the construction of mosques

And so far as the importance of the mosque in the eyes of the Islamic civilization must be extrapolated motives which urged Muslims to build mosques.

1-Neil reward of building mosques: The Prophet PBUH wanted to build mosques was narrated him as saying: «Of Brown God mosques Brown God has a mansion in Paradise»([10]), And make God the center of the male and uniformity, he says: ﴿فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالآصَالِ رِجَالٌ لاَّ تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلاَ بَيْعٌ عَن ذِكْرِ اللهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَآءِ الزَّكَاةِ يَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَالأَبْصَارُ﴾([11]).

2- Center for Science Mosque: ومن البواعث أن المساجد تستخدم منذ فجر الإسلام لاجتماع المسلمين فيها كما اتخذها علماء التفسير والحديث والفقه مقراً لهم، وفيه تُبحَث أوضاعهم السياسية، والاجتماعية، والأمنية. The Prophet PBUH which collects his companions to consult in the situation of the nation, and received the delegations that were coming in to visit coming from inside the Arabian Peninsula, or from outside, and the history books and bus traffic by mentioning such news and the owners of these delegations.

The Prophet PBUH received in the mosque and a delegation of Abyssinia and let them play in it and that was in Mona's Day([12])This story has narrated by Bukhari.

3- Bayt Mal Mosque Muslims: The mosque in Islam a place to save the tribute, and I find in the history books references to the so-called dome house money in the mosque, and in this dome was Caliphs memorized wealth cash public, which was the outcome of Zakat paid by the Muslims for their money, outlying lands and shade they get from their enemies. Maqrizi has indicated his plans to that by saying he talks about the Fustat, Egypt said collector: “House money in altitude Nawara mosque was built Osama bin Zaid Altnokhi, the abscess Metwally Egypt in 97 AH days Suleiman bin Abdul Malik and Prince of Egypt at that time Abdul Malik bin Refaah الفهمي House had money where Muslims([13]).

The scientists I'm Rsth from the third century AH house money mentioned in Aloalaq the Precious([14]), He semi-high dome of steel doors and he was in front of the pulpit.

As well as the Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built in 263 AH in Cairo closed after the evening prayer order Ibn Tulun itself; because the house where there was money([15]). Said Hassan Abdel Wahab that these domes were used to save the wealth of orphans([16]).

4- House Mosque beatings (Money factory): Maqrizi in his plans said that Abu Amr al-Harith what Crown elimination Egypt from God before Mutawakkil in 237 AH ordered the construction of spacious adjacent to the beating in the House Mosque (Amr) To accommodate the people and then increased it in the mosque of Abu Bakr Mohammed bin Abdullah Al-Khazen any stockist house money a gallery and one of the Dar beating a hallway with a mihrab and Alchaabakin caller mosque Brehh the tiller([17]).

5- Fort Mosque and Castle: The Muslims are building mosques in the form of fortified castles revealing the movements of the invaders, surrounded by walls that are not strong be affected by المنجنيقات, and make the military cracks to throw the enemy with arrows as they took some trenches([18]).

6- The mosque where the judiciary: Muslims took to separate mosques discounts and consider people's complaints. Said son of Judge Shahbah, he talks about the year 555 AH and the Sultan Nur al-Din appointed judge Kamal El Din Alchehrzori, and the judges had no choice and it attributed the net Kamali rulers who sits where the mosque after prayers on Friday from the Umayyad Mosque western scene([19]).

7- Mosque, a place of healing: As Brown Ibn Tulun University in Cairo is that it operates closet where all drink syrups and medicines.

8- Mosque Council for consultation and legislation: فالمسجد بيت الأمة، وقد روى المؤرخون أن الخلفاء والسلاطين وولاة الأمور كانوا يتخذون المسجد لانتخاب الخليفة كما فعل معاوية بن أبي سفيان عندما شعر بدنوِّ أَجَلِهِ فأرسل وراء الناس ليجتمعوا إليه في المسجد الجامع بدمشق وطلب البيعة لابنه يزيد، وتمَّ انتخاب ابنه يزيد خليفةً له من بعده وأخذ بيعتهم ومواثيقهم على هذا الانتخاب، وليته لم يفعل !.

9- Media Center Mosque: عمل سلاطين المسلمين على اختلاف عصورهم من الأيوبيين إلى المماليك على جعل المساجد دُوراً للإعلام، وكانت منشورات السلاطين، وبلاغاتهم، وإعلاناتهم، وقراراتهم، ومراسيمهم، كل ذلك كان يُذاع من فوق المدائن أو المنابر حيث يُدعى الناسُ ويُبَلَّغون هذه المنشورات والمراسيم والقرارات.

Male Maqrizi in its plans to Hakim ordered that the record reads on platforms Ptlguib leader Hussein as the leader of a pimp and take off it with money and clothing ownership([20]).

10- Mosque Library: Mosques were full of public libraries in the various fields of science and the arts, was rich and princes and scientists competing in the cessation of books.

ومن أهم هذه المكتبات:

A- Bookcase in Hakim Mosque in Cairo([21]).

With- Library at the Great Mosque in Aleppo called benefit tree made of stone and brass and iron lines and tables in mathematical sciences assets, like a tree with a huge trunk, branches and leaves are great, in all the paper out of the assets of those sciences([22]).

C- Villagers wardrobe a huge library of thousands of precious manuscripts([23]).

D- Library of Al-Azhar Mosque in Egypt was found in the Al-Azhar Mosque in 517 AH([24]).

Fifth requirement: Terms of the construction of the mosque:

Speaking scholars and imams about everything related to the construction of mosques from the site of the mosque and its related facilities and consists of it from parts Kalmnbr, and the mihrab, and the dome, and COPD, newspapers, and hallway, and moons that have been developed over the minarets and domes, minarets and groves, and so on.

With regard to build the mosque has stipulated that scholars to be the mosque in the center of Egyptian, or country, or village where they live people, and the wisdom of that in order to be the mosque equal dimensions for the people of Egyptian, because the Prophet صلعم enjoined on Muslims to attend the group has narrated صلعم he said: «There is no prayer of being the only mosque in the mosque»([25]).

Accordingly, he said Hanbali: The congregational prayer imposed pursuant to the words of the Prophet PBUH: «There is no prayer of being the only mosque in the mosque, and carried denials to deny health. While the majority of scholars are of that group is a confirmed Sunnah prayers and carried denials perfect to deny any only full prayers in the mosque, but Hanbali said: Denying Health licensed closer to self-denial.

For that it should be site of the mosque in a central place frequented by people from all over the place and be close to all the neighbors as much as possible.

And for that it is estimated that God place of the old house in the center of the earth in order to be equal dimensions as much as possible, and research scientists place of the old house and stressed that in the center of the globe, and that the Earth's axis as well as they said, so what line of Saad bin Abi Waqas mosque of Kufa came a man .

The conditions to be roads leading to easy away from the terrain and valleys, and not to be rugged tract, because the mosque frequented by patients, and blind as the Prophet صلعم not authorized to Ibn Umm Maktoum is blind to pray at home as long as it hears the appeal, it came in a year : O Messenger of Allah, I am a man blind and I am far Casablanca Crown commander not Right for each hour, would find me a license to pray in my house? : «Can you hear the call?, He said,: Yes, he said: «I do not find you a license»([26]).

It conditions that deprived the mosques of images and idols, the Prophet PBUH when he entered the Sacred House open day Mecca saw the pictures of angels and saw Abraham u photographer arrows in his hand Istksm said: «God fought made sheikh Istksm a بالأزلام What would Abraham and arrows) what Abraham was a Jew nor a Christian, but Hanif was a Muslim and was idolaters (([27])”, Then the order of those pictures are all Aftmst([28]).

In this news is proof that art Islamic art is committed to faith and belief in the teachings of Islam, so I have never seen a mosque which introduced such idols and statues under the banner of art and decoration.

It conditions راعاها by scholars in the architecture of the mosques that are not built on the graves; because the decision mosques on shrines albeit palatable initiated by us to the verse: ) Said those who won the ordered to Ntakzn them a mosque (([29])However, the building of mosques in the shrines, we started Muharram.

The Prophet PBUH what he was told: The church was built on the tomb said: «Are the most evil of God's creation if a righteous man died among them built on his grave»([30]). However, this requirement has lagged in some mosques due to extensions, as is the case in the tomb of the Prophet PBUH and his two companions in the Prophet's Mosque has entered the tomb in the mosque because of expansion.

In some cases, affected people fatwas Sufi residing for some shrines and tombs, by weight, have been set up in some of the country's mosques on the graves of the prophets, the advisory opinion of the scholars of that country or from each mosque God's prophet Zechariah in Aleppo, and the Mosque of Abraham in Hebron, while others are built on .

Sixth demand: Components of the mosque and its ruling legitimately

And we mean things that entered the ingredients in the building of the mosque.

1- Components of mosque (Tribune).

And the pulpit in the language Ibn Manzoor said in San Arabs: Everything raise the tone of thing, and Naber source, and the pulpit upgraded suitor, called the platform for its height and taller, and Prince Annbar any rose above the pulpit([31]).

As Mr. Jaafar al-Hassani, he knew the pulpit that he: “Fixed building of stone or wood”. Someone else said: It upgraded its mobile degrees.

Has taken the Prophet صلعم pulpit In the first it was the Prophet صلعم if he's sermon stands at a torsos, and when he made him a platform of wood and leave the trunk crave trunk to him, and heard the longing in the mosque even put the Prophet صلعم his hand on him, has mentioned Suyooti in Oaúlh that the first .

In the book “Wafa Wafa news of Dar al-Mustafa” To Smhudy it has some people walk recounted that the Prophet PBUH was delivering on a platform of clay before taking the pulpit, which is of wood([32]).

The making of this platform in the seventh year of immigration was made from Partya forest, and was told of the tamarisk, and the height of the arms and three fingers displayed cubits راجحا, the Oalahn for sitting([33]) And on both sides and behind five sticks and ends the following sitting Rmantan the.

Ibn al-Saad and other companions were passing the platform and Agson Rmantih and greet kiss claim, mentioned by Dr Taha Wali Allah's mercy([34]).

Proliferation of platforms in the regions:

ذكر المؤرخون أن أول منبر بعد منبر النبيّ صلعم في المدينة هو المنبر الذي اتخذه عمرو بن العاص في مسجد الفسطاط بمصر، وقد ذكر المقريزي في خططه أَنَّه لَمَّا بلغ عمر بن الخطاب ما صنعه عمرو بن العاص من اتخاذه المنبر الخشبي كتب إليه رقعة قال له فيها: “The Bhspk that you exist and Muslims living under Aaqbik فعزمت you only break it”, Obeyed Amr bin Aas is faithful Omar t.

However, the Amr ibn al-Aas returned after the death of the faithful and took the pulpit. He stated Maqrizi in his plans and I'm tempted Barada in the stars Zahira Walid bin Abdul Malik ordered the demolition of a mosque Fustat and re-built again and set up the pulpit([35]).

2- Pulpit in Sharia rule:

It seems that the origin of making platforms years ago from the time of the Messenger of Allah PBUH to a report of the Prophet PBUH work platform. The reports about Omar Amr ibn al-Aas diligence him that there is no rises above Khatib on people, or it Astazm to live up the pulpit one after the Messenger of Allah صلعم, but scientists Alomassar did not deny platforms, but denied the images surrounding such as decoration and use of flags and blinds them.

3- Flags on either side of the pulpit and the curtain on the door:

Returns took place in many of the country that Ansaboa flags on both sides of the pulpit of silk red, green or black has written some verses embroidered in silk or golden yellow, and returns the habit to days العبيديين who ruled the east and built the Fatimid State([36]).

4- Scientists in the opinion of these flags and curtains:

Scientists stop to especially Salafis them from this phenomenon a tough stance and considered an innovation alien to religion, and the empty houses of God, in the era of the Prophet PBUH and the age adults are guided caliphs after him and did not appear only in the days of the Fatimids, they demonstrated a fad Mptdon.

In the year 1924 raised the Egyptian newspaper Mokattam Multi put the who يرفعان the flags on either side of the pulpit and the curtain through a referendum published by one of its readers stating: “What is your opinion of God revived our year at El Alamein who يرفعان on both sides of the platform on the right hand of al-Khatib and the north and jacket that makes the door of this platform?

He answered all of this referendum the world Beiruti Sheikh Ragheb Kabbani of Al-Azhar scholars that lift Aberkan on the pulpit and the curtain on the door fad; because that emboss forbidden in mosques”([37]).

He quoted Inhibitors of these words of the Prophet PBUH decoration: «And ordered the construction of mosques and saying: «The Hour will not even boast of people in mosques and traditionally occupied narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah in Saheeh. And saying PBUH Uthman bin Talha has entered the Kaaba and saw the horns of a ram Ismail: «I you saw the horns of the ram when it entered the House forgot that I command you to Thmrha Vhmarhama, it should not be in a kiss anything distract the worshiper House» Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawood.

They quoted by Omar bin Khattab t he new to the Mosque of the Prophet PBUH did not exceed what the Prophet PBUH did it make the walls of the milk, and the roof of palm leaves, and columns of wood.

5- Tribune cultural impact: كان المنبر في عصور الإسلام الزاهية يمثل جانباً مهماً وصورة مشرقة من صور الحضارة الإسلامية، فلقد كان المنبر دائماً يعكس تنافس الحكام والسلاطين بالجوانب المعنوية والفنية، فالمنبر يشير إلى قوة المسلمين لاسيما في البلاد التي فُتِحت عنوة، فقد كان يرتقيه السلاطين والخطباء وبيدهم السيف تعبيراً عن قوة المسلمين ومَنَعَتِهِم وعليه تؤخذ البيعة، وما يندرج في ذلك من النظام السياسي للدولة، فقد كان الخليفة إذا أراد أن يوجِّه أمراً هاماً للأمة ارتقى المنبر، كما أن انفراده بالدعاء من فوق المنبر من الرسوم الضرورية لثبوت صفته الشرعية.

When occur Qalqashandi the order of succession stated that succession ongoing fees on a special arrangement of oratory Caliph himself on the podium, including his prayer preachers on the platforms. It was platforms boast inscriptions and motifs and verses, and bright colors that reflect Mortaqa technician who Artqah the Islamic Art and extent Tboath which the Islamic civilization in this place.

The most famous example of this platform, which made Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zanki God's mercy to be a platform for a maximum before you edit it, and the achievement of Saladin this wish, this was the pulpit mirror was spotless on the civilization of Islam and glory of bygone which أضعناه, it's no wonder that the focus is upon among the components .

Secondly: Mehrab:

Component of the mosque, the mihrab, linguists have spoken a word “Niche” وقد اتّفقوا على أنها عربية وأدرجوها تحت مادة حرب. وباستقراء كلام العرب نجد أن كلمة المحراب تعني الغرفة العالية، ومنه قول وضاح اليمن:

ربةُ محرابٍ إذا جــئــتُــهــا لم ألقها أو أرتقِ ســلَّــــماً

The Council and the words come from him saying poet:

At Al Ghayl in the groom محرابا the

أي المجلس. وتأتي بمعنى المكان المفضل في البيت، قال عمر بن أبي ربيعة:

أو دميةٌ عندَ راهبٍ ذي اجتهاد صَوَّرَها في جانب الــمــحــــراب

وقد وردت هذه الكلمة في القرآن الكريم في أربعة مواضع بأربعة معانٍ:

1- صدر البناء.

2- Royal Palace.

3- Room at the forefront of the temple for the people of the book.

4- The place is devoted to the king without other people.

He says:﴿كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ عِندَهَا رِزْقاً﴾([38]), And he says: ﴿فَنَادَتْهُ الْمَلآئِكَةُ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمِحْرَابِ﴾([39]), And he says: ﴿ فَخَرَجَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ﴾([40]), And he says: ﴿ يَعْمَلُونَ لَهُ مَا يَشَاء مِن مَّحَارِيبَ وَتَمَاثِيلَ وَجِفَانٍ كَالْجَوَابِ﴾([41]).

The word niches in these uses means one of the following meanings:

A - palaces. With- Temples. جـ-المساكن.

Mihrab in the terminology of Muslim Scholars:

And the mihrab in terminology: Is a hollow place inside a wall that stands in the mosque imam to pray, which is always in the direction of Qibla.

First niche in Islam:

Ibn Battuta mentioned in his journey as he talks about his visit to the Holy Prophet's Mosque in Medina that Uthman bin Affan t is the first to make the mosque محرابا when he became the successor to Muslims.

However, the Ibn Battuta cites another word, saying: It was: The Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the first Umayyad caliph who built the mihrab, and was told: Omar bin Abdul Aziz in succession Walid bin Abdul Malik.

However, the audience just missed historians agree to say that the first to enter the mosque is the mihrab Omar bin Abdul Aziz, during his tenure on the city days Umayyad Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik, was transferred Maqrizi in his plans for Waaqidi in Fattouh Sham([42]) The first of the latest niche hollow Omar bin Abdul Aziz of what built the Mosque of the Prophet PBUH.

The author of the book stars thriving in the kings of Egypt and Cairo([43]) Speaking about the year 87 AH accidents, in which Alwaleed wrote to Omar bin Abdul Aziz ordered him to enter stone wives of the Prophet in the mosque and to buy what even Bnuahah be two hundred arm in arm two hundred and submit kiss did Omar.

And provide the kiss is not only to provide the mihrab and the highlight from the wall of the mosque. This is what decided Suyooti in good lecture where he stated that the first of the mihrab is taken Omar bin Abdul Aziz.

The Asamhudy decides that the role of Omar confined on the pulpit cavity did not make a new platform was stated in the book “Wafa Wafa in Dar al-Mustafa News” صلعم that the age when it was to the qibla wall called the elders of the city, Arabs and Mwale said to them,: Come brought Bunyan Qubltkm do not tell is the age kiss, Making stone tends only response to his place”([44]).

Then spread niches in the mosques of the regions Kmihrab Umayyad in Damascus, and a niche in the mosque in Kufa, and niche collector Uqba in Kairouan, and a niche in the mosque of Al-Fustat in Cairo, and a niche in the mosque in Basra, and so on in the mosques of the regions where the inn Muslims and built houses .

Scientists from the position taken niches in mosques:

The scholars differed in the rule making niches in mosques; Some scholars are of the view: Makrooh to take niches and considered heresy in religion. Said Zarkashi: “Xenophobia and some advances take niches in the mosque, said Dahhaak Ben Muzahim: The first trap was in the people of this prayer niches. This transfer of Abdul Razak as saying Workbook: Prayer hating strand mosque any niche Saeed bin Jubair, Muammar, and explain the small mosque: “It's okay to be the shrine of Imam in the mosque and prostrating in energy, and would hate to be based in the Strand; because it looks like a different places, do not you think he hates monopoly, has been following the Zarkashi on this speech by saying: “The famous passport without hatred, people did still work it is Nakeer” A. E([45]).

And those who said prohibiting niches Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti Shafei, has a book called “Media الأريب happen fad niches” Was considered God's mercy for the altar tradition taken by the Christians in their churches, and that of the Signs of the Hour. He quoted the report narrated by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan major from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah PBUH said: «Fear of these massacres mean niches»([46]), And including narrated Bazzaar in the Musnad from Abdullah bin Masood he disliked prayer in the apse said newly placed narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in his work for Musa al-Juhani said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «This nation is still fine so long as they did not take in mosques altars Kmmabh of the Christians, and as narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah also from Abu Dhar, he said: One of the signs of the Hour to take the massacres in mosques.

The majority of scholars has violated Suyooti and said it is permissible to take niches, the text of Imam Al Qasimi, in his book “Repair of mosques fads and returns” The transfer of persuasion and explanation saying: “It is permissible to take it any niche in the mosque and at home, connectivity and schools which adopted”([47]).

I: وَمِمَّا يُستدل لمذهب الجمهور أن الذي اتّخذ المنابر هو عمر بن عبد العزيز ـ رحمه الله ـ وهو خامس الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين، وقد انعقد الإجماع على أَنَّه أحيا السنن وأمات البدع وردَّ المظالم، وقد قال صلعم: «I urge you to adhere Caliphs year guided after me, cling firmly»([48]), Omar bin Abdul Aziz of them is not valid legally be the latest in religion event not pleasing to Allah and His Messenger, was delightful companions and Affiliates by taking niches. But to say that Omar bin Abdul Aziz is the first who has taken the mihrab is in the Mosque of the Prophet, has been adopting Amr ibn al-Aas Sahaabi محرابا in the mosque of Fustat, Egypt, as well as take Uqba mihrab in the Great Mosque of Kairouan, as well as taking Osman t mihrab in the mosque in Kufa, : It is due to the time of Muawiyah, and these advances to the nation and their leaders and their example, and not easy to Tbdia these companions the good guys, that is attributed to Suyooti of inference with talk foregoing they talk flimsy did not hand over cash, and the year has codified by order of Omar bin Abdul .

On that Suyooti expel fads in revenue and this is contrary to its original state in all of his books, especially in the book explain breasts, suggesting that this speech may not be valid representing him; because contraptions invented in matters of religion comparable law intended to extremes in worshiping God Almighty. Valmharib and other components of the mosque does not apply to the extent heresy because it is not the modalities in debt it means, not the purposes, and innovation are not in the means, then that innovation intended to extremes in worshiping, the intent of the mihrab made Imam so as not to lose the mosque row of worshipers, as it is a sign .

Thirdly: Minaret

Machine Name minaret of prayer, and prayer: Is reported by ear. The reaction came in the Qur'an in the sense authorized media Almighty said: ) When جهزهم the Abjahazhm make Watering in his brother's gone then the muezzin, O authorized caravan You thieves (([49]). He also: ) And the ears of Allah and His Messenger, to the people the greatest day of Hajj that God is innocent of the idolaters and His Messenger (([50]).

Out of the minaret:

Minarets not known days of the Prophet PBUH was Bilal al-Habashi t if he wants to be authorized climbed high cylinder gave them permission. He says Asamhudy: The prayer in his time PBUH was on a disc in Dar Abdullah bin Omar in the mosque kiss authorized by Bilal amounts on Oguetab, and the square is said to have a roller Almtmar. Roy and he was authorized to lighthouse in Dar Hafsa bint Omar following the mosque and was tantamount to Oguetab.

ويجزم المؤرخون أَنَّه لم يكن في زمن النبيّ صلعم مئذنة قبل أن يبنيها معاوية بن أبي سفيان إلى أن بنى النبيّ المسجد. ويروي زيد بن ثابت أن بيته كان أطول بيت حول المسجد فكان بلال يؤذّن عليه إلى أن بنى النبيّ المسجد.

No conflict between these novels to the possibility that our master Balala has been authorized in all these places a multiplicity place lamb.

والمئذنة تسمّى أيضاً المنارة، والصومعة.

And a single lighthouse and collected منائر of which is derived from the act of enlightened([51]). Fayrouz Abadi said: And Medina position origin light Kalmnar and Alemsrjh minaret collected منائر, the Al-Manar science and placed between two things of the border, and him saying PBUH: «God damn non-Manar earth any markings known by border([52]).

As word of the silo, the historians have used a synonym for the word minaret and lighthouse, and this term mentioned in the Quran in verse: ) And God does not pay people to each other and silos demolished sale and prayers, mosques, stating the name of Allah much (([53]).

The origin of the word Ethiopian then arabized, and was told: It is an Arab and agreed to put the Arabs put Abyssinia, it was stated the owner of the dictionary Ocean([54]) Under Article (Soma) Silos: Arabism authentic word meaning high tower but quoted from Abyssinian meaning: Housing monk. Thus entered the Hermitage in terms Almsadjadah.

It was: Silos for Christians, and sales of the Jews, and mosques for Muslims. It was: All names of mosques.

The first took the minarets of Islam:

Male Maqrizi in his plans([55])Canada said in a news Mosque Ahl Al Raya: When fed mosque Pfstat the Egypt with his family his family complained to the Salamah Ben Mukhalad a-Prince that day when wrote to Muawiya wrote Muawiya, to tell him to increase it… And ordered him Baptina Minar mosque in Fustat. It was: The rolling ordered the construction of silos for the ears.

The position of Muslim Scholars of minarets:

Muslim scholars divided the construction into two minarets:

First team: See it heresy prohibited or at least hated. They quoted the doctrine this evidence, including:

1- That were not in the minaret Mosque of the Messenger of Allah PBUH not in the era of Caliphs guided.

2- It quoted him what narrated by Asamhudy in his book “Wafa Wafa news of Dar al-Mustafa”([56]) That Omar bin Abdul Aziz to the finished building, the Holy Prophet's Mosque in Medina when he was Walia days Walid bin Abdul Malik between the years (81) The Year (91) Email behind Aban bin Othman bin Affan when Aban attended said his age: “Where بنياننا edification” It boasts including making it the mosque of luxury and decorations and added to it from the pulpit and the mihrab and minaret, Aban replied immediately: “We built building mosques and Benitmoh the building of churches”. If minarets were palatable when the predecessor of what Aban bin Othman said this to say to Omar bin Abdul Aziz([57]).

3- They quoted as evidence narrated from Ibn Mas'ood that he passed ornate mosque, he said: “May Allah curse of ornament, the poor most in need of الأساطين”([58]).

Semantics face: The masters of the mosque minarets.

It is evidence that in this analogy minarets churches were forbidden to their followers in matters of religion.

Including what was narrated PBUH: «What I ordered the construction of mosques and minarets of the construction of minarets»([59]).

As narrated from the generosity of God and his face, he said: The folk if they raised their mosques, their rotted.

And went public to legalize the construction of minarets; because they are symbols of Allah, and Allah Almighty says: ) The reward of the symbols of Allah but paradise (([60]), And they did approve of Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz, a senior personnel and scientists because the prayer of the media, and the media are not only through these minarets.

It quoted him what Asamhudy said([61]) Khaled bin Amr Abu Barzah, he said: “Cities year in the lighthouse and residence in the mosque”.

In fact minarets has become today a milestone on the identity of the country in which they spread minarets, and a guide to the position of the mosque, and culturally and artistically witness to the greatness of this nation and reached in architecture.

Fourth: Dome

القبة نوع من البناء يأخذ أشكالاً شتى، فمنها الشكل البيضاوي المشطور عند وسطه، أو في شكل مخروطي، أو حلزوني، وهي من الملامح التي تتميز بها أكثر المعابد الدينية عند المسلمين وغيرهم، وقد عرفت القبة في المعابد الوثنية قبل المعابد الدينية عند اليهود والنصارى والمسلمين.

The wisdom of building domes: لبناء القبب حِكَمٌ عديدة فضلاً عن كونها شكلاً معمارياً جميلاً فإن لها فوائد منها أنها تمثل الفضاء الرحب، والسماء الواسعة بما فيها من الروعة والجلال، لذلك حرص أهل الأديان على اتخاذها في معابدهم لما توحيه من المعاني الروحية التي جاءت بها الأديان السماوية.

He said the people: The dome as it is of a curved shape helps to assemble votes believers when reciting the Koran, or other hymns, and working on repeating echo this sounds suggestive which increases in the splendor of prayer and reverence enters, emotional and emotion in the hearts of devotees.

A third group said: The dome helps to promote air and light through the many windows at its base, which reflects the light and cold on the mosque and this is a wise first consideration([62]).

Shariah scholars position of the dome:

Male newly Asamhudy for Abi Dawood bonds to Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah PBUH came out and saw the dome Senior said: “What's this?”, Told him his companions: This is so and so a man from the Ansar, said: He remained silent and carry them in the same even if the owner came Messenger of Allah PBUH in people, offer him repeatedly even making man knew where anger and turning it, and complained to his companions and said: God and the Messenger of Allah denied they said: Came out and saw eminent place, he said: The man returned to dome Fahadmha the even other land, the Messenger of Allah went out one day did not see her said: “What did the dome”, Said: Complained to us by the owner symptoms him Vokhbernah Fahadmha said: «But if every building and PAL owner, but what I do not, but what does not»([63]), Ie only inevitable.

It is therefore prevented from building on the domes of mosques quoted this modern and عمموا the significance of each building in terms of saying PBUH: «Every building and Pal against his neighbor except what No, except what not to», Any except what No must of it, and El Koba El for the is not thereby do not a must from him.

And went other team to Abaanha the it from the proceeds of architecture, not from Bida religions; because fads are not in the returns, but in worship.

It quoted him as evidence that the domes built Umayyad days and scientists Mtuaron the and neither Ankeroha nor Ihrmoha because they need the mosque provide him with light through windows and isolate heat from the congregation to rise deal allows air to intensify in the mosque.

As for what was understood by the first team of the undeniable PBUH Ansari This is reality anyway, and the facts do not permeated conditions; because maybe combined with WYSIWYG is the denial of the Prophet PBUH it if have bitch him wonder and transcendence love Flaunt and arrogance on his brothers. Shafie said: “The facts of the case كساها total dress is not valid inference”.

The first dome in Islam:

Mentioned by some historians that the first dome built in Islam is the Dome of the Mosque of the Rock in Jerusalem built by Abdul Malik bin Marwan year 72 AH, but built affected by what it was the churches in Jerusalem, and saw it attributed the prestige of Islam and maximize the symbols of Allah.

Crescent above the dome:

Historians said that Crescent who put up the dome is Sultan Hassan Ibn Sultan al-Malik al-Nasir Muhammad Gulwon. He stated'm tempted Barada in accidents ever in the days and months that in Sunday's ninth twenty Dhul year 858 AH fee Sultan of Engineers to disclose the minaret of Sultan Hassan tribal what was said to have supervised the fall, grew up everyone did not find out anything that was said, but the multitude of chucking (858) One hundred years shall be Sultan Hassan is the one who began to put Crescent([64]).

Use of an Islamic crescent symbol:

Sheikh Abdul Hai said Kettani Moroccan in his book “Administrative formalities” Saying: Translated in the incidence of Saad bin Malik kadhdhaab transferred from Ibn Younis The delegation of the Prophet صلعم and holding his banner on his people, black and the moon white, and that Muslims نقشوا fee Crescent on their money in the days of Omar ibn al-Khattab, the transfer of Aref in his book detailed in the history of Jerusalem ([65]) Saying: “And hit the Muslims in Jerusalem in the wake of Open of copper نقشوا the coins on her face Muhammad is the Messenger of God” The chart Seif and the other side إيلياء the Palestine and character “M” Crescent.

Crescent and then entered the Islamic slogan of Turkey and which continued even after the fall of the caliphate, then became an Islamic slogan in an interview the Red Cross, Red Crescent Foundation became in an interview the first Red Cross Foundation for the Muslims and the second of the Christians, then انطلقتا in the field of human services.

The position of scientists from Crescent: The scholars differed on this issue on two:

First team: It is heresy to see that the Prophet PBUH did not take first in the mosque, said Mr. Abdul Hai flaxen([66]) In the administrative formalities that the mortality ancestors said in a Page (380): The image mode Crescent on the heads of beacons mosques fad but is trading kings of the Ottoman state fee Crescent sign a formal taking of the Tsars, originally that Philip of Macedon and the father of Alexander the Great attacked the militarization of the Byzantium which Constantinople on some nights and coincided with the time of magic فدافع people and cast him Vtfael by her family and took up drawing ([67]).

The other team went to it is not ببدعة on what they have chosen from the definition of the heresy of it “Invented in matters of religion comparable law intended to extremes in worshiping”, And the use of Crescent is not in matters of religion, but is one of the things normal and is not intended to worship and exaggeration in worship and emulate them of the law, it is a tradition of plain no ببدعة in religion, though true, called heresy in the language, فالبدعة language is not prohibited, but innovation in worldly things and artistic required .

They said in the adoption of the Prophet PBUH science which inscription white crescent Saad bin Malik's what makes it a recipe legitimacy is not a recipe Fad. As well as the adoption of age and Muslims after the Image engraving on copper coins Crescent confirms the legalization of use.

V.: Courtyard of the mosque

Dish in the language is the courtyard and central level, and capacity, said: We drove in الفلاة dish([68])And, for mosque is Rehth and Rehab mosque as Abanndnaiji said: Is what built him in the neighborhood, and the judge said Abu Tayeb: What about it. Ibn al-Sabbagh and Urban: What added to it quarries it. Said Sheikh Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam: Of peace in the courtyard prayers Imam valid links; spacious because of the Whole.

The fatwa of Sheikh Abu Amr ibn al-Salah not health, said Sheikh Mohiuddin: There is no evidence to him and the right corresponding to the first owners([69]).

That most scholars considered the courtyard of the mosque is part of it and subject to the same legal provisions that apply to the other parts that make up the built, if a man nuclei year retreat and i'tikaaf already in the courtyard of the mosque true to do so and is acceptable, as well as if the people were not cleared so that is not right .

It jurisprudence base “Harem rule takes what is his harem”([70]), The base of the agreed rules.

Has been Branch the fuqaha 'them that the courtyard of the mosque of what was Harima of the mosque it takes a his reign from the the health of to observe i'tikaaf, and the prohibition means staying in which for the by-side and menstruating women, and the prohibition blahs in it, and singing hair, or Chanting stray, or buying and selling, It is NATO does not enter the mosque And he went in dish reneged in his right hand, . It was: The spacious were connected to the mosque surrounded by it from the mosque and take his reign; thus Ibn Hajar said, Ibn Abd al-Hakam([71]).

Those who say that the evidence spacious (Or saucer) Not from the mosque:

They quoted the following: Salem bin Abdullah bin Umar that Umar ibn al-Khattab built spacious in the mosque called Batah the hand, he said: “Who was wants to Alguet that seeks poetry, or raise his voice, Vlikhrj to this spacious”([72]).

Witness: Of he wants to Alguet the… Vlikhrj to this spacious.

Semantics face: Where between the ages of t compound of the Companions: Spacious that do not take the rule of the mosque, which is connected to the building, and that was the presence of the companions, no one denies it, it became like consensus, and if this spacious related mosque Valmnfsalh the a fortiori([73]).

Bukhari said: The Hassan and Zaraarah bin Abi Awfa serving in the spacious out of the mosque there hates eliminate between people in..

Evidence of those who say that the spacious courtyard or from the mosque:

1- استدلّ هؤلاء بأن الرحبة زيادة في المسجد وأن الزيادة تأخذ حكم الأصل فهي كالمسجد.

2- أن الرحبة باعتبارها منفصلة يصح اقتداء من كان فيها بإمام المسجد إذا كان يرى الإمام ويسمع صوته.

Spacious and see that if it is separated from the mosque wall or so are from the mosque because they are affiliated campus, and states that the rules (He's)And (Harem rule takes what is his harem), And God knows.

The emergence of the dishes in the mosques:

And saucers in ancient mosques upbringing was transferred Dr. Ahmad Fikri Fattouh countries for Bladhira, and the date of the Apostles and the Kings of Tabari([74]) Maqrizi in his plans([75]) That the first thing in the line of Kufa and the children while they were determined to construction mosque, Fajttoh then left the mosque in the square Alwa in all its aspects and built in the introduction to the canopy not have Mjunbat and brothels this year was seventeen for Migration.

The mosque system is then reflected in the city of Kufa Mosque, square borders, and the dish, and the house of prayer.

The wisdom of making the dish in the mosque:

ذكر الشيخ طه الولي ـ رحمه الله ـ الحكمة من إضافة الصحون إلى المساجد فقال: “وإذا كانت الظلة يراد بها وقاية المصلين من حرارة الشمس، أو برودة الجو، أو تيار الهواء، أو نزول المطر، فإن لصحن المسجد مقابل ذلك غاية هامة إذ منه يدخل النور إلى بيت الصلاة الذي لا نوافذ فيه، وكذلك فإنه من هذا الصحن يدخل الهواء إلى ذلك المكان عند اكتظاظه بالناس في أوقات الصلاة حتى بعد أن أخذ الناس في فتح القمريات والنوافذ في المساجد فإن الصحن بقي من العناصر المتممة لها، وأصبح المكان المفضل لإقامة أحواض الوضوء والمرافق الصحية هذا من جهة.

On the other hand, the courtyard of the mosque accommodate the overflow of worshipers who do not have room to a house of prayer, especially on Fridays and holidays, and other occasions where Muslims gather in mosques to like or another “([76]).

It is correct that the purpose is used to save the saucer weapons that belong to the state, it was stated Sheikh Ali al-Tantawi([77]) It was a bowl of the Umayyad Mosque quotients for Mngeniqat, where princes quotients things of tents and other.

It is also the purposes that these dishes were used for commercial purposes, they were some of the dishes used for sale, says Maqrizi([78]): “And spacious tiller in the Mosque of Amr ibn al-Aas Pfstat Egypt is a spacious marine increase Khazen, the owner of the house money and were spacious Itbaya people where on Friday”.

Planting trees saucer: Muslims are keen to be this wooded dishes to deodorants to allow worshipers to Istazloa underneath, historians have said some mosques that were planted with trees or flowers scented, jasmine mosque in Tiberias, Palestine.

One purpose of the courtyard that is open hall used for teaching, and still-Azhar mosque bowl until today is used for this purpose, and frequented by science students from the Egyptians and others, especially those who do not live up their qualifications to enter the colleges official.

The courtyard of the mosque of Al-Azhar was surrounded by corridor and there was a gallery of the Levant, and gallery Moroccans and others, I have seen science students in the courtyard of the mosque of Al-Azhar and saw scientists يؤمون the courtyard of the mosque to teach science, scientists have called on the courtyard of the mosque University Name ” Take off your sandals “.

VI: Corridor

Said Zamakhshari: House galleries make him a gallery([79]). The hallway: One of the components of the mosque, and the advances they call Palmjunbat. It has already take us say Albuladhira the description Tabari in Kufa mosque that he has a canopy at the forefront of has no Mjunbat no brothels.

And when he spoke, Dr. Ahmad Fikri Kairouan mosque which was built by Uqba said: “It was not of the Kairouan Mjunbat the mosque before increasing Ibrahim bin mostly, but a dish on the Mosque of the Prophet PBUH model([80]).

Out of the hallway:

And thereby it should be noted to him that the idea of ​​the hallway the art of architect he enters the mosque were numerous the attention of researchers in the the idea of ​​of portico Do you is an Islamic the idea of ​​or I quoted about the people of the book?.

فالدكتور Ahmad Fikri seen in most likely that the gallery idea of ​​Islamic, and finds that Zlten which in the Mosque of the Prophet صلعم the city's canopy kiss and canopy Sham and two spacious mosque, and not touch Zlten Bmjunbtin to the east and one to the west strange system of the mosque, what Almjunbtan only Zltan Diktan تحيطان .

The Sheikh Taha guardian do not see nothing wrong that this will be a newcomer to the idea of ​​Islamic architecture, there is no harm on Muslims to benefit from others, human civilization is only a series of experiments that humans lived generation after generation. It was felt that the gallery system for Greek philosophers took until I knew them Balracaan percentage range to the hallway where they were throwing their lessons on science students([81]), And the reason for their fame with this name is that the leader of this sect named “Xenon” He was studying science in the gallery has been located in largest fields Athens, The مزدانا was famous images, and was dubbed the hallway المزدان pictures([82]).

The benefits of this hallway:

I have already mentioned that the dish-Azhar mosque is surrounded by بالأروقة, these arcades were used to receive the flag, has collected Azhar Mosque, the largest number of arcades Kroaq Abbasid built in 315 AH, and gallery Aloqubgaoih established by Prince آقبغا, and gallery Kurds, and porch Indians, gallery Baghdadi, and a gallery of Yemen, and a gallery .

The rule of the hallway:

And the rule of spacious hallway rule or saucer, he continued to the mosque, and of continued, فحكمه continued to rule the origin, and is inseparable's rule about the ruling followed, a campus of the mosque, and the campus takes the rule of what is forbidden for him. All that takes the mosque and the dish of the rule is the rule of the hallway.

Seventh: Sanitation, الميضأة,

Health facilities to be the open houses or what is today called toilets, Sheikh Taha guardian says: “It is worth mentioning that the Muslims first alerted to the need for these facilities in their homes or in their places of worship, while Europe remained until recently, was not in the houses of the Europeans, including the palaces of kings such places, says God's mercy: When I visited Palace Ersaal in Paris and found free from other normal like the other houses that were built in his time”([83]).

والميضأة: Designated name for ablutions, uttered also Almidhaeh, and the first is common, and the origin of the word from doing Oda face, ضاءة, which Hassan and cheerful([84]).

مكان المرافق والميضأة:

Space for health facilities in the mosques usually one aspect of the dish away from the place of prayer, and in some cases outside the mosque built so as not to hurt worshipers aromatherapy, and lest spoil the place of prayer because of the proximity of it.

It was reported Maqrizi in his plans([85]) That Ibn Tulun what Bani mosque did not make الميضأة inside the Making people criticize فجمعهم Ibn Tulun said: The الميضأة I looked and found what is out of impurities Vtehrth them and here I am her sons behind him, and intended Balmidoh in his health facilities and what it means ablution.

The الميضأة individual for sanitation فالعادة was that they were يبنونها in the center of the dish, and often a basin pie filled with water that been to the aquarium and يتحلق around people and Atodún waters flush, and often these basins under domes rises around the columns of non walls unauthorized by what .

الميضأة rule:

الميضأة of the necessary components of the mosque especially if they are single for the open houses that is it runs the risk of impurity, in an interview with Osman bin Hanif that a blind man entered the mosque, he said: O Allah let me respond Optical Prophet PBUH said to him,: “If you wish prayed to God you your sight if you wish the individual patient Paradise will be yours “([86]), Said: O Messenger of God I do not have anyone to guide me, and he said the Prophet PBUH: “إئت الميضأة wudoo so well ablution then ائت the mosque rak'ahs season then Say: Oh God, I beg you بنبيك prophet of mercy, O Muhammad, I am imploring you to my Lord ” ([87]), He called him, the Prophet individual eyesight. This is proof the presence of الميضأة in Mosque of the Prophet PBUH or close to it.

Eighth: Cabin in the mosque:

Zamakhshari said in a basis of rhetoric: The cabin is the room of a large stone house.

When taken to the room in the mosque?

Historians have differed concerning one who began to take roommate rulers, the caliphs, the team went that the first of them took Othman bin Affan roommate t Maqrizi mentioned in his plans for Omar bin semi-([88]) It is a two Qalqashandi opinions([89]) And a say Maqrizi in his plans, saying Suyooti in Oaúlh([90]).

The other team went on to say that the first of the cabin is taken Muawiyah a second opinion for Qlqhanda([91]) The second opinion for Mqrizi([92]) This is the view Zarkashi([93]), And was told: The first took a cabin Marwan ibn al-Hakam said Asamhudy([94]).

Reasons for chapels:

, Asamhudy said Othman bin Affan the first to put the cabin of milk and used by bulk bin Rev. was living two dinars per month, said Malik bin Anas: استخلف Osman after the death of Omar bin Khattab work of Osman Ali compartment, fearing that hit the age of t and small([95]).

One of the reasons to take the compartments in the winter they are small mosque warmer than the broad summer may take.

May take the position of the muezzin which raises the ears and in the booths devoted to مؤذنين waving Azan second on Friday in the hands of al-Khatib, has stated Sheikh Taha guardian to muezzins remained Aaznon in chapels mandate of Musa bin Abu Abbas on Egypt in the days of Mu'tasim the Abbasid when Crown Moses provided by ([96]).

Some of the scholars who were denied taking chapels Imam Ibn al-Haj, who said: Chapels and act handrails an innovation has resulted due to, among other evils that position to stop to pray and what do the other is grabbing for the position of the Muslim prayers, which they prohibited from decoration([97]).

And he went the other team is permissible to take these compartments; because the building of mosques and determine the forms is subject to the need for custom is not Toukivia must be followed, as well as to heresy in matters of religion and not in the construction mundane, but if not the mosque in need is better or not taking into account out of contention .


COPD in the language: Kelsafh penthouse above the gate of the court. In the terminology: Penthouse is being built in the wall of the mosque paid the mihrab and minbar, usually of wood which is lifted above ground of the mosque on high poles and remain fixed in place.

The purpose of building COPD:

The purpose of the construction of embankment is to enable the muezzin who reported before the congregation to be entertained on of this Imam فيرفع the movements with his colleagues to prayer تنضبط people with their imam, Nowadays there are large السدد and usually used by women and focus of the following curtain mosque.

Date of construction of embankment:

Maqrizi mentions in his plans as he talks about the Amr ibn al-Aas Mosque in Cairo says: Imam al-Mustansir order'm apparently corresponding to the stone work and niche was Obeidi succession of the year 427 AH until the year 487 AH and long succession sixty years, the corresponding stone for the niche is often the embankment shall be Mustansir is the first of the the embankment now known took.

Scientists position of COPD:

No different than the position of scientists from the obstructive attitude of the cabin Both of components developed in mosques, updated every fad.

And who said Bbdeih, the embankment Imam Jamal al-Din Al-Qasimi([98]) Because of the المحذورات such as increasing the congregation for the Imam and prepared for anyone who wants to monopolize all the rows above and disdain for worshipers.

However, COPD may be used specifically for women come to it after the prayer in the public and private lessons sitting away from mixing with men and يستمعن lessons, and reading the Koran. Dams on this basis and this account has become a need, as already said that the mosques and build are not things Altoqafah that need to be followed, not by the things devotional even within the scope of fads legitimacy reprehensible, Yes, it is a fad language, and fads of language may be good and may be ugly.

Seventh requirement: Decoration of mosques:

Have already shown that the Mosque of the Prophet صلعم in the city was a simple simplicity of this debt is far from affectation and complexity in his laws and rituals, it is not where any semblance of adornment, decoration, and continued to the mosque on his condition in the days of Abu Bakr and Umar until Crown Osman .

What he has done has raised our Lord Osman objection some companions, came in Sahih Muslim that people hated Osman what he has done in the mosque of renovations and decorations and they prefer if he left on the whole it was in days of the Prophet PBUH and his two companions, said Osman: May Okthertm and I heard the Messenger of Allah PBUH says: «Of God mosque Brown God has a house in Paradise like»([99]).

Some historians to be the first to enter the adornment and decoration to the mosques is Muawiyah, has mention Asamhudy in his book “Wafa Wafa”([100]) That's where he said: Narrated that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab t when he was come into the Levant received Muawiya Basakr, and many soldiers and horses Marked and Mjush weapons with gold and silver and silk brocade boss, said Omar: What is this, O Muawiya etc. These ornamental pottery, I have come is ارتقيت thing مرتقى difficult, said Muawiya: O faithful this rage كفارنا, and Mgahrh our enemies, though Fraúsm to tremble, though their lists to lows of it, and I find the appearance on them and humiliation and children in them, and drink terror into their hearts when they see our mosques adorned with gold and roofs dotted Baknadel gold. Said Asamhudy: The age of silent on rolling when he heard his argument.

It then entered the decoration of mosques, was transferred Maqrizi in his plans that the Mosque of Amr ibn al-Aas in Fustat what fed his family complained people to Salamah ibn Immortalized wrote to Muawiya, he wrote to Muawiya ordering him to increase it, increasing it and making it spacious and Cook inflorescence and decorated walls and سقوفه([101]).

Emboss the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus with carving marble, mosaics and fonts, Ibn Hawqal said he describes this mosque: That Alwaleed while Omar mosque make home رخاما Moshe, Maaked headers Osatinh gold, and niche doctrine and studded with jewels, and its surface bullets([102]). وهكذا انتشرت الزخرفة في المساجد.

Scientists position of the decoration of mosques: Scientists split on this issue into two groups:

First team: Believes that decoration of mosques gold and silver engravings and fees innovated things. They quoted this position matters:

First: The Prophet PBUH and his two companions, Abu Bakr and Omar died, not in the mosque balconies, no niche, no inscriptions, no frills, and the first of the latest balconies and the mihrab is Othman bin Affan t.

Secondly: Prophet PBUH: «Build mosques and they have taken JAMA»([103]) Annexation of the gym and tighten Almim said Abu Obeid: Jem, who do not honor him, and honor as collect a balcony rooms as a room.

وعن ابن عمر t قال: We are forbidden to pray in a mosque Musharraf. Said Zarkashi: Hates decorated, in Sunan Abu Dawood, Ibn Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «What I ordered the construction of mosques, Ibn Abbas said: To Tzachrvenha as decorated with the Jews and the Christians.

Anas that the Prophet PBUH said: «The Hour will not even boast of people in mosques»([104]). Al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh that Umar ordered the construction of a mosque and said: “I was people from the rain, and eAAC تحمر, or whistle Vfn people”.

He said the generosity of God and face: “The people if they raised their mosques, their rotted”.

Abu Darda said t: “If Halitm Massahvkm and Zachrvatm Msagdkm Valdbar you”, Any loss([105]).

Thirdly: The landscape motifs that would distract from prayer given to him.

Fourth: The disbursement of funds on the poor first spent on luxury and Flaunt.

V.: Not permissible for Muslims to imitate other owners of the boredom of the Jews and the Christians.

VI: It's any decoration heresy, every innovation is misguidance.

And who to launch his campaign الشعواء the on decoration of mosques brand Qasimi Addressing donors for decoration: “You build edifices to the rhythm of the public to engage fads, and Tbzlon money to bring religion to worship moot, as happened in the above Nations which Aatadt about the beauty of the beauty of the faith the walls of temples, and faith in the light of lights structures… Etc. What he said([106]).

Second Team: Some scientists went to the decoration of mosques passport([107]) Kalpgoa not to be endowment yields.

They quoted on that by Osman t, and saying the Almighty: ﴿ إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ﴾([108]).

I: لا يخفى ضعف هذا الدليل أمام أدلة الفريق الأول.

But if the decoration of the mosque, which would force was not hyperbole to some extent do Osman, Omar bin Abdul Aziz, it is permissible, and God knows.

Especially if it is the more prestige and respect to this debt and maximize this nation against the Jews and the Christians, and the hyperbole in the decoration including no longer on the mosque by force and precision This ornament hesitate between privacy and disliked as much as the decoration of hyperbole.

And cite witnesses to what I said:

The first witness: Muawiya position to Omar bin Khattab received when he entered Sham Balasakr and riding المسومة and weapons Almjush gold and silver citing that it rage كفارنا and conquer our enemies… The horror and young and humiliation enter their hearts when they see our mosques adorned with gold, he was speechless Omar when he heard an argument Muawiya and if so, which are affected by the provisions in time and space, and Ahwala.

The second witness: Male Sakba in the history of Damascus that Omar bin Abdul Aziz, who demolished the mosque built illiterate when it came to the Christians and complained to him that newborn demolition of their church and established part of the mosque place when they saw it from the Justice and injustice, he has written a lifetime to Treat Refund Zadeh newborn in the mosque, .

Then think of what the Crown caliphate in 99 AH remove it from the decorations and sell them received the money to the house money. This period coincided with a delegation of rum made that day to Damascus they entered the mosque to consider him, فرفعوا of their heads to the mosque Venks the the head of them the head and yellow color of his people asked him for his answered: Verily we Socialized Romans talk that the survival of the few Arabs when I saw what Benoit learned that them for Sabulgunha the. When the transfer of this talk to Omar said: I see your mosque this anger on the infidels he left what they are doing([109]). So it's no surprise that the decoration of the provisions that change with the days and places and conditions.

The decoration of the excess that does not accrue to mosque provisions Vmthalha the the mosque desalination gold, silver, engraving, dyeing, Such decoration taboo when most of the scholars, told Al Qasimi: Said in persuasion: If you stop at a mosque and the like Qandil gold or silver is not valid, pause, and deprived Faisrv in the interest of the mosque after the break, and deprives camouflage ceiling and wall of the mosque with gold or silver; SiRF because it leads to showing off([110]).

The Zarkashi: It says the sanctity of the mosque desalination gold and silver; because it did not convey the predecessor is correct, then he mentioned another facet, a passport may also cover Kaaba Baldibaj the. The lamps used to illuminate the mosques is gold فجائزة, and the first of Nour mosques بالقناديل the Omar ibn al-Khattab t, and when he saw that the generosity of God and his face said: “God's light grave as Norte mosques”. And she said auspicious: Oh Messenger of Allah أفتنا in Jerusalem, said: “آتوه dismissed it if it is not Tatoh Fabosoa with يسرج oil in Guenadelh” (Ibn Majah).

The covering of the walls of mosques silk is subject to two opinions:

First: Passport, which is to say Izz ibn Abd al-Salam and Al-Ghazali compared to the Kaaba, said Ghazali: But silk campus on men without women, but inanimate objects and mosques, it is a fortiori([111]).

The second opinion: No passport, is the view of the Chief Justice of Abu Bakr al-Shami; because it did not convey that the Prophet PBUH and his companions([112]).

Eighth demand: The most important mosque etiquette short:

There are many etiquette concerning the mosque is quickly complement the door and come up with the topic of all its considerations.

1- أن يكون بناؤه لله وليس مركزاً للترويج والإعلام لأحد مهما علا شأنه، قال تعالى: ) And mosques God do not let anyone along with Allah (([113]).

2- عدم إنشاد الشعر في المسجد، قال صلعم: «Hair seen him sing in the mosque, say to him: Disengagement God Vac three times »([114]).

3- عدم إنشاد الضالة في المسجد، قال صلعم: «Misguided seen him sing in the mosque, say to him: You do not God responded »([115]).

4- عدم البيع والشراء، قال صلعم: «It is seen it sells or يبتاع, say to him: God do not win your business »([116]).

5- عدم السرعة في المشي إليها، قال صلعم: «If prayer gown was invited to pray means do not Tatoha and you ninety but اتوها, the you serenity and dignity»([117]).

6- لبس أحسن الثياب ويستحسن الثياب البيضاء.

7- الاغتسال يوم الجمعة، فقد قال صلعم: «What's the one if you took a garment collected only dress career»([118]), Said PBUH: «I love to God white dresses»([119]).

8- تجنب الرائحة الكريهة، فقد ثبت أن النبيّ صلعم نهى عن الشجرتين الخبيثتين: Onion and garlic, and said,: «Of Oklhma please come near our mosques»([120]).

9- عدم الاشتغال بحرفة من حرف الدنيا في المسجد كالخياطة ونحوها، وهو مذهب الشافعي ومالك وابن حنبل؛ لأن المساجد وجدت لذكر الله تعالى، قال تعالى: ﴿فيِ بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ﴾([121]).

The business that does not offend the sanctity of the mosque Kaltdris, reading, and reading the Koran and taught, and so this is the male and which he found his mosque in Islam.

It is a business that not تمتهن mosque which can operate:

The apportionment of funds. Put alms in a dedicated fund to be distributed to the poor. Imprisonment arch. Linking captive. Sleep easy. Housing for the poor. إنشاد الشعر الهادف العاري عن الباطل. هذه الأعمال ذكرها الإمام ابن العربي المالكي([122]).

I: أما ربط الأسير وحبس الغريم فقد كان هذا في زمن النبوة، أما الآن فقد خصصت الدول أماكن خاصة بالغريم والأسير هو السجون أو مقرات الشرط فلم يعد المسجد مؤهلاً لذلك. وأما النوم اليسير فيغتفر؛ لأن اليسير عفو في العرف وفي الشرع في كل شيء، وَإِنَّمَا قيدت الجواز باليسير كي لا تصبح بيوت الله فنادق ومراكز للنوم فتمتهن. It should be preserved for mosques lunatics, and boys, women, and pleura; because the violation of the sanctity of the mosque.

IX requirement: Some provisions relating to the construction of the mosque

هناك أحكام تتعلق ببناء المسجد هي على النحو التالي:

1- يجب أن يبنى المسجد من أول أمره ويؤسَّس على التقوى وذكر الله وتعظيمه وعبادته، قال تعالى: ) Of a mosque founded on piety from the first day deserving of being in which you (([123]).

2- لا يجوز بناء المسجد على أرض مغتصبة لأن الصلاة فيه عند ذلك لا تصحّ.

3- يجوز بناء المسجد في أماكن العبادة التي يُعبد فيها غير الله، فقد ثبت أن رسول الله صلعم أمر أن يجعل مسجد أهل الطائف حيث كانت طواغيتهم.

4- يكره بناء المسجد في المقابر لورود النهي عن الصلاة في المقبرة، ولأن النبيّ صلعم لَمَّا بنى مسجده فقد كانت الأرض التي بنى عليها المسجد فيها خرب وقبور للمشركين فنبشت المقابر.

Muslim narrated from Umm Salamah and Umm Habiba, may Allah be pleased they Zkrta to the Messenger of Allah PBUH Church رأينها in Abyssinia, which were images, he said PBUH: «Those if those good men died built on his grave are the most evil of mankind before God»([124]).

5- In the construction of the mosque: Scientists have disagreed it was transferred Zarkashi about Baghawi it may not; because the side should not be sitting on the campus of mosque and هوائه, has already been discussed rule for this is that “Harem rule takes what is his harem”([125]).

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[1]) Join mosques in Baghdad and its implications written by Mahmoud Shukri Alusi and refine Mohamed Bahgat archaeological Baghdad edition, 1946, p 38.

[2]) Media الساجد to Zrkachi, 2/15.

[3]) 2/246.

[4]) Reform of fads and mosques return for the Ghasemi, i 2, p 61.

[5]) Date of Baghdad, 1/108.

[6]) Mosque of Kairouan, p 50.

[7]) Mosque of Kairouan, p 52.

[8]) Mosques in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 158.

[9]) Arab civilization translate just Zaayter, p 425 edition revival of Arabic books in Cairo in 1956.

[10]) Sunan Ibn Majah, mosques and book groups, the door of built God a mosque, (736)، 1/243. Sunan al-Tirmidhi, the virtue of the structure of the mosque (319)، 2/135. True son Hibbaan, Prayer Book, the door of the mosque, (1610)، 4/490.

[11]) Al Noor (36-37).

[12]) Mosque of Kairouan Ahmad Fikri, p 41.

[13]) Maqrizi plans, 2/249.

[14]) I'm Rsth: Precious Aloalaq, p 116.

[15]) Mosque in Islam, Taha guardian, p 160.

[16]) Join ancient mosques, p 29. By the mosque in the Islam Taha Guardian, p 169.

[17]) Maqrizi plans, 2/249.

[18]) Magazine folder Crescent, 25, 10/802 Under the title odd pages of history by Professor Abdel Fattah worship.

[19]) Planets الدرية the in Romani biography, achieve: Mahmoud Zayed, publishing house of the new book, Beirut, printed 1971, p 159.

[20]) Maqrizi plans 2/15.

[21]) Maqrizi mentioned in his plans 2/278 I 1.

[22]) Gazan mentioned in the Book of Gold River in the history of Aleppo 1/172.

[23]) I mentioned Italian magazine Orient in Rome the year (7) Number (4) Quoting from the book of mosques Sheikh Taha guardian, p 169.

[24]) Dr. Mohamed Bahi mentioned in the book of Al-Azhar history and evolution, p 383.

[25]) Sunan Ibn Majah, mosques book, the door of built God a mosque, (736)، 1/243. He is weak.

[26]) Sahih Muslim, Book 6- Mosques, the door must be coming to the mosque who heard the appeal, (1518)، 2/124.

[27]) Imran (67).

[28]) Biography of Ibn Hisham, achieve: Mohamed Mohi El Din Abdel Hamid, 4/32.

[29]) Cave: 21.

[30]) Sahih Al-Bukhari, Bab Are تنبش the graves polytheists Jaahiliyyah, (417)، 1/165.

[31]) San Arabs, substance (NPR).

[32]) Look: History of mosques in Islam: D. Taha guardian, p 193.

[33]) Contract unique to Ibn Abd Rabbo Andalusian 7/295-296. Achieve Mohammed Saeed Al-Arian, integrity Press in Egypt in 1359 AH.

[34]) Mosques in Islam, p 193. And see the introduction of Ibn Khaldun, p 269 literary press in Beirut, i 3 Year 1900.

[35]) Look: Maqrizi plans 2/248.

[36]) Subhi A'sha in industry Alancha, Dar al-Kutub edition comic 3/505.

[37]) Mokattam number of newspaper (16) June (23) January Year 1924.

[38]) Sura: 37.

[39]) Sura: 39.

[40]) Maryam: 21.

[41]) Al Sheba: 13.

[42]) Plans for Mqrizi the 2/247 And the stars Zahira 1/67 Dar al-Kutub edition.

[43]) Zahira stars to'm tempted Barada.

[44]) Wafa Wafa news of Dar al-Mustafa Nun Religion Asamhudy, i 1 Press of Arts and pro-Egypt 1/372.

[45]) الساجد notification provisions of the mosques, p 364 Egyptian Book House, Book House of Lebanon, Beirut.

[46]) Bayhaqi narrated by Abdul Rahman bin Mgra, Sindh Hassan. Look: Fruit Almsttab the Albany, 1/473.

[47]) إصلاح المساجد من البدع والعوائدللقاسمي، ط2 المكتب الإسلامي، بيروت، ص367.

[48]) Musnad Ahmad (17606)، 37/73.

[49]) Surat Yusuf: 70.

[50]) Al-Hajj: 27.

[51]) Razi interpretation ” Keys of the unseen ” 23/41 Thought Printing House.

[52]) Ocean dictionary (Soma).

[53]) Al-Hajj: 40.

[54]) Ocean dictionary material (PO RB).

[55]) Maqrizi plans 2/247.

[56]) P 370.

[57]) Look: Mosques in Islam, p 255.

[58]) الساجد notification provisions mosques Zrkachi, pp. 336, Egyptian Book House, Lebanese Book House.

[59]) True son Hibbaan, Prayer Book, the door of the mosque,(1615)، 4/493.

[60]) Al-Hajj: 32.

[61]) Wafa Wafa news of Dar al-Mustafa, 1/375.

[62]) Look: Mosques in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 275.

[63]) Sunan Abu Dawood, Book literature, what came in the door construction, (5239)، 4/530.

[64]) Look: Mosque in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 279.

[65]) Detailed in the history of Jerusalem authored Aref, p 102 of the Journal of the Good Shepherd 12/182 (Date 31 December year 1943), And administrative formalities book, 1/320.

[66]) 1/320.

[67]) Look: Mosques in Islam, p 282.

[68]) Rhetoric basis of Zmkhcri Article (Dish).

[69]) الساجد notification provisions of the mosques, p 346. والفروع لابن مفلح، 3/153.

[70]) Semiconductor Suyooti, ​​and semiconductor Ibn Najim al-Hanafi.

[71]) Fath al-Baari, 13/155 And 6/437. And singer needy, 1/459.

[72]) Muwatta owner 1/175 Maraseel Althagah is invoked.

[73]) The rule of mosques in Islamic law.

[74]) Book mosque in Kairouan, PO Box 52, Kings history of Tabari, p 57.

[75]) Plans for Mqrizi the 2/250.

[76]) Mosques in the Islam Taha Guardian, p 297.

[77]) Book of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, p 57.

[78]) Maqrizi plans 2/250.

[79]) Rhetoric basis (Galleries).

[80]) Look: Book mosques in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 303.

[81]) Greek philosophy d. Mohammad Gulab i 1 Cairo 2/139.

[82]) Ibid, 2/140.

[83]) Mosques in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 310.

[84]) Enlightening lamp Fiume 2/914 Princely printing press in Cairo.

[85]) Maqrizi plans, 2/267.

[86]) Sunan Ibn Majah, 189- What door came the need for prayer (1385)، 1/441.

[87]) Sahih Muslim, Bab missed prayers, (1594)، 2/138.

[88]) Maqrizi plans 2/251.

[89]) Feats of elegance in the parameters of succession to Ahmad ibn Abdullah Qalqashandi, achieving Abdul Sattar Ahmed Farag, printed and the Ministry of Guidance and news in Kuwait in 1964, 1/111.

[90]) Lecture the early adopters Msamerh days, p 147, quoting mosques in Islam Sheikh Taha guardian, p 313.

[91]) Feats of elegance in the parameters of the Caliphate 1/111.

[92]) Plans for Mqrizi the 2/251 See: Media الساجد to Zrkachi, p 375.

[93]) Media الساجد to Zrkachi, p 375.

[94]) Wafa Wafa 1/362.

[95]) Ibid.

[96]) Provisions of the mosques, p 315.

[97]) Media الساجد to Zrkachi, p 375.

[98]) Repair of mosques and returns fads, p 251 printed Islamic office.

[99]) Narrated by Muslim. And see Wafa Wafa news Mostafa 2/355.

[100]) Book in question 2/427.

[101]) Maqrizi plans 2/247 And 248.

[102]) Image of the earth to Ibn Hawqal, p 161 House library life - Beirut.

[103]) Bayhaqi narrated by Laith Ayoub, and Laith weak. Look: Fruit Almsttab the Albany 1/463.

[104]) Saheeh Abi Dawood, 11, a door in the building of mosques, 2/348.

[105]) Media الساجد to Zrkachi, p 337.

[106]) Repair of mosques and returns fads Jamal al-Din Al Qasimi, pp. 95 and 96.

[107]) Look: Inform الساجد, pp. 336 and 337 and the mayor of the Continental, the architecture of mosques door 4/204.

[108]) Tawba: 18.

[109]) Refine the history of Damascus Sakba 1/211 Printing and publishing house march - Beirut Year 1976 M.

[110]) Repair of mosques and returns fads, p 271.

[111]) Media الساجد to Zrkachi, p 338.

[112]) Ended a summary of inform الساجد, p 339.

[113]) Al Jinn: 18.

[114]) Narrated by Ibn al-Sunni in the work day and night, Albani said: Poor, see: Fruit Almsttab the, 1/685.

[115]) Ibid.

[116]) Ibid.

[117]) Musnad Ahmad (10612)، 22/143.

[118]) Sunan Ibn Majah, a prayer book, what came in the door decorations, (1095)، 1/348.

[119]) Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Funerals book, what is recommended door of coffins, (1010)، 4/205.

[120]) Sahih Muslim, Book mosques, door forbidden from eating garlic or onions, (1277)، 2/79.

[121]) Al Noor: 36.

[122]) Provisions of the Koran to Ibn al-'Arabi al-Maliki, the first edition, the revival Bestsellers - Egypt 4/1858.

[123]) Tawba: 108.

[124]) Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh.

[125]) Inform الساجد, p 317.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان “ الفقه الحضاري، فقه العمران”

Held during the period: (18-21) April 1431 / (3-6) April 2010:

Oman- The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

This article contains Comments (2)

2 Comments “Provisions of the mosque and its components in Islamic law”

  1. وجدي says:

    شكرا على هذا البحث.واردت التنويه على الصلاة على النبي محمد الاجدر كتابتها صلى الله عليه وسلم وليس صلعم او ص

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