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And preserve the environment in the Islamic Sharia

And preserve the environment in the Islamic Sharia *

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Introduction

In the name of God, praise be to God, prayer and peace be upon our master Messenger of Allah PBUH and his family and companions and marched on their way to the Day of Judgment. And after..

If we look at the overall environment Bmudallolha seen that has received a great deal of attention, and Islam has put the general framework of the Environmental Protection Act in the words of the Almighty: ﴿Not confusion in the earth after repair is better for you if you are believers (([1]). He said most would: ) Not mischief in the land mischief (([2]), And he says: ) Does not mischief in the land that God does not like spoilers (([3]).

Not surprising that given the environment in the law of Islam with great interest, they are legacy of generations, and where Allah deposited all the necessities of life for humans, so laid Islam foundations and rules and principles that govern and codify human relationship its environment to be achieved through the relationship straight and balanced that safeguard the environment on the one hand, and help them to perform . Has become the issue of the environment Bmchkladtha multiple ranging from pollution, depletion of resources, leading to a breach بتوازنها, of pressing issues in the contemporary world, and confront mankind today problems and environmental disasters, if anything, it shows a lack of awareness and a sense of environmental and Islamic ignored for after the Islamic .

There is no doubt that human behavior wrong and irrational in dealing with environmental resources to make it run the risk of severe, and the suffering of the world today problems and environmental risks, which is the product of what اقترفناه in the right environment to exploit devastating and exhausted its resources, this suffering is a kind of punishment reform draws right .

The issue of the environment and the contents of the dimensions of the complex and multiple problems, had put itself in the last two decades as one of the most serious issues in the modern era if not the most serious ever. The worsening environmental problems in the world, and the consequent risks to both objects become things that require everyone to participate effectively in the face of these environmental problems, whether environmental problems at the physical level (Air pollution, water pollution radioactive pollution noise pollution contamination of soil contamination of food… Etc.) Or moral problems (Congenital pollution, cultural political pollution, social… Etc.), Recognizing that the second mode (Moral pollution) The basis and even more dangerous to the environment than all other species, but requires special attention from all concerned at the level of governments or the level of formal and informal.

This research is modest contribution from the researcher talking about ways to protect the environment from the Islamic perspective. God and ask to help and guide.

Definition environment:

Environment in the language: Derived from (Albu) A decision or necessary([4]), And from the verse) and who took the house and faith (([5]), Altbu take shelter and intimacy and commitment.

In the terminology: Ocean where the human and the factors and elements affecting the composition and life style([6]).

Ecology has been known that: “Center or spatial domain in which they live rights, including features of the natural and human phenomena influenced by and influence”.

And I also knew: As: “Framework in which they live rights and get him the basics of life of food, clothing, medicine and shelter and exercise their relationships with fellow human beings”([7]).

Islam's concept of environment and signs of attention:-

As for the concept of the Islamic Environment: It is a holistic concept, it means the earth and the sky and the mountains and the creatures, including humans and its surrounds the motives and emotions and instincts.

And is characterized by the concept of environment in Islam Bashmuleth will include all God's creatures from the ins and Jean and seas, rivers, mountains, plants and animals and insects, though these creatures he brought God to man.

Islam enjoys deeper and broader perspective of the environment, where student rights to deal with the environment in terms of it is public property must be maintained in order to continue to exist, he says: ) Not confusion in the earth after repair is better for you if you are believers (([8]).

وقد عُني الإسلام عنايةً خاصةً بنظافة البيئة باعتبارها المحل الذي يقيم فيه الإنسان ويحصل منه على احتياجاته ويمارس فيه عبادته وأعماله التي تعينه على مواجهة متطلبات الحياة، ومن الوسائل التي حرص عليها الإسلام في حفظ البيئة العناية بالنظافة، والإسلام في عنايته بالنظافة سبق كل الأديان وجميع الحضارات، فالنظافة في ديننا عبادة وقربة، بل فريضة من أهم فرائض الإسلام، ولذلك فإن المطالع لكتب الفقه الإسلامي أول ما تقع عينه فيها يجد الحديث عن الطهارة.

Not least the interest of Islam cleanliness and purity of that make purity body and dress and the place is a condition of validity of prayer, and this reference to the behavior that should be the Muslim prayer and outside of prayer, فالنظافة is permanent address, so called Prophet PBUH to:

– Hygiene of the body washing Vgesna and private on Friday, which is the weekly festival of the Muslims, in the modern «wash Friday and the duty of every pubescent»([9]), «The right of every Muslim in every seven days to wash the head and body»([10]).

– Me oral hygiene and therefore wished teeth in tooth brushing especially when ablution, prayer, «Tsochoa Siwak cleanses the mouth, pleasing to the Lord, and Jibril came to me but advised me bleed so I was afraid to impose on me and on my([11]), And the Prophet PBUH not lying of day or night Vistikz only Tsuk, it has proved in the novel that SAWS «When he rose from the night Ichos mouth bleed», also ordered بالمضمضة and inhalation in the ablution, and is cleanly hair «Whoever has hair Vlakrema»([12]). Also ordered the removal underarm and pubic hair and nail, Saheehayn and elsewhere that the Prophet PBUH said: «Instinct five or five of instinct: الختان والاستحداد ونتف الإبط وتقليم الأظفار وقصّ الشارب».

Attention not only Islam hygiene cleanliness of the body, but widened the circle to include cleaner houses and roads; The soul Tnscherh place clean and constrict to view the filth, and therefore urged the Prophet SAWS clean houses, he said: «Allah loves good hygiene, Jawad loves generosity, Venzvo Ffenatkm, not imitating the Jews»([13]), Jews were overindulge in the cleanliness of their homes of garbage and waste, Venzafah House desirable, of course, and religiously; because Islam is a religion of good hygiene calls have been received in the general provisions such as the verse: ) That God loves those who repent and loves those who purify themselves (([14]). Like saying SAWS:«You are coming on brothers make peace Rahalkm and repaired of mail so you will be if you were a mole in the people, God does not like obscenity and obscene actions»([15]).

And targeting Islam's call for cleaner homes to maintain public health; because the accumulation of dirt in the house gives insects and germs plenty of room to spread and reproduction as well as the emission of odors that gut-wrenching, and make homes a bad place to reside in.([16]).

Have been linked to environmental cleanliness in Islam is directly linked to purity both purity of the body, or purity of the place, which include markets, mosques and other places of residence rights which permanently or temporarily, mosques are houses stomach for prayer and meeting Muslims to seek knowledge and understand Islam, so it was to take care of cleanliness : «Spitting in the mosque is a sin and its expiation buried([17]).

The view of Islam to the environment stemming from the knowledge God, and comprehensive vision of the human being, the universe, life, and that any defect in the perception reflected corrupt behavior, Islam is seen Rights as a master of the situation, it is the master of this universe, and everything in the universe creature of him geared : ) Lord said to the angels, I will create a successor on earth they Otgal spoil and shed blood and we glorify praise and sanctify you said I know what you do not know (([18]), And he says: ) The Lord said to the angels I am about to create man from clay * If fashioned him and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down before him prostrate (([19]).

The human in the universe determines his role should be done to accomplish the mission entrusted to him, man successor trustee, he says: ) I offered secretariat to the heavens and the earth and the mountains Vopin to carry it and Ohafqn them and carry them that he was human Unjust and Foolish (([20]), Valkhalafah Creator in creation, obliges rights Caliph maintain universe deputized to lead the Secretariat, which carry no wrongs himself, he is the master of this universe, and to achieve this sovereignty mocked him everything so that he can perform the secretariat.

It would not be human worthy to carry secretariat succession if misused these blessings that make up the elements of the environment, or disposal of the illicit, following behind the special benefit, or a surrender to selfish grim, Valkhalafah means first means reconstruction earth spreading goodness and peace where, and to work on : ) Is أنشأكم of and Astamrkm land (and meaning) and Astamrkm (as stated in the written explanation: Made you Amara Tamrnha and you live, and this can be achieved only two things: The first: Good to keep the goodness not spoiled, and the second: Serve something that will break and more than repaired, there is no doubt that in the two is the best guarantee for the protection of the environment and safety, and to achieve development and sustainability.

The view of Islam to the environment is in some important facts, including:-

1- That Islamic law developed a comprehensive vision for the environment including human and animal, plants and inanimate objects, water, air, and made honor other human creatures and his Schrtha, from a base of succession.

2- The view of the Islamic religion to the environment through the replacement of a human in the architecture of the environment and the universe; because recognition of the human right to the environment and its resources.

3- لقد أرست الشريعة الإسلامية مبدأ سد الذرائع إلى الفساد أياً كان نوعه تقييداً للتعامل مع البيئة بما يدرأ عنها المفسدة إبان التصرف السيّء في المباحات أو الحقوق، فضلاً عن المجاوزة والعدوان، وهو مبدأ عظيم الأثر في توثيق مصالح الأمة مادياً ومعنوياً بما يشمل موارد البيئة الطبيعية، فيندرج تحت مضمون هذا المفهوم الحفاظ علي البيئة.

4- The Islamic jurisprudence addressing regulation and rooting, important contracts, related to land such as investment: Peace and contract farming and land Musaqah revive disused land… Which is considered Pena proof that Islam has paid attention to these natural resources to make the minimum land cultivation and Garcia and Architecture.

5- The concept of protection in Islamic law is very broad, including: Accommodation and preexisting resources, that did not exist, and install the rules, or invest the most successful ways to yield benefits, also includes development, and that of its concept development for the better, as well as coverage of conservation which means supply to ensure the continuation of doing, and avert the causes of the lack of production, as a result of corruption .

6- Commitment to clean environment is essential that careful Prophet PBUH and recommended, as the text more than talk on the hygiene of faith.

7- Sharia confirmed in talking about the environment the fact strong and effective linkages between its components, the air carries the water, and the water to come down to earth so one plant that feeds it human and animal.

8- Environmental Protection in Islamic Secretariat and responsibility required of faith, and are necessary to the doctrine of succession in the ground, and if the fruits of sincere faith and its الإخبات God, and faithfully worship him, it Thmradtha also do costs legitimacy is also God Almighty and care of the environment and conservation as created by God's mercy ([21]).

Care for the environment in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah:

The environment that we are blessed and given us, we must strive to protect and preserve them to play their role as God wanted, most would have warned anyone who abuses them, spoil or يبدلها… Severe punishment, he says: ) And alter the grace of God, after it came to him, Allah is severe in punishment (([22]), And he says: ) Eat and drink from Rizkallah not mischief in the earth, with intent (([23]), And he says: ) Not confusion in the earth after Him with fear and hope that God's mercy near benefactors (([24]). He says: ) Has appeared on land and sea, including hands of people earned to Ivegahm some who worked for that they might turn (([25]).

The term) appeared corruption (includes all material and moral meanings that result from human behavior destructive in nature and society, and pollution in a broad sense is closer to the concept of corruption, has been offering term land on the sea affirmation of objective reality which: That human activity began in the land first, and then extended to the sea.

) Has earned the hands of people (ie, that which compiled the hands of the people and its currency as a result of their quest to win the greed, فالمصانع laboratories and atomic power stations and transport air, land and sea, and the modalities of investment goods on land and at sea, such as agriculture, fishing, mining and construction are all ways and means of earning money, and these ways have become a source of pollution .

﴿لِيُذِيقَهُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا﴾ أفضل كلمة تعبر عن هذه المعاني المختلفة هي ﴿لِيُذِيقَهُمْ﴾ عمل الإنسان الأسمدة والمبيدات الكيميائية وذاق التسمم من بعضها، وعمل الأشعة ليستخدمها لصالحه فدفع ثمن ذلك جزءاً من صحته، وعمل وسائط النقل لتريحه في الانتقال، ولكن تشهد الطرقات مئات الكوارث والمجازر من حوادث السير، ولولا هذا الذي يذوقه الإنسان من بعض ما عملته يداه، لما تنبه إلى خطورة ما يقدم عليه من تخريب للأنظمة البيئية، فبدأ يدقّ ناقوس الخطر لحماية البيئة([26]).

Islam is a divine messages ring to humans to ensure the rules and disciplines of human behavior toward the environment in which they live, in order to attain the balanced relationship, straight between man and his environment to continue life as much as God, until God inherits the earth and everything in it, he says: ) And land you in a stable and chattel until (([27]).

Man Mstkhalaf and not the owner to dispose of them at whim without controls, man guardian on these environmental resources have no owner, as is Mstkhalaf on himself and not the owner of the Man belongs to its creator.

A person Mstkhalafa it on the management and investment of the surroundings in which they live, he has maintained and preserved from any destruction or sabotage, any form of damage either to humans or to other creatures may forbidden by Islam.

The environment in natural resources is not the exclusive property of a generation of generations behave however you want, but are the property and a lasting legacy for humanity, no generation can claim for himself the king of this right, he says: ) And land you in a stable and chattel until (([28]), And the idea of ​​working to ensure the maintenance and continued survival of the environment in the tender over time has been newly introduced through the concept of “Sustainable development or sustainable development”, And the concept of “EIA projects” Which means: ضرورة إجراء تقويم لِما قد تحدثه المشاريع للبيئة المحيطة بمنطقة المشروع بما في ذلك الإنسان ذاته، فإذا تبين أن لهذا المشروع ضرراً لعناصر البيئة المحيطة بمنطقة المشروع بما في ذلك الإنسان ذاته يتم تعديله لتجنب إحداث الضرر، وحتى إلغاء المشروع إن لم تتمكن الدراسات والتقنية المتوفرة حتَّى وقت إعداد المشروع من تجنب ومنع إحداث إضرار للبيئة، على اعتبار أن الحفاظ على موارد البيئة مقدم على المنفعة الاقتصادية،التي كثيراً ما قد تكون غير قابلة للاستمرار لإهمالها الاعتبارات البيئية، فالمشاريع التنموية غير القابلة للاستمرار تكون ذات آثار بيئية سلبية والأضرار التي ستحدثها سيكون كلفة إصلاحها مرتفعة، وقد تكون أضراراً غير قابلة للإصلاح، وبالتالي تكون خطط التنمية فاشلة وذات أثر اقتصادي سلبي على المواطنين المستهدفين بخطط التنمية وعلى اقتصاد الدولة ومواردها([29]), And the truth of God Almighty says: ) Do not throw yourselves into destruction and the good that God loves those who do good (([30]).

It is evidence of the Koran on the concern for the environment that we find a number of AL called the names of animals and insects, and some plants and minerals, and some natural phenomena.

We find the names of the fence: Sura, Sura An'am, and Al-Fil, the Antiquities and Surat, a horse… And all of the animals.

The find Surat bees, and Sura ants, and Spider, and all insect.

We find in the Koran Sura figs, one of the plants, and Sura iron is of minerals.

We find Thunder, a natural phenomena, and AL Almariaat, a wind that Tdhiro things, and Najm, Al Fajr, the sun and Surat, Surat night, and Al Duha, and Sura era, all natural phenomena.

We find Al-Tur, which means the mountain at all or a certain mountain, and Sura country, and to be the Mecca of the country's land, and Surat Ahqaf, which is in the Arabian Peninsula, and quarantine, and Cave, all places.

These labels fence Quranic connotations and Aahaaha at the same rights recognized, and linked to the environment around it, so do not be in isolation or inadvertently([31]).

Has focused Sunnah environment and its elements, it has received a lot of prophetic attracts the attention of a Muslim to take care of environment Kgers trees and planting and protection, and not to cut the public interest, has been linked to planting and planting wage of God and ongoing charity.

Have been received in this regard many conversations:

Anas bin Malik said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «There is no Muslim instills Garcia or planting implants bird eats it, or a person, or beast only had him as an act of charity»([32]).

The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «What man kills a bird and above unlawfully only asked God Almighty on the Day of Resurrection, Said: O Messenger and right? : Right to slaughter Faoklha, and cut her head Fermi([33]).

The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Killed a bird in vain pbuh to God Almighty on the Day of Resurrection says: O Lord, So and so killed me in vain, and did not kill me for the benefit of([34]).

The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «The time has in the hands of any one of seedlings could not do so imparted Vlegrsha»([35]).

He urged the Holy Prophet that the human remains Muslim instills planted to beautify and improve the environment and shade, even if the time.

The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «People are partners in three: Water and pasture and fire »([36]), Islam was keen on cleanliness, and make preservation of faith.

Abu Malik al-Ash'ari said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: 'Purification splitting faith »([37]), Venzafah dress and body and the place of the signs of faith.

It also forbade that shrugged off the stagnant water, has narrated from Jabir t Prophet SAWS said: «One of you Abulen in water which is not being permanent then washed it»([38]).

And make removing harm from the road charity, has out Tabaraani in large, single-Bukhari in the literature, for enlightened bin green bin Muawiyah once his grandfather said: I was with Ben stronghold left in some roads, Vmrrna hurt road Voamath, I saw like him Venhath, he took my hand and said: O son of my brother, what made you do what I did? : I saw you made something I created like him, he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah PBUH says: «Served to harm by Muslim God wrote him well, and I accepted him well entered Paradise»([39]).

And Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah SAWS Said: «While a man walking accidentally found a branch of thorns on road luxury, thanking God he forgave him»([40]).

Thus we see that his teachings and rulings of Islam was keen to protect the environment from pollution, and enjoined on man to maintain and architecture of the universe, has achieved the desired happiness, if realized human mystery, and led by the Secretariat-borne, life has been good, he says: ) Of the good work of a male or female, and is a believer فلنحيينه good life and recompense them pay what they do best (([41]).

If you introduce rights and distanced by his side, did not lead the Secretariat in the required manner, his life was harsh narrow, as diseases and epidemics and pollution is a form of narrow, and the truth of God's view: ) And introduce him on the anniversary of the life of hardship and We shall raise blind on the Day of Resurrection (([42]).

Imam says Shatby in approvals: “The nation agreed but other boredom that Sharia developed to maintain the five essentials a: Religion, psychology, and birth control, and money, and mind, and not a secret that at least three of these five essentials which: Self, and birth control, and the mind, not complete preservation only save health”([43]).

Speaking on the necessities, Imam Al-Shatby: “And conservation have two things:

One: What resides corners, and prove their bases, and that is taken into account by the presence of, and the second: What actually stave off her imbalance or expected, and it is observed by nothingness([44]).

This classification Budaiya developed by Imam the Shatby applies the best application of the Islamic guidance in ensuring a healthy environment which is essential to keeping these essentials.

Environmental safety in our Islamic heritage

Islamic heritage abounds many writings about the environment and safety of different aspects, for example thousand Canadian “Message in the vapors to the atmosphere of interest Alawaba, and healing in medicine from the noxious odors”, And put coolant book called “Arts hatched in the epidemic, plague”, Ibn Sina and spoke in detail in his book “Law” For water pollution in general and how to address this pollution to water becomes unusable, it also set conditions regarding the nature of water and air influential in place when choosing a site for residential.

The Razi has sought the safety of the environment when consulted sails State in site selection to a Baghdad hospital, he chose the area that did not spoil the meat quickly. Hospitals were generally enjoys available where all conditions of health and beauty, when Sultan Salahuddin wanted to establish a hospital in Cairo chose him one of his sumptuous palaces away from the noise and turned it into a huge hospital is a great hospital Nazarene.

A. Razi “Message in the spring effect and change the air accordingly”, Whereas Abu Marwan in his Andalusian “Facilitation in therapeutics and measure” About the corruption of the air that flows from the swamps and ponds with stagnant water. According to the book “Orchard doctors and kindergarten Alalba” Archbishop of Damascus, underlines the need to take into account the impact of the environment when diagnosing the disease, he said: “Should the doctor if presented to heal people in the country, to consider the status of the city, and the mood of the surrounding air, and running water, and the special measure used by people without the people, these are assets, and then later consider other strips”, And this advanced vision “Environmental Medicine”([45]).

And Ibn Jawziyah wrote in his book “Prophetic Medicine” A chapter on epidemics that spread because of air pollution, and to be careful of them, summed up the chapter by saying: “The intended: That corruption air part of the reason full and illness plague actors, and that the essence of corruption is the positive terminal of the air of the epidemic, and corruption is the impossibility of essence to mediocrity: The predominance of one modes lousy it, Kalafona and stinking and toxicity, at any time of the year, though more to happen in the late summer, fall, often, to the large meeting waste biliary acute and other in the summer, and not analyzed at the end. In the autumn of cold air and vapors and waste slurry which was decomposed in the summer, Vtnhsr Vtschen and rot: He spoke rotten disease, especially if you encounter viable hull ready, Rhla, little movement, many materials, it hardly escape damage”([46]).

The scientists addressed the Islamic civilization environmental problems in parts or chapters of their books.. It did not stop this limit, where we find among Muslim scholars felt the need to address the issue in a separate book to emphasize its importance in the lives of people throughout the ages, has been ranked Mohammed bin Ahmed al-Tamimi, in the fourth century AH (Tenth century) An entire book about environmental pollution and its causes, effects and ways of combating and prevention, and the separation of the talk about triple air, water and soil, and the exchange of pollution between its elements, and make the title: “Material to stay in air-corruption reform and avoided from Alawaba damage”, Pointed out in his introduction purpose authored by saying: وكان الباعث لي على تأليف هذا الكتاب والعناية بهذا الأمر، أني نظرت حال علماء الأطباء، الساكنين بالأمصار الفاسدة الأهوية والبلدان المشهورة بالأوبئة، الكثيرة الأمراض، التي يحدث بها عند انقلابات فصول السنة الأمراض القاتلة والطواعين المهلكة لأجل فساد أهويتها بمجاورة الأنهار الكثيرة المدود، والمدائن التي تحدق بها الغدران، ومناقع المياه الآجنة، والمشارب الكدرة، التي تتصاعد أبخرتها إلى الجو فتفسده وتغلظه، مع ما يعضد ذلك ويقويه من أبخرة الزبول ومجاري مياه الحمامات بها، وأبخرة الجيف من الحيوانات الميتة الملقاة في أقنيتها وظواهرها وعلى ممر سالك طرقاتها، كأرض مصر ودمشق، والمدن التي تلي سواحل البحار ويعظم بها مدود الأنهار، مثل بغداد، والبصرة، والأهواز، وفارس، وسواحل بحر الهند، وسيراف، وعدن، وما جرى مجرى هذه الأمصار العظام التي تجاور البحار، وتخترقها الأنهار، وتحدق بها مناقع المياه الراكدة والجارية، وبخاص ما كان منها منكشفا لمهب ريح الجنوب مكتفلا بالجبال، وبأقوار الرمال عن مهب ريح الشمال، فكان الأولى بالذين يتولون منهم علاج ملوكها، وخاصة رؤسائها، وعامة أهلها، أن تكون عنايتهم بمداواة الهواء الفاسد، المحدث لوقوع الأوبئة بها، الجالب الطواعين على سكانها، أولى وأوجب من عنايتهم بمداواة ما يتحصل بذلك من الأمراض المخوفة في أجساد أهلها. And disbanding hum to it and يفرغوا him their souls.

ولم يستعرض التميمي في كتابه أسباب ملوثات الهواء فقط بل طرح حلولاً لكيفية معالجة فساد الهواء، وذلك عن طريق إيقاد النيران وإحراق المواد ذات الروائح العطرية، فالنار تُولد تيارًا هوائيًّا يسمح بتبديل الهواء يصاحبه طرد الهواء الملوث وإيصال هواء جديد، والنار بدرجة الحرارة العالية التي تسببها في الجو كفيلة بقتل الجراثيم الموجودة في هذا الجو المحيط بها، ويرى أن من طرق الوقاية إعطاء الأصدقاء بعض الأدوية التي تقوي المناعة لمنع إصابتهم بالأمراض. And special measures to monitor places of transmission Kalhmamat([47]).

In arguably sentence: The Islamic heritage in the development of legislation already court to care for and protect the environment from pollution and corruption lesions and draw its approach to the two principles: Ward off evil and bring the interest and the efforts that will be achieved. Whenever audited consider Islamic texts and Islamic heritage pages and found an Islamic approach wise forbids pollution and corruption in all its forms and manifestations, and relies foremost on the control conscience that respects the divine law for the good of all the people.

Knowledge of Fiqh and cared for environment

I've had the environment very carefully in our doctrinal heritage, but who reads fiqh will not find the text on this label (Environment) Explicitly, but talking about them came in various sections of Islamic jurisprudence.

The first related to the environment of the doctrine is found in the Book of Purity, as can be seen in the totality of the provisions proved to be the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, and the consensus of the nation.

We find the environment and sponsorship relationship pilgrimage and campus and Ihram, and the prohibition of hunting and cutting plants and the like, which relates to the so-called (Protected environment). We find the environment relationship reviving disused land in the jurisprudence of transactions, and we find the environment and nurturing relationship planting and planting and farming and Musaqah, and we find the environment and nurturing relationship Balbaua and related, and selling water and the like, and has pasture and fire and salt, and where the provisions of. The Environment relationship book expenses, especially on the animals and their human owners, and duty if Odhaauha and neglected, and the environment to do jihad, and what is permissible to destroy what is not permissible… To the last of these environment-related research, and intervention in different sections of the doors of jurisprudence, which regulates all Islamic life in accordance with Islamic, cultural and lead the session of the Muslim nation as a nation Her message and a distinct approach.

Islamic jurisprudence is not related to the environment as provisions, but also related to the environment closely as the rules of the College as well, many of these rules introduces many of which are in command of the environment, organized and protected and provide them with care and the most famous of these rules:

Base: Do no harm, which is taken from the base text of the Hadith, scientists classed the total of his ways, and this rule college is divided by partial various rules decided upon by the scholars, such as saying:

-Should be avoided as far as possible and.

-Damage is still damage like him.

– Near bear the damage to pay for the damage Top .

– Bear damage your public to pay for the damage.

– Most damage still lighter damage.

– If Mvsdtan interferes Roi greatest damage committing Okhvhma.

– Choose the lesser of two evils.

– Warding off evil takes precedence over bringing benefits.

This is one of the legal rules adopted by the judicial provisions magazine and made it at the forefront of materials which codified aspects of transactions in the Hanafi, and arranged various provisions.

These rules and the like, and there are many known her weight and importance when we want to Nguenn provisions relating to the care and preservation of the environment.

It is well known that the penalties in the law are two: Specific penalties provided for in certain crimes, which is known in the literature as the border and retribution. And penalties is provided, which sanctions punitive, which delegated to the opinion of Imam or the judge, and the death penalty in every sin that does not limit where no expiation, which includes sins of many, especially regarding human subjects and interests, enters the preservation of the environment incomes preliminary. Islamic law in all doctrines and the consensus of jurists had total protection from the excesses of individuals though the stone on individual freedoms, the freedom is not absolute, but is constrained by that does not harm others, and out of this: Hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhari and others from Nu'man ibn Bashir t Prophet SAWS Said: «Like based on the limits of God and actually like folk Asthmua on a ship, hitting each top and each bottom, was at the bottom if Draw some out of the water, passed on from above them and they said: If I have violated our share breach, was not harmed by above us, leave them what they wanted all perished, but they took on their hands survived and survived all »([48]).

And the preservation of the environment is not supported and confirmed by jurisprudence alone, but also supported and confirmed by jurisprudence, especially the purposes of the law which the fundamentalists: That the law but came to establish the interests of people in the pension and recycled, or in the immediate and long-term, and that meant the canon of manners are keeping their religion and themselves and their descendants and their minds and their money.

Safety and preservation of the environment one of the purposes of the legislation([49]):

There Mntleghan to prove this idea, namely:

(1) اعتبار ذلك مقصداً شرعياً مضافا إلى ما سبق تقريره من المقاصد الخمسة.

(2) اعتبار ذلك مقصداً مستنداً إلى المقاصد الخمسة المعروفة (Completer of duty).

(3) باعتبار أن مقصد رعاية البيئة تتوقف عليه المقاصد الأساسية، وإهماله يتنافى مع حفظها.


The following clarification:

1. Consider the safety of the environment a legitimate destination in itself:

Applies to (Safety and preservation of the environment) Because it depends upon being able to achieve the goal of cost performance legitimacy, which “Directed charge of calling his whims, to be a servant of God compelled”([50]), The environment if it is not sound pure free hinder charged with the performance of what God enjoined him from human to his Lord and then for himself and his family and his community and participate in the life.

2. Consider the safety of the environment complementary destination for duty:

Meditating in effect entail safety and conserve the environment turns out to be due to environmental conservation and preservation of self and offspring, the more worship and religious and worldly duties can not be performed at all, or properly only if the environment in which they live rights and deal with the elements of pure water pure, and Joe .

And a contemporary scholars decides to human health law aims to conservation and preservation requires that every negative behavior in the environment adversely affect human health religiously unacceptable; because it is contrary to the purposes of Shariah ([51]).

If the former contemporary subtraction of place to protect the environment as one of the areas of cooperation to achieve the purpose of succession in the ground, there is stronger put forward to preserve the environment as a key destination (Necessary) Of the purposes of the law, and that the decision of Dr. Abdul Majeed Al-Najjar, with the following aspects of the data for the report of that case, he is having pointed out that the rights to complete the task of succession in the earth, represented in everything related to human life from the land and from animal ([52]):

” المتأمل في أحكام الشريعة يجد أن كثيراً منها إنما شرع لتحقيق مقصد حفظ البيئة الطبيعية أن تعمل فيها يد الإنسان بتصرفات تخل بنظامها، أو تعطل مقدراتها على أن تكون صالحة للحياة منمية لها، أو تربك توازنها الذي تقوم عليه عناصرها المختلفة، وقد جاءت تلك الأحكام متضافرة كلها على منع الإنسان من ذلك، وأمره بان يبقى على الطبيعة صالحة كما خلقها الله، وأن يمارس عليها مهمة الخلافة على ذلك الوجه من الصلاح، وما فتئت تلك الأحكام تظهر أهميتها وتتأكد الحكمة في أوامرها ونواهيها، وذلك كلما أسفرت الأزمة البيئية عن وجهها الكالح، وتعالت نذرها بالمصير البائس للحياة، وذلك هو مبرر أن نفرد هذا المقصد الضروري بفصل مستقل من فصول المقاصد الضرورية للشريعة الإسلامية.

And intercourse what came in religion is to save the environment and discourage any harm by what came in the Quran and the Sunnah of the prohibition Mgz about corruption in the land, and fabrication heavily on this deed, in the citizen multiple and different positions, indicating that environmental conservation of corruption destination necessary : ) Not confusion in the earth after (([53]).

And off he went to him the meaning of the verses that corruption here is not confined to the religious and moral corruption and social, but includes corruption, which affects the natural environment is a key destination and not a secondary supplement so

He cited including Tabari said Saddi interpretation) and if he sought in the ground to spoil and destroy crops and cattle and God does not love corruption (([54]) That which was revealed when this verse but I got in the killers red for some of the Muslims, and burned planted them, and that if it was permissible to be so, change corrupt to be verse in it, and be out by wire him in the killing of all the killing of the animal that does not ” Any: This generalization includes mainly environmental corruption.

وفي تفصيل الحفاظ على البيئة من هذا الفساد، جاءت أحكام شرعية كثيرة تهدف إلى تحقيق هذا المقصد الشرعي، وهي أحكام تلتقي كلها عند ذات المقصد وإن كانت تصل إليه من زوايا مختلفة، فمن حفظها من التلف إلى حفظها من التلوّث، إلى حفظها من السرف الاستهلاكي، إلى حفظها بالتنمية المستديمة، علماً بأنّ الأحكام الشرعية الواردة في هذا الشأن لم تكن مفصلة بصفة مباشرة بما قد يتصور البعض أنّه قوانين قد وضعت خصيصاً لمعالجة الأزمة البيئية الراهنة، وَإِنَّمَا هي إشارات وتنبيهات وتوجيهات تنحو أحيانا منحى التعميم، وتنحو أحيانا أخرى منحى التفصيل، ولكنها تهدف كلها إلى تأسيس ثقافة بيئية تعصم التصرف الإنساني من الاعتداء إلى المحيط الطبيعي بالفساد في أي وضع كان فيه، وفي أي مستوى حضاري وصل إليه([55]).

Elements of the environment

Environment can be divided according to the recommendations of the Stockholm Conference([56]), Three elements are:

1The natural environment:

It consists of four systems are closely interrelated is: The atmosphere, hydrosphere, and land, and ocean air, including covered by these regulations from water, air, soil and minerals, and energy sources as well as plants and animals, and all of these resources represent offered by God to man in order to get them the basics of life, food, clothing, medicine and shelter.

2Biological environment:

Include human “Individual” And his family, as well as organisms in the biosphere, and the biological environment is part of the natural environment.

3Social environment:

ويقصد بالبيئة الاجتماعية ذلك الإطار من العلاقات الذي يحدد ماهية علاقة حياة الإنسان مع غيره، ذلك الإطار من العلاقات الذي هو الأساس في تنظيم أي جماعة من الجماعات سواء بين أفرادها بعضهم ببعض في بيئة ما، أو بين جماعات متباينة أو متشابهة معاً وحضارة في بيئات متباعدة، وتؤلف أنماط تلك العلاقات ما يعرف بالنظم الاجتماعية، واستحدث الإنسان خلال رحلة حياته الطويلة بيئة حضارية لكي تساعده في حياته فعمّر الأرض واخترق الأجواء لغزو الفضاء.

The elements of the cultural environment of the human being is determined in the two main sides:

First: Physical side:

All a person can made by Kalmskn and clothing, transportation, tools and devices that are used in daily life.

Secondly: The intangible side:

Includes human beliefs and customs and traditions, and ideas, and culture, and all that it entails the same human values ​​and ethics and science spontaneous or acquired([57]).

Legitimacy principles applied in maintaining the integrity of the environment: ([58])

1- Remember the environment from damage:

Forbidden forbid Mglza in Islamic teachings damage to the environment which is one of the two types:

Damage which leads to inability of the environment to compensate for self is destroyed, Faúl to extinction and destruction in the use of resources, even if that damage in utility consumption.

But asked Islamic environmental conservation of the two types of damage to lead to each of faulty environmental disrupts efficient environment for carrying out its mission in support of life, with everything where as recognition in order to achieve these dependency, and texts الناهية destroyed the environment of both types verse: ) And if he sought in the ground to spoil and destroy crops and cattle and God does not love corruption (and saying SAWS The prohibition on the destruction of animal «killed a bird in vain pbuh to God on Judgment Day, says: So and so killed me in vain and did not kill me in benefit([59]), And saying SAWS : «A woman entered Hell in a cat which she tied, did not feed them, and did not let it eat from the vermin of the earth»([60]), And so on for damage to the plant, he said SAWS In this regard: «Pieces of Sidra towards God head in the fire»([61]).

2- Save the environment from pollution([62]):

لا يكون الفساد في الأرض بإهلاك عناصر البيئة الطبيعية إهلاكا عبثياً أو إهلاكا قارضا فحسب، وَإِنَّمَا يكون الفساد أيضاً بتلويث البيئة بما يقذف فيها من عناصر مسمومة، أو بما يغير من النسب الكمية أو الكيفية لمكونات البيئة التي قُدِّرَت عليها في أصل خلقتها، فإنَّ ذلك يفضي إلى تعطيل العناصر البيئية في ذاتها أو في كيفياتها عن أن تؤدي دورها النفعي للإنسان، بل قد تحولها هي نفسها إلى عناصر وكيفيات مسمومة، وإذا أداؤها البيئي يتحول من نفع للحياة ولحياة الإنسان خاصة إلى إضرار بهما، وقد وجدت البيئة أصلا من أجل إعمار الحياة، وتمكين الإنسان من أداء مهمة الخلافة.

It Abyan provisions relating to the maintenance of the environment from pollution came from the legislation requires the rights of purity in his entire life, from the purity of the body to the purity of the dress and the immediate and the house, and the end of the purity of the street, neighborhood and public places. The elevated command legitimacy in this regard that has become a fundamental principle of behavior, but linked to the concept of worship linked to become his catharsis sense public part of the worship of God is high, and not to mention that prayer is the head of worship depends on her health on check the purity of the body : ﴿ E.N God loves those who repent and loves those who purify themselves﴾([63]).

Among these provisions is significant in maintaining the environment from pollution as stated in the legislation requires cleansing of public and private places, and maintenance of all may be that the untainted various pollutants, he said SAWS: «If one of you wants to urinate Fleurtd urine([64]), And on the meaning of that elect to drain the urine erased location where its fast, they have a pollution harms including around him, as he said SAWS Also: «Fear Almlaan three: Stool in resources, and the side of the road, and shadow([65])In these positions stool be more polluting if traffic sites that will increase his prevalent, Ford forbidding them to prevent contamination, and in this context the Prophet SAWS Also «not one of you Abulen in water which is not being permanent then washed it»([66])That is because it causes this deed of water pollution and Afontha.

3- Conservation of excessive consumption: (Stand)

إنّ كل كائن حي في البيئة حياته أن يكون من مواردها استهلاك مقدرة بالدورة الكبرى، محسوب في قيام توازنها ودوامه، والإنسان لا يخرج عن هذا القانون البيئي إلا أن المهمة التي كلف بها لتكون غاية لوجوده تقتضي لكي ينجزها أن يكون استهلاكه من مقدرات البيئة أوفى من الاستهلاك لمجرد الحفاظ على الحياة، مثل سائر الكائنات الحية الأخرى، إذ هو مكلف بالتعمير في الأرض وهي غير مكلفة بشيء، وهذا الاستهلاك الزائد الذي تقتضيه مهمة الإنسان في الحياة هو أيضا مقدر في التكوين البيئي، محسوب في قيام توازنها ودوامه.

Many religious texts that condemn the waste and extravagance which spending is right both in the water, trees or other environmental resources, and in the economy and to mediate between extravagance and greed, particularly with a limited amount non-proliferation.

Conservation Development:

Whereas some of the resources consumption becomes depleted has no redress, the Islamic legislation came safeguarded with the rationalization of consumption and not waste as we have pointed out above. But those resources that become is also to force but accept algebra so came Islamic legislation directed to the maintenance of thin rationalization of consumption where Also, it came addressed to the maintenance of another, more effective in maintenance, which is the way Altthmar and development, so as to be what consumes them Makhlova on .

In this context made Sharia planting crops and planting trees Baba great doors wage endless n he said SAWS: «There is no Muslim instills Garcia but was eating him his charity, and robbed him charity, and eating it is seven charity for him, and ate the bird it is no charity, no one Arzah only had a charity([67]), And enough so motivated to environmental development in the field of plant.

It is in the development of Islamic legislation making environment in the ownership of the land if they neglected to revive implant is reason Eptgy him ownership, he said SAWS: «Whoever revived the dead, it is his([68]), And made it to disable that land for their developmental role of plant wealth may be a reason for expropriation of its owner, has said SAWS: «Whoever has land Vlesraha or granted to his brother, and when plant development environment is a reason to land ownership, this can be a strong motivation to achieve this development innate love in the souls of public ownership and land ownership in particular.

Contemporary Islamic means to take care of the environment

Al-Qaradawi said in his book “Care of the environment in the Islamic Sharia” The most important means by which you must pay attention to it if we seek a valid environment free from all forms of corruption and corruption, he said: “Islam and several ways to protect the environment, and developed and improved, and treatment of problems that has become the whole world complain of their effects. These means are all related to the role of human in the environment, if the nature around us بشمسها and SATELLITE, and night is day is, and seas and deserts, can not be managed by hand; but it is not a problem which does not risk in itself, but the problem stems from the link human, and his view of it, .

So if a person is reformed, it has repaired all life around him, but Magistrate rights from within, not from outside, and inwardly not outwardly, and himself that he carried not by its cover physical, and decided this year fixed the Quran when he said: ) That God does not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves (([69]), And certainly: It does not fit selves something like faith, it is a matter of salvation, and life jacket.

This means Islamic are as follows:

1- Emerging Educational:

The first of these methods is education, especially for the youth in preschools and schools, different levels to university.

It should instill the idea of ​​caring for the environment and conservation, and treated with kindness, that God commanded him, and his books on everything, as stated in the hadeeth: «God wrote charity on everything and forbearance which God loves the whole thing, and entered into a thing but it adorns, not disarmament of thing but that.

And moderation, which makes benefit human wealth of the environment without scarcity or extravagant, use sunflower Rahman) and those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor (balance) and was between that strength (([70]).

And Bashkran grace which must be characterized by every believer, is the one who saves him, but increases and Anmiha the insured and that he said what he said Suleiman: ) By the grace of God to Ablona Oohkur or deny thanked only thank himself and Kafr Lord rich cream (([71]).

Also have to deal with the environment and its constituents to fear God, a sense Almighty Brkabth, and he will not miss him work worker male or female, and that He is Sadze who abused including worked, and reward those who do good litigations.

These meanings must Ngrsha in the minds of our children, and their consciousness from the earliest age, the education at a young age stone Knakec, and this is the age at which habits are formed, and gaining the virtues or vices, has said the poet:

إن الغصون إذا قومتها اعتــدلــــت ولن تلين إذا قومتها الــخــشـــــب!

It is necessary here: To enter the part of the (Ecology) And the need for care and maintenance in the curriculum, and textbooks to the extent appropriate, and appropriate manner to enact the student and his mind, and the way interesting that Chdh to the color of the culture, which should be linked to religion, as the influential first in the life of human beings in general, and the Muslim private.

May not be for parents to lay all the burden on the school, and abandon the their duty in the care of education, but should collaborate home and school in this education desired, so that complement each other, in the upbringing of the future generation, who performs his duty as sweating right, but not limited to .

2- Awareness and education for adults:

And second means, is: التوعية والتثقيف للكبار، وللجماهير بصفة عامة، وذلك عن طريق المؤسسات الثقافية التي تعمل على الرقي بفكر الأمة، وتسمو بأذواقها واتجاهاتها العقلية والنفسية، وتصحح مفاهيمها الخاطئة، وتقوم أفكارها المنحرفة، متعاونة مع أجهزة الإعلام الواعي الهادف، الذي يبني ولا يهدم، ويصلح ولا يفسد، بحيث ينشئ تصورًا معرفيا بيئيًا جديدًا منبثقًا من التصور الإسلامي العام لله سبحانه وللإنسان وللكون وللحياة، والوجود.

Culture is changing ideas and tastes, preferences, and trends are individuals, good or bad.

Nor must enter reform environment, and ensure the safety and growth, and performed as required to fully, in the curricula of media legible, or heard, or visible, and to develop programs culturally appropriate, at various levels, some academic fit for a private, some public benefit .

It does not even have to enter these meanings and environmental concepts into dramas of dramas and soap operas and the like, because of the suspense, and its impact on people.

It must Media religious that accomplishes its mission to raise awareness and rationalization and guidance, based on the Quran and Sunnah, and the righteous, through Friday sermon, and studied the mosque and religious lectures, there is no doubt that the mosque great impact on the minds of Muslims, and their consciences, if grooming him Khatib good that .

3- Control public opinion:

The third way: Is the supervision of public opinion, which represents (Collective conscience) Of the nation, under the ordinance for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, which characterized the God of this nation) You are the best nation out of people, evolved the good and forbid evil and believe in God (([72]).

A basic descriptions of the community of believers, men and women, as described by God in his book where he said: ) The believers, men and women, some of them parents enjoin right and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger, those God Sarahmhm (([73]).

Introduced for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice statutes known: Prayer, zakat, to feel important in religion, and in this consists the social conscience of the nation, and decides conscious control public opinion on their status, and ensure the integrity of.

There is no doubt that environmental restoration and stewardship of the known, and that upset them, pollution and abuse of evil.

The meaning of this: That every Muslim is responsible collectively responsible for the safety of the environment and validity, and if he sees from Ligure by polluting or damaging or corrupting, it shall tell him about it, but primarily needed to change this evil as much as he could, with his hand that was a power, if he can not by speaking, .

And this besieged evil and corruption morally blockade, and remains in the narrowly as possible, and enter in this field: Setting up (NGOs) To preserve the environment, and this cooperation in righteousness and piety, and these associations are a popular alternative for the role (Calculated) Islamic civilization in ages.

It was (Mahzbon) Old doing this social duty, and they were strong censored Shara's power over members of the community and the different sects, and its various institutions, including their adequacy and agents, and the authority of the Party of the prestige of the judiciary, and the tip of the police force, and their ability to implement.

4- The power of legislation and punishment:

The remaining fourth way, which is: Legislation and the rule of law, which binds and punishes those who do not abide by the guardian, and to that pointed the Koran saying: ) We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance people with justice, and sent down to the quite severe iron (([74]), It is not good for him the Scripture and the Balance fix iron with deep bass, and in the modern: «You is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock, imam shepherd and is responsible for his flock»([75]).

And I've said third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan t: “God draw closer Sultan Qur'an could not draw closer”If the Koran develop faith and creates incentives conscience, the Sultan standing lookout for both transcends borders.

For this it was necessary to enter the preservation of the environment, and to punish those who Ligure in binding legislation for the nation.

And we have word Amomat, and sent interests, closing arguments, and jurisprudential rules help us to create a law for the environment, according to these legal rules:

لا ضرر ولا ضرار، الضرر يزال، والضرر يدفع بقدر الإمكان، يتحمل الضرر الأدنى لدفع الضرر الأعلى، يرتكب أخف الضررين، درء المفسدة مقدم على جلب المصلحة، ما لا يتم الواجب إلا به فهو واجب، ما أدى إلى الحرام فهو حرام، الضرورات تبيح المحظورات، ما أبيح للضرورة يقدر بقدرها، الحاجة تنزل منزلة الضرورة، ما بني على باطل فهو باطل، الأمور بمقاصدها، العادة محكمة، ما قارب الشيء يأخذ حكمه، النادر لا حكم له، للأكثر حكم الكل.

The State must take the appropriate administrative and economic saves the environment, and rebuild ruined them, and fit to pick up the pieces, to the vicinity of the preventive measures that prevent corruption before it happens.

In addition to the death of the assault on any of the components of the environment father portrait photos: Pollute or profligate consumption, or breach of the balance, or other forms of corruption in the land.

It is accordingly known: That sanctions are two: Text of borders, and discretionary Kaltazir, a punishment for every sin is no limit no expiation, no doubt that aggression on environment issues.

And the rulers legitimate and many duties towards environmental protection and development, and requiring individuals, companies and institutions duty towards it, and compel them to remove the damage caused by their actions, and repair sites that caused the degradation, and to pay compensation for damages Ihdthonha in nature, can not be removed or treated.

The initial so stop environmentally harmful projects, though some benefit because lesson بالأغلب, what the sin is greater than good is haraam, and they both punishment exceed or fall short in execution of contracts relating to the environment; penalty because of the security offended literature.

5- Cooperation with regional and global institutions:

The fifth way is: Cooperation with communities, NGOs and regional and international official, to preserve the environment, and all threatened by resistance from depletion and pollution and corruption, and upset the natural balance and cosmic, which called for a researcher to write a book to make title: “Inhabitants of the earth, unite” Against major risks that threaten human humans metastasizes If Atdarkhm not God have mercy, and to come to work together to bridge the imbalance, and the restoration of the devastation, and reform corruption Lloyd God with the group.

Have addressed the God of all people, saying: ) Satan is an enemy to you so treat him as an enemy (([76])When the enemy is one, must be unified position against him, and Hitanna today is who corrupt environment, Ikhrbunha intentionally or unintentionally, to understand all of the enemies of humanity, and we have to recruit all the forces of resistance, and their response to their senses.

This is the basic means of Islam, to preserve the environment and validity, and welcomes every يبتكرها way humans in this area, if you do not which is contrary to the values ​​of Islam and his laws, wisdom goal of the believer that he found it more deserving people.

Environmental Education in Islam

Concept objectives

As a long-term impact education in the upbringing and prepare the generations educationally consistent and authentic values, and rooting the concepts defects generations, social and urging respect for the environment and appreciation, it cast on educational institutions (Schools, universities, mosques, clubs… Etc.) The greatest burden in achieving this ultimate goal.

Perhaps the fact that we live dictates of environmental problems dimensions (Physical, moral and) What makes educational institutions unable to function, it may be due to the lack of a clear approach and a clear plan with goals easier to achieve, as well as the absence of the concept of environmental education in those institutions.

وفي ضوء ما سبق يمكن تعريف التربية البيئية في الإسلام بأنها: “Human activity that educate individuals about the environment and the relationships between the components, and the composition of environmental values ​​and skills and development on the basis of the principles of Islam and perceptions about the purpose for which man was created, and balanced the demands of human progress”.

In light of this definition of environmental education from an Islamic perspective there should be a positive interaction between man and the environment, and this interaction including, but not limited to a particular time or place, but a united human effort and employees utilize culturally and historically in the light of the Islamic faith.

We urgently evident to the presence of environmental education in practical and not theoretical in the present age, especially if we know the manifestation of the misuse of the environment in the world, and recall, for example, but not limited: In the Second World Conference of the United Nations on Environment and Development in 1992, which was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, met thirty thousand participants including one hundred leader to face a terrible Facts:

– Decreased cereal production in Africa per capita rate 28% In the past twenty-five years.

– Ethiopia lost 90% Of its forests since 1900, which enabled billion metric tons of topsoil from erosion annually.

– Facing animals Australia Originally extinction, and had become extinct 28% Of purebred animals.

– Need marine life in the Gulf Arab 180 years to get rid of ten million barrels of oil released during the Gulf War.

– The 10% Of rivers scattered around the world contaminated, also picks up the oceans 6.5 Million tons of waste annually.

Thus these pressing issues compete on interest from decision-makers in the world, and in addition to that Studies predict that by the year 2025 developing countries Stnfet in the air four times the amount of carbon dioxide that تنفثها developed countries today, is also expected to lose ground over 25% Of the existing races.

The rights in the countries of the North consumes water and generates pollutants including more than twenty-fold for the citizens in the countries of the South.

The pollution caused by one U.S. citizen than the one who caused an ordinary citizen of the third world countries of twenty to one hundred times, and similar consumption per U.S. energy consumed by three Japanese, or six Mexicans, or 13 Chinese or 35 Indian or 153 Bangladesh or 499 Ethiopia.

As the statistics indicate that the world has lost in one year only about 36 Species of mammals, 94 Species of birds as well as exposure 311 Another kind of risk, The forests are diminishing at a rate 2% Annually as a result of depletion, air pollution, acid rain-producing, as well as the soil, they constantly decreasing rate 7% From the top layer of each contract, due to erosion and corrosion continuously as a result of exhaustion continuous intensive agriculture or heavy irrigation, leading to soil salinization and desertification.

Also prevail water uses wrong practices lead to water scarcity and depletion, except for natural decline happening in the water level in the ground, which threatens human risk is real.

These facts and statistics illustrate the gravity of the situation that has been reached land as a result of misuse of the environment by human, a manifestation require rapid intervention to save, not save mankind except Islam.

The importance and the inevitability of having goals of environmental education from an Islamic perspective to confirm to all that Islam is a religion emphasizes the respect and appreciation of the environment from several targets, including:ـ

1Development of environmental awareness among the Muslim by providing correct vision for the environment and components in order to achieve the desired role in the earth as God's successor.

2Development and the formation of values ​​and attitudes and skills of the Islamic environmental rights recognized, so that the light can face various Assaabha a strong will, and then exploited are useful in order to achieve the objectives of Islam.

3Develop the capacity of the Muslim calendar and procedures Education programs related to the environment in order to achieve better environmental education.

4And strengthening balance between social and economic elements and biological reactants in the environment for the benefit of the Muslim.

5Understanding social and economic systems, technological and natural and man's relationship with the Muslim and pollution issues.

Islamic environmental values:

She: “Standard set of provisions emanating from the Islamic assets, which serve as vectors for human behavior toward the environment, being able to achieve the function of succession in the ground”.

Departments of Islamic environmental values:

First conservative values.

Secondly values ​​exploitation.

Thirdly adjustment values ​​and belief.

IV values ​​of beauty.

1Conservative values: And shall direct the behavior of individuals towards maintaining the components of the environment include:

-Maintain the purity of the atmosphere.

-Maintaining the cleanliness of the water resources.

-Maintain the plant wealth care.

-Maintain the care of animal wealth.

-Maintain the use of mineral resources and non-ferrous.

-Keep the roads clean.

-Maintaining the cleanliness of the houses of God and public houses.

-Maintaining physical health.

-Maintain calm and supplied.

2 Rate exploitation: Are those values ​​that shall direct the behavior of individuals towards good use of the components of the environment. And contain no extravagance, and not to waste, and the dimension of luxury, moderation and balance in everything, where Islam calls for moderation in the consumption of resources so that sufficient environmental necessity and needs, without excess or negligence.

3 Adjustment values ​​and belief: Are those values ​​that shall direct the behavior of individuals to adapt to their environment, and to correct negative beliefs towards it and include the following:

Adapt to natural changes such as: Harsh climatic conditions, the nature of the ground, as well as away from superstitious beliefs such as: Charms and amulets, and blessed the trees, and fortune-telling, and pessimism.. Etc..

4 Aesthetic values: It is those values ​​that specializes in direct human behavior towards aesthetic taste of the components of the environment.. Said SAWS: «Allah is beautiful and loves beauty, arrogance means rejecting the truth and looking down on people»([77]).

He says: ) Have you not seen that Allah sends down water from the sky Vokrzina the fruits of different colors and mountains new red white and various colors and intense blacks and men and beasts and cattle of various colors as well as truly fear Allah has revealed that Allah is Mighty, Forgiving (([78]).

﴿قُلْ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَرْضَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَادًا ذَلِكَ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَارَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَا أَقْوَاتَهَا فِي أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ سَوَاء لِّلسَّائِلِينَ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ﴾([79]).

) And have made constellations in the sky, and beautified it for beholders (([80]).

The show made great verses and magnificence and beauty of the workmanship and the greatness of Almighty manufacturer, who created everything is beautiful.

Conclusion

Which is beyond dispute is that the preservation of the environment and care is a religious duty imposed by the teachings of Islam which urges the protection of the environment and interest in them, and that prohibit corruption and corruption on earth, as it is to protect and preserve the environment is the duty of social, must stand for it all institutions .

What beset the dangers to the environment around us only when overcome human alone a deal with him; therefore the best guarantee for the preservation of the environment is to salute the principle of moderation and we deal with our environment, it has established Islam built all on moderation and balance, moderation and intent, and this is what guided us to the verse: ) As well as made you a middle nation (([81]), Also forbids extravagance is a verse in the book of God Almighty, the Almighty said: ), And eat and drink but waste not by excess that he does not love the extravagant (and he says of: ) Eat of the fruit if fruit and pay the right on harvest waste not by excess, he does not love the extravagant (but he called for moderation even in spending, God said: ) And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor (balance) and was between that strength (([82]).

فالوسطية الرشيدة إذن هي مسلك المسلمين ودعوة الإسلام لأتباعه في كلّ الأحوال وعموم الأوقات، ومن ثمَّ فإنَّها خير ضمان لحماية التوازن البيئي الذي سنّه الخالق ـ جلّ وعلا ـ لاحتضان الحياة واستمرار الوجود على كوكب الأرض، ولقد أجمعت الدراسات التي أجريت حول مشكلات التلوّث البيئي على وجود علاقة وثيقة بين إسراف الإنسان في تعامله مع مكونات البيئة المختلفة وبين التلوّث البيئي بجميع أشكاله، كما أن الإسراف يفضي إلى مشكلات بيئية أخرى لا يقتصر تأثيرها على الإنسان وحده بل يَمتدّ ليشمل باقي الأحياء التي تشاركه الحياة على كوكب الأرض.

At the conclusion of this paper can be concluded The following main recommendations:

1- غرس فكرة العناية بالبيئة والمحافظة عليها لدى الناشئة من خلال المناهج والكتب الدراسية، ولكن لا يجب أن يلقى العبء على المؤسسات التعليمية فقط، بل يجب أن تتكاتف الجهود فتقوم الأسرة ومؤسسات المجتمع المدني بدورها التوجيهي والتربوي.

2- إصلاح البيئة لن يتحقّق إلاّ إذا صلح الإنسان، لذا لا بد من تنمية الوعي البيئي بتثقيف الجماهير بصفة عامة، من خلال المؤسسات الثقافية والمنابر الدعوية والإعلامية.

3- مناشدة الدول بسنّ القوانين والتشريعات الداخلية المتسمة بالصرامة في ملاحقة ملوّثي البيئة، وعدم التراخي في توقيع العقوبات عليهم، وملء الفراغ التشريعي في بعض البلدان النامية.

4- اتِّباع آلية أفضل لتبادل المعلومات بين الدول والمنظمات الدولية الحكومية منه وغير الحكومية بشأن المشاكل البيئية تتّصف بالسرعة والدقّة، وبعيدة عن الجوانب الإجرائية والشكلية، وذلك للانتفاع بها واستخدامها في مواجهة أيّ خطر يهدد البيئة.

The God of the intent behind the Guide to the Straight Path.


[1]) Fads: Verse 85.

[2]) Sura: Verse 60.

[3]) Surat stories: Verse 77.

[4]) Dictionary Firuzabadi Ocean, and the intermediary dictionary, Arabic Language Academy Cairo.

[5]) Al-Hashr: 6.

[6]) Environment and man, Ali Reza Abu Zurayk, p 7, 1 Right Invitation series version of the Muslim World League, 1416 e.

[7]) Environment and curriculum, Ahmed Ibrahim Al-Shalabi 16 Riyadh, Arabian Gulf, 1984.

[8]) Fads: Verse 85.

[9]) Narrated by Malik, Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah Khudri, Whole No. 4155.

[10]) Agreed from Abu Hurayrah, pearls and coral, No. 492.

[11]) Narrated by Ibn Majah, Purity door 7, interview 289. Missned 6/121.

[12]) Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4163.

[13]) Narrated by Tirmidhi and classed in the pendant lamps.

[14]) Sura: 222.

[15]) Narrated by Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi and Ahmad, Albanian and weaknesses.

[16]) Mohammed Mr. Arnaout, environmental pollution and its impact on human health, the family library, a series of science and technology, the Egyptian General Book, Cairo 2007, pp. 232-233.

[17]) Bukhari 1/ 428 In mosques, door expiation Slugs in the mosque, and Muslim (552) In mosques, the door is forbidden to spit in the mosque, and Abu Dawood (474) And(475) And(476) In prayer, a door in the hatred of slugs in the mosque, and Tirmidhi (572) In prayer, what came in the door hatred Slugs in the mosque, and Women 2/ 50-51 In mosques, spit in the mosque door. «Spitting in the mosque is a sin, and its expiation buried narrated congregation but Muwatta, [195]. In other Abu Daoud said: «Bagasse in the mosque is a sin, and his atonement that Iuarih». In another of his: «Alnkhaah».

[18]) Sura: 30.

[19]) Surat pp. 71-72.

[20]) Surat parties: 72.

[21]) Islam and the environment, Mohamed Morsi, pp. 64, 65, Riyadh, Naif Arab Academy for Security Sciences, 1420/1999.

[22]) Sura: 112.

[23]) Sura: 60.

[24]) Fads: 56.

[25]) Surat Roman: 41.

[26]) تلوث البيئة فساد في البر والبحر، محمَّد فيض الله الحامدي، بحث منشور في مجلة نهج الإسلام، العدد (63) Ramadan 1416/1996, p 160.

[27]) Sura: Verse 36.

[28]) Sura: 36.

[29]) الإسلام والبيئة: Mohamed Morsi Mohamed Morsi p. 59, Riyadh, Naif Arab Academy for Security Sciences, 1420/1999.

[30]) Sura: 195.

[31]) Care of the environment in the law of Islam, by Dr. Qaradawi, p 54, i: Sunrise House.

[32]) Bukhari, narrated in the Book of sharecropping, preferred planting and planting if you eat it, no (2152), And Muslim in book Musaqah door preferred planting, planting number (2901), And Tirmidhi in the book provisions for the Messenger of Allah, what came in the door preferred planting number (1303), And Ahmad in Musnad Anas number (12038), The parents throw in the book sales, a door in the preferred planting number (2496).

[33]) Narrated by Imam Abdul Razzaq in his work, 4/450, No. (8414)Bayhaqi in Sunan big 3/163, door permissible to eat birds, Hadith No. 4860, and the ruling Mustadrak 4/261, carcasses book, talk (7574), Said: “This interview is true attribution although he did not narrate”.

[34]) Narrated by Imam Bayhaqi in Sunan big 3/73, from sparrows unlawfully killed, talk (4535), And Ibn Saheeh, 13/214, Male rebuke for the slaughter of one thing of birds in vain without the intent to use it, talk (5894), Tabaraani in Macrothesaurus 22/245, No. (638), Said Haythami in Majma 4/30: “Attabarani Macrothesaurus, and the group did not know them”.

[35]) Narrated by Imam Bukhari in the literature for single 1/168, No. (479), And Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, 3/183, No. (12925), Said Haythami in Majma 4/63: “Narrated Bazzaar and his men prove trustworthy”.

[36]) Narrated by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan, 3/278, book leasing, door to prevent water, modern (3477), And Ibn Majah in his Sunan 2/826, Book of mortgages,: Muslims are partners in three, modern (2472)Bayhaqi in Sunan major 6/150, sharecropping book, the door may not be fief of metal phenomenon, modern (11612), Said Busayri bottle lamp, 3/80: “Isnaad weak”.

[37]) Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh, 1/140, preferred ablution door, talk (556).

[38]) Bukhari, Book of ablution, Permanent urine in water, Hadith No. 236, 1/94. And Muslim, Bab preferred ablution, door forbidding urine in stagnant water, Hadith No. 282, 1/235.

[39]) Narrated by al-lexicon in the large, 20/216, No. (502), Enlightened bin green bin Muawiya from his father, said Haythami in Majma, 3/136: “Mazzi said: Haywire enlightened bin green bin Muawiyah apple of his grandfather, as narrated in the book of literature, was also said Mazzi so its isnaad good, God willing, although it: Green from his father did not find mention of green”.

[40]) Sahih Bukhari, 1/233, a book group and the Imamate, the door preferred displacement to the back, talking (624)And, yes, Muslim, 3/1521, Book of the emirate, a statement of the martyrs, modern (1914).

[41]) Surat bees: 97.

[42]) Sura Taha:124.

[43]) Approvals for Hataba, 1/38.

[44]) Approvals for Hataba, 2/ 8.

[45]) Rights and the environment and development from an Islamic perspective, d. Ahmad Fuad Pasha, International Journal of charity, number (208), The nineteenth year, July 1428, August 2007.

[46]) Jawziyah (T. 751 AH / 1291 AD): Prophetic Medicine, achieving: Syed Ismail first edition, Dar Al-Manar, Cairo, 1992, p 40.

[47]) Ahmad Fuad Pasha, the basics of contemporary science in the Islamic heritage, studies Taeselah, family library of the Egyptian General Book, Cairo, 2007, pp. 218.

[48]) Bukhari in the company's book number (2493)

[49]) And preserve the environment from an Islamic perspective, Dr. Abdul Sattar Abu gland, research presented to the Islamic Fiqh Council at its ninth session.

[50]) Approvals for Hataba, 2/100.

[51]) Islam and the environment steps towards environmental jurisprudence, Sheikh Hussein coarse, 23, published Dar al-Hadi Beirut, 2000.

[52]) Purposes of Shariah new dimensions: D. Abdul Majid al-Najjar, 209.

[53]) Norms: 56, And later verses cited in the forbidding corruption on earth. Cow 60, and stories 77, and Tabari.

[54]) Sura:205.

[55]) Purposes of Shariah new dimensions: D. Abdul Majid al-Najjar, 2/1.

[56]) United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1973, and was attended by representatives from “113” State, and representatives of all international organizations, governmental and non-governmental. Look: Environmental provisions in Islamic Jurisprudence, Dr. / Abdullah bin Omar bin Mohammed Suhaibani, pp. 56, Environmental Protection Act in the light of Sharia, d / Majid Ragheb sweet, p 18.

[57]) And preserve the environment, Dr. Abdul Qader Abu Ela.

[58]) And preserve the environment from an Islamic perspective, d. Abdul Sattar Abu gland.

[59]) Directed by women, the book of the victims, the door of killing a bird.

[60]) Narrated by Bukhari from the book beginning of creation, the door If signed flies in any one food.. Five of the animals are killed in the sanctuary.

[61]) Narrated by Abu Dawood, a book of literature, door cut Sidr, has tended to sense that the pieces impending where that is be in vain unjustly and unlawfully.

[62]) Environmental pollution: All quantitative or qualitative change in the components of the environment living and non-living, not estimated ecosystems to absorb it without defects (Environment and its problems, Rashid Hamid Mohammed Said Sparini, 156 i farmer Kuwait 1986, has been known (Slag environmental center) As a change in the physical and chemical properties and biological surrounding the man from the water… Etc., which may cause damage to human life and other living organisms (From the site of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf).

[63]) Sura: 222.

[64]) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, book Purity, man bounces his urine.

[65]) Narrated by Abu Dawood, book Purity, forbade placements e urine.

[66]) Narrated by Bukhari, Book of ablution, Permanent urine in the water and look for the role of contaminated water in the transmission of diseases where (Water and sanitation in pain d. Abdel Fattah Al-Husseini Sheikh) World Health Organization (WHO) 1988, and pollution from water and living factors, fertilizers and organic chemicals Search “Environmental Health in Islam”, D. Haytham Khayyat (Health series of guidance) WHO 1995, and food and environmental research Nizar half and search for disease and heredity and environment, d. Ahmed Mohammed الصباريني.

[67]) Narrated by Muslim, book Musaqah, separation of ambiguity.

[68]) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi.

[69]) Thunder: 11.

[70]) Al-Furqan: 67.

[71]) Surat ants: 40.

[72]) Sura: 110.

[73]) Tawba: 71.

[74]) Sura iron: 25.

[75]) Agreed Umar.

[76]) Fatir: 6.

[77]) Narrated by Muslim.

[78]) Fatir verse: 27 – 28.

[79]) Fussilat verse: 9 – 11.

[80]) Al Stone: 16.

[81]) Sura: 143.

[82]) Al-Furqan: 67.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان “ الفقه الحضاري، فقه العمران”

Held during the period: (18-21) April 1431 / (3-6) April 2010:

Oman- The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

This article contains Comments (11)

11 Comments “And preserve the environment in the Islamic Sharia”

  1. Flowers says:

    Beautiful ,, God bless you
    We hope to be in more attention to the environment .

  2. boualem says:

    The environment of the important topics in that must be taken care of more than it is, especially after considering the fact - unfortunately - in which we live from blatant prejudice.
    And guarantees of Islam, and the necessary care for the environment, a guide at the same time on the universality of Islamic law, and is considered Nozj unique model - or should- Emulated by the various legal economic and educational..
    Thank you very much for your outstanding Thread

  3. Isra says:

    Osman íÇĚăÇÚĺ Mafeesh Version de?
    Please

  4. Buthaina says:

    Environment projects only endowed Call

  5. Buthaina says:

    Projects to preserve the environment has endowed Agalkm

  6. Dhanqdk says:

    Like

  7. nour says:

    this is beautiful

  8. حلو كتير شكرا لالكم ان شاء الله في ميزان حسناتكم

  9. NASSIMA says:

    شكككككككرااااا رائع

  10. NASSIMA says:

    رائع شكرا جزيلا الشكر

  11. جواد says:

    يا اخي اريد باختصار

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