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Individual behavior and the environment in Islam

Individual behavior and the environment in Islam *

Preparation: A. Abdel Baki Shehata

(Secretary General of the Islamic Research Academy-Sharif, the Egyptian Republic)

Introduction:

Praise God that) not confusion in the earth after (([1]), And peace and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad ring and his family and companions and allies… After;

Undoubtedly, that the various environmental issues present themselves to the scholars of the Islamic nation at the present time for discussion, for reasons comes in the forefront of the speed of the changes that occur in the universe and in people's lives.

Well what she did and the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs of the Sultanate of Oman to choose the topic of the environment to talk about individual behavior and the environment in Islam.

The choice of this topic becomes important, if we know that God I created man and generosity, gave him Palmlkat and senses and the bounty on other creatures, he says: ﴿وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلاً﴾([2]), And feature that make it a successor of God on earth he says: ) Your Lord said to the angels, I will create in the ground Khalifa (([3]), And tabbed architecture land he says: ) Is أنشأكم of land and Astamrkm (([4]).

ولقد اهتمَّ الإسلام بالإنسان، فصاغ حركته على الأرض عبر وسائل واقعية تراعي طبيعة الإنسان ومتطلباته وغاياته، وقد شاءت إرادة الله عزّ وجل أن تتضمن النفس البشرية جوانب الخير والشرّ، فعلى الرغم من قوة العقل وإرادة الخير، فالإنسان كائن ضعيف قد تغلبه شهوات نفسه ورغباتها فتعميه عن الحقيقة، وقد تؤدِّي به إلى الخروج عن النهج الذي أراده الله، والذي يحقّق فيه الانسجام مع قوانين البيئة التي خلقها الله، فيسيء بجهله وشهواته إلى بيئته، وبالتالي إلى نفسه، قال تعالى: ﴿وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الْحَقُّ أَهْوَاءهُمْ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ﴾([5]).

So it was the capital of the Islamic Sharia man of the capriciousness, Hence gained those auspicious Symposium every critical; because they shed light on the system of ecological balance granted us by God Almighty, and how Islamic law considered the theme of the symposium, in light of the words right Almighty: ﴿وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَّوْزُونٍ﴾([6]).

And have enjoyed rights this balance a long time until the advent of the industrial revolution and that caused the dynamic interaction between man and his environment, And there were increases terrible in the use of pesticides, toxic chemicals in agriculture, also increased emissions of industrial pollutants, which now has a toxic effect on the content dynamic than spoil human life, : ﴿ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ﴾([7]).

If modern civilization has produced this pollution without thinking about how processed, Islam has put laws treat, before it spreads of this magnitude that we see today.

I hope that this paper add to the consolidation of the environmental behavior, in the light of Huda Islamic Sharia… The God of the intent behind a guide to the Straight Path.

Importance of the topic:

إن ظاهرة التلوث البيئي تعدّ من أعظم التحديات التي تواجه الإنسانية في العصر الحديث، وتزداد خطورة هذه الظاهرة نتيجة رغبة الإنسان المستمرة في كشف حقائق الكون المحيط به، محاولة منه في الوصول إلى ما يحتويه من أسرار، وكشف ما به من كنوز، وهذا الأمر يدفعه بالطبع إلى اختراع الوسائل التي يستطيع بها تحقيق هذا الهدف، من إقامة المصانع واختراع وسائل جديدة للاتِّصال، والبحث عن مصادر جديدة للطاقة، مِمَّا يزيد حدّة ظاهرة التلوث، لكثرة ما ينتج عن هذه الوسائل من ملوثات وحتى لا تقف مشكلة التلوث حائلاً دون تحقيق هذا الهدف، لابد من مواجهتها على المستوى الفردي والقومي والدولي.

There is no doubt that the face of the problem requires to change the rules of individual behavior in dealing with the environment, as required necessarily stand on these rules can even adhered to.

This paper aims to the statement of general principles that govern the behavior of the individual towards the environment and will contain:

– Linguistic definition of the word environment.

– Environmental significance in Islam.

– Ecological balance in Islam.

– Abuse of rights in the exploitation of the environment.

– Call of Islam to preserve the environment.

– Environmental behavior of the individual in the perspective of Islamic law.

– Intellectual environmental pollutants.

– Conclusions and Recommendations.

* * *
The first topic:

Linguistic definition of the environment

“Environment” And”Alambah” In the language names of the sense of the house which houses the human or animal and lives in it, which is derived from the verb “Boa” Tighten waw, it is said: His fathers house and Bouah him, and Bouah him and Bouah it, meaning the board has revealed and enabled him to it; Almighty said: ﴿وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ غُرَفاً تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا نِعْمَ أَجْرُ الْعَامِلِينَ﴾([8]).

Science and Environment in the cosmic meaning of the term expands its significance to include the total circumstances and external factors that surround and affect organisms in the biological processes carried out by, and linked to the meaning of the term (Environment) Pattern of relationship between them and their users, فرحم mother human environment first, and the home environment, school environment, and the living environment, and the Earth environment, home environment, and the whole universe environment, ie the human environment grow and expand with the growth and breadth of expertise.

On the other hand, could be considered to define the environment: It is man's relationship to man, or is a set of conditions, materials and interactions, which meets in the space in which they exist life.

So the environment means: Frame in which they live rights and the exercise of its agricultural and industrial activity, economic and social.

The environment consists of the first two: Natural element, and the second: Is the industrial component.

1) Natural element: Is to set things with no income for a person where, these things did not interfere with the human will in its manufacture, and even its existence prior to its existence, such as air, water, soil, plant, animal and sea minerals, also includes a natural element also a range of interactions college such courses wind and climate change.

These things may be created by God I diligently and creativity, all of these things lead function for which they have created, as there is a delicate balance in the performance of the components of this center… So that each serving others… Examples of this are many, including:

  • The plant in the process of breathing absorb carbon dioxide and expel oxygen, while the opposite happens in humans, it is known that carbon dioxide Sam, and thus the natural plant protection of the environment from the effects.
  • There are some objects be the enemy of the others, so that the delicate balance between the.

2) Industrial element: Includes set things developed by the human to control the components of a natural element and take advantage of them and put them in his service, since time immemorial sought human striving to uncover the secrets of the universe in which they live, and the search for new sources of wealth to satisfy their needs and achieve all the way his wishes, has a link to the establishment of factories and the invention of machines .

* * *

The second topic:

Environmental significance in Islamic law

Muslim jurists looks at the environment as a universe in which we live, including the human, animal and plant, water, air and soil.

I have drawn scholars this perception look through the Koran them and talking about them, and drew attention to striking brilliant, a statement of its importance, and guidance to the need to protect it as a creation of God's creation requires us to our need to preserve it, and work on sustainability and survival.

Proof that the environment is the creation of God's creation I says: ﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ﴾([9]).

And says: ﴿وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ﴾([10]) Any: Created the heavens and the earth and everything in between creatures([11]).

And says: ) And moving creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its wings, but like you Nations We have neglected nothing in the book and then to their Lord will be gathered (([12]).

The meaning of the verse: That there is an animal walking on the earth, nor a bird that flies in the air its wings, but created communities like you, created by God and as conditions and livelihoods([13]).

God Almighty has created the heavens and the earth and what is between them of all the creatures then require wisdom must يستخلف rights of these creatures; because it is the finest of these creatures, so check succession God has mocked him these creatures and make it afflicted him not elude him.

Valmsheeih Supreme wanted to recognize this new object in the presence of the reins of this land, and release the hand, and the tireless to highlight the will of God in creation, configuration and analysis, installation and switch, and figuring out what in this land of the forces and energies and treasures and raw materials. As well as highlight the consistency between the norms that govern the whole earth with the universe so that no collision between these creatures and those([14]).

Quran has put a comprehensive vision of the environment included human, animal and plant and inanimate objects, water, air, and make the man at the top of this series and he has put all of his service he says: ﴿وَأَرْسَلْنَا الرِّيَاحَ لَوَاقِحَ فَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَسْقَيْنَاكُمُوهُ وَمَا أَنتُمْ لَهُ بِخَازِنِينَ﴾([15]).

He says: ﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْراً بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ حتَّى إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَاباً ثِقَالاً سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَنزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاء فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ كَذَلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْموْتَى لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ﴾([16]). He says: ﴿وَأَنزَلْنَا الْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ﴾([17]).

From the above it is clear that God I created every creature to lead a certain role in life فبقاؤه and its continuation is normal, so that is keeping the balance between these creatures, especially that Islam cared greatly save the type and strain in all living creatures, and in order to achieve this purpose created by God Almighty : ﴿وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ﴾([18]). وذلك حماية لها من الانقراض، وهذا يفيد ضرورة اتخاذ الإجراءات اللازمة لحفظ النوع والسلالة في الكائنات الحية.

The preservation of life is not only to save the components of the environment, as it is an essential factor for the continuation of life, and what life was saved duty was to maintain elements of the environment and duty also, here God has enjoined rights which استخلفه on the environment and his that keeps them.

* * *

The third topic:

The ecological balance of the Islamic perspective

Quran is full of a lot of verses, which emphasizes that God alone is the creator of the environment and organizer, who develop Nawamis that ensure the conservation of the ecological balance.

He says: ) That you make the earth and the sky a canopy, and sent down water from the sky, waving its fruits sustenance you do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know (([19]).

He says: ) أأنتم most created or built the sky * رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا * وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا * وَالْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا * أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا * وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا * , Ask you and أنعامكم of a (([20]). He says: ) So let man to his food * I صببنا water Saba * Then our apartments earth rip * فأنبتنا love * Grapes and قضبا * وَزَيْتُوناً وَنَخْلاً * وَحَدَائِقَ غُلْباً * And fruit and father * , Ask you and أنعامكم of a (([21]). He says: ﴿خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا وَأَلْقَى فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ﴾([22]). He says: ﴿وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ عِندَهُ بِمِقْدَارٍ﴾([23]). He says: ) I'm all have created as much (([24]). He says: ) Do they not look at the sky above them, how we have built and beautified and its Chicken * وَالْأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاهَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ * PHYSICAL memory of each Abdul Munib * And sent down water from the sky blessed فأنبتنا the gardens love the harvest * And Nakhl Basqat her pollen نضيد * Blessed with the slaves and dead commemorated by the town as well as exit ( ([25]).

As shown above, to us, that Islam demanded to deal with the human environment in terms of it is in the public domain must be preserved, in order to continue to exist. He says: ) Not confusion in the earth after the repair is better for you if you are believers (([26]), So that leads everything in the universe and his job in order to keep consistency and harmony.

Islam has forbade corruption and destruction of nature he says: ﴿وَإِذَا تَوَلَّى سَعَى فِي الأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيِهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الفَسَادَ﴾([27]).

And a researcher in the Sunnah finds that the Prophet PBUH said: «Pieces of Sidra towards God head in the fire»([28]) An emphasis on maintaining the elements of the natural environment for providing balance between keeping the creatures and is represented by the assault of the loss of some important elements of the safety of life.

We have urged the Sunnah attention and nurturing plants.. It was narrated that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «There is no Muslim instills Garcia, or planted implants; eats it a bird or a man or beast, but it was a charity»([29]).

It also focused on the Sunnah animal and prevent infringement and tortured or subjected to destruction and kindness as a part of the environment and part of the universe. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him said: «Said: O Messenger of God, even to us in the beasts paid? : In each of wet liver wage »([30]).

As stated in the commandment of Abu Bakr to Osama bin Zaid when his face to the Levant as saying: (Do not cut themselves a fruitful tree, not slaughter a sheep or a cow or camel except for his food). It is clear from these Commandment call of Islam to preserve the wild life of the plant and animal and bird and thus they do not represent the legislation ahead of the warriors in the style of preservation of the environment of the damage and destruction and slash and burn and murder, which shows the greatness of Islam and His Highness and advancement in the field of legislation.

* * *

The fourth topic:

Abuse of rights in the exploitation of the environment

The first factor of pollution factors is the uncontrolled use of the human side of the elements of the environment.. Because that man is a product of the environment, a creator at the same time, which provide him with the basic tenets for the child's mental, moral, social and spiritual([31]), Thanks to the rapid progress and stunning reached by humanitarian scientifically and technologically, became a human has the ability to change his environment degree unprecedented.

The ability owned by the man today to change the medium in which they live if used consciously and realize سليمين can accrue to the benefit of peoples and rising standard of living, but if used in an arbitrary manner or stray, they can cause the human race and the environment damage than you can count.

The human impact on the balance of the environment started since it appeared on the surface of the earth, has appeared this effect in a human since time immemorial arson in forests to carry out fishing, or to be reclaimed and cultivated other types of plants without paying attention to the environmental and social impacts that could occur as a result .

If this method has pursued rights in its policy with the environment in the past is still suffering from its effects environment at the present time. Where human did not leave a stable ecosystems, but exploited by non-rational way through:

1- إلقاء مياه الصرف الصحي في مياه الأنهار، مِمَّا أفسد المياه وجعلها بيئة غير مناسبة لحياة كائنات حية عديدة.

2- Dumping of waste factories built on the banks of the river, which has increased the amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the dumping of these residues dissolved in hot water with less oxygen.

3- The use of chemical pesticides in resistant weeds, snails and some insects Kalpawwad, as well as some fishermen use of toxic substances in fishing.

4- حرق مخلفات الزراعة (Rice straw) Causing a lot of chest diseases and allergies has led to:

1- انتشار الأمراض وخاصة أمراض الجهاز الهضمي، نظراً لاستخدام مياه النهر في الشرب والزراعة، وذلك بسبب تزايد احتمال وجود الجراثيم المسببة لأمراض الكوليرا والتيفود والدوسنتاريا وغيرها.

2- انتشار الطفيليات.

3- هلاك أنواع من الهائمات النباتية والتي لها دور مهم في البيئة حيث تعتبر مصدراً مهماً؛ لإنتاج الأكسجين، فضلاً عن كونها غذاء للأسماك.

4- تناقص الأكسجين الذائب في الماء مِمَّا يؤدّي إلى موت كثير من الأسماك.

5- موت الطيور والحيوانات البحرية أو ضعف سلالتها.

6- تشجيع تكاثر القواقع التي تعمل كعامل وسيط لكثير من الطفيليات.

In light of the above, we can see that man may tamper with all the elements of the human environment, which included water, air and soil, which made the problem of pollution is a global problem in addition to being a regional problem.

Pollution caused by harmful activity practiced by states or individuals, it moves its harmful effects to individuals and neighboring countries. If it is very serious; because the problem of tampering with the elements of the environment threatens the man himself; because the components of the environment affected this tampering mean the demise of the right to life, which is of the highest and the greatest human rights at all, and what else is going on in the rights of Islamic rule, designed to maintain([32]).

The severity of the pollution problem they relate to development and operations sought by the states to raise the level of economic and social people, without taking into account the side effects that can be caused to the environment as a result of this humanitarian operations.

* * *

Section V:

Islam and his call to conserve the environment

The environmental resources are for God's blessings on human beings, and that God has given us all the right to use them, is not entitled to a monopoly by without the other, and the human guardian of the environment; and not the owner of her, he of this logic that takes them as far as with the performance of the right of this grace .

The grace thanks a factor of sustainability. He says: ﴿وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكُمْ لَئِن شَكَرْتُمْ لأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ وَلَئِن كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذَابِي لَشَدِيدٌ﴾([33]), كفران graces a cause of its demise, he says: ) And hit God, for example, the village was safe reassuring approach her livelihood Raghda of everywhere Vkfr the بأنعم God Vomagaha God bass hunger and from the fear of what they make (([34]).

The preservation of the components of the environment is part of the faith of the believer, said PBUH: «Faith seventy-odd Division or a few Weston Division Vavdilha of the words there is no god but Allah and the lowest removing something harmful from the road and modesty is a branch of the faith»([35]).

I have warned of Islam every change qualitative and quantitative components in the living environment and non-living; because it will lead to the inability of ecosystems to absorb without breaking down their balance, and thus an environmental pollution, and God has created I universe and the balance of integrated environmental between organisms and non-living([36]), He says: ) I'm all have created as much (([37]).

Sunnah also abound, including confirms this perception between the Islamic and what they contain human environment of the assets of living and non-living, it was the Messenger of Allah PBUH say about Mount one which Adallalh the pampering friend: «This mountain loves us and we love» ([38]) It is manifest that the lack of this human dimension of faith and a sense of psychological based on sound knowledge of the nature of the relationship between humans and the environment may أفقدهم achieve environmental security([39]).

What is happening in the modern era of environmental pollution different must be seen as targeting and harassing the balance of the environment arbitrator, and the deliberate distortion of the shape aesthetic that God had put it, and then be working to protect the environment from various forms of pollution, corruption and maintaining the beauty in the pages of the universe ([40]).

We have recommended that the Holy Prophet PBUH human clean his body to protect him from diseases; narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Pat a Wind immersion in his hand hitting blame no one but himself»([41]), Wind immersion impact of foods and fat outstanding human hand.

Here the Prophet PBUH hygiene commands us to protect our environment especially personal self, and that there are some insects that are looking for food and attracted the smell of fat and waste that are stuck in the hands of human.

And it PBUH he said: «Fear Almlaan, three: Stool in resources, and the side of the road, and shadow([42]).

The Koran forbids environmental disturbance and disruption in the integration of environmental Almighty said: ) And if they were told not mischief in the land they say we are peacemakers (([43]).

He emphasized Islam that man is the most important elements of the environment of intellectual Vvsadeh self-spoiling of the environment property, then you should work on non-pollution environment self-indigenous If smeared itself from ignorance, tyranny and dominated by the spirit of fun and underrated elements of the environment, must work to sent vaccinated intellectual, :

1- عدم التبذير والإسراف في الاستهلاك.

2- عدم تعطيل الموارد وإتلافها بدون وجه مشروع.

3- عدم الإضرار بالبيئة الطبيعية وعدم إفسادها وتلويثها وتشويهها بأي وجه من الوجوه.

4- إن ملكية عناصر البيئة حق مشترك بين أفراد الجماعة الإنسانية، فمن حقّ كلّ فرد أن ينتفع منها بقدر حاجته دون أن يعطل أو يبطل حق انتفاع الآخرين، قال تعالى: ﴿وَنَبِّئْهُمْ أَنَّ الْمَاء قِسْمَةٌ بَيْنَهُمْ﴾([44]).

إن إعمال النظر في قوله تعالى: ﴿قِسْمَةٌ بَيْنَهُمْ﴾ من الناحية اللغوية([45]) لا تكون إِلاَّ في الأشياء الشائعة أو المشتركة. That do not know the monument set for the owner of the.

The Year antiseptic words of the Prophet PBUH: «People are partners in three: Water and pasture and fire »([46]).

Hadith has spoken openly about partnership and participation, people are partners in the water, pasture and fire. The term pasture with a broad meaning includes all the plants on which they live organisms, one of the main resources of the wild environment.

Thus Islam knew right idea shared or common heritage of mankind in common environmental resources, which can not be acquired, the most important air and water.

This resource which supports considered the natural environment as a common heritage of humanity must be adhered to in the development of Islamic morality and pay damage and corruption them, bearing in mind that those resources have three functions:

First Job:

Devotional, a two-pronged: First, for the same environmental resources, they are creatures swim praise to the Creator and worship Him and evidence of the ability of the Creator Almighty I said: ﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الأَرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ﴾([47]).

The second prong, فيخص man who harnessed to serve those resources, this latter is the field of human hopes and the realization of the idea about the creator and the Creator, the Almighty said: ) In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day are signs for men of understanding (([48]), And says: ) Say Look at what is in the heavens and the earth (([49]), And says: ﴿وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ﴾([50]), And says: ﴿وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ﴾([51]), And says: ﴿أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا﴾([52]).

The second function:

Recreational and aesthetic function, so that God created the natural resources of different colors and shapes, in order to bring joy and happiness to the same of استخلفه in Earth Building. He says: ) Have you not seen that Allah sends down water from the sky Vokrzina the fruits of different colors and mountains new red white and various colors and black intense * وَمِنَ النَّاسِ وَالدَّوَابِّ وَالأَنْعَامِ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ كَذَلِكَ﴾([53]).

He says: ﴿زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ مِنَ النِّسَاء وَالْبَنِينَ وَالْقَنَاطِيرِ الْمُقَنطَرَةِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ وَالْخَيْلِ الْمُسَوَّمَةِ وَالأَنْعَامِ وَالْحَرْثِ ذَلِكَ مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا﴾([54]).

الوظيفة الثالثة:

Living life, strong use of natural resources in the management of food and cattle food, and take including coated rights and his home and means of transmission without Gore on the rights of others, as long as it is within the limits of Shara.

The nature “Common heritage” The resources of the environment requires all human beings, whatever their geographical or persuasions political, to keep those resources; because in wasted and depletion of non-appropriate Shara disable the task entrusted to God, and thus disabling of life itself on the ground, and this is forbidden religiously; because “What is not to be, but it is the duty of” وبناءً على ذلك فإن الالتزام بالحفاظ على البيئة ومواردها هو التزام أو “واجب”, And to be as one of the sections of the ruling Altkleva which will be rewarded to do and punished for leaving.

The tyranny of the resources of the common environment and spoil and sabotage business is religiously forbidden, and is known in Islamic jurisprudence that (Muharram) He asked Shara desist request firmly, and imposed on the perpetrator inevitably punishment, whether the act is forbidden taboo for itself, or was forbidden to other([55]).

Islam has developed a human relationship with the rest of the organisms and the protection of the essential components of the environment, and to preserve the ecosystem deterioration, narrated Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah from his father, may Allah be pleased with him said: We were with the Messenger of Allah PBUH in the book he went to his need; we saw red([56]) With Farrakhan, We took Farrakaha cut, reddish came they made carpeted, when he came Messenger of Allah PBUH said: «Shocked this her child? ([57]).

Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «While a man walking a route intensified by thirst and found wells which descended drank them and then if output is a dog panting eats rest of thirst, he said: This dog has reached thirst like that hit me, went down the well water فملأ lightness and grabbed Pfih then Promoted فسقى of his dog, thanking God forgave him, they said: O Messenger of God, even to us in the beasts paid? : «All wet liver wage»([58]) Even a drink of water to a dog was the cause of the forgiveness of sin punk of the children of Israel, where prostitutes was the cause of her repentance and Anaptha to God.

In contrast, tortured woman fasting List in kitten as contained talk about Abu Huraira said, The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «The woman tortured in cat أمسكتها up until she died of hunger were not feeding it or send insects devour the earth, and forgave the man brushed off the road forks branch»([59]).

And animal torture reason to curse, narrated from Saeed bin Jubair said: I went out with the son of Umar in the way of city roads If غلمة to throw chickens, Ibn Omar: Who did this? : The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Cursed animal represents»([60]).

The induction came on the mercy of the animal and a great reward, he said PBUH: «From the womb, even sacrifice Asfour God's mercy on the Day of Resurrection»([61]).

The images compassion for an animal came in an interview Khaled bin Ma'daan said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «The Almighty God companion loves gentleness and is pleased with him and appointed him as not appointed to violence if Rkpettm these animals Persians Vonzloha their homes, the earth was Jdbh Vanjua them Bnekayaa, and you conduct the night the earth folded at night is not folded during the day, and you and Altaris on the way they ([62]).

Jabir ibn Abdullah said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «If you are in the fertile Vomknua behind Osntha, do not count the houses, and if you are in the lean Fastnjua, and you Baldljh the earth folded at night if Tgault you ogres فبادروا adhan, nor pray to Jawad roads, nor Tnzloa them they shelter snakes and wild animals, and تقضوا it needs by ([63]).

It attributed the Prevention of urine in the burrow it may lead to harming animals inside, narrated Abdullah bin Srgis, may Allah be pleased with him said: «The Messenger of Allah PBUH be heeded in the burrow»([64]).

I think it is impossible to realize that extravagance and waste and over-exploitation of environmental resources lead to a breach of the percentages and amounts of God between the vocabulary of those resources which entails degradation and reduction of production, and reflected negatively on the lives of humans and other organisms.

The degradation and pollution, which appeared in resources, land, sea and air, threatens the advent of mass suicides albeit slow, almost imperceptible for all creatures on our planet. Hence the call to avoid its causes, will not be so only by following the principles and teachings and values ​​of Islam regarding the organization of human behavior in its dealings with the resources of the natural environment, and changing that behavior is presented first to remedy the dire consequences of what caused the human hand of corruption in the resources, the environment, etc.) that ([65]).

The intent and moderation must be adhered to by Islamic behavior and respected by everyone; because moderation is the approach of Muslims in everything, even in worship.

For every man to stand with himself, and the environmental behavior and takes care of God blessed him from natural resources.

* * *

Section VI:

Environmental behavior of the individual from the perspective of Islamic law

لقد اهتمّت الشريعة الإسلامية بتقرير المبادئ التي تهدف إلى نظافة البيئة، وذلك تمشياً مع أهداف الشريعة الغراء التي تجعل من النظافة عنواناً لها، والتي جاء رسولها صلعم ليحل للناس الطيبات ويحرم عليهم الخبائث، وقد اتجهت الشريعة في ذلك إلى تهذيب سلوك الفرد وتعويده على حب النظافة وترغيبه فيها، وذلك عن طريق الاغتسال، سواء كان هذا الاغتسال لأعضاء معينة أو لجميع جسم الإنسان، وذلك بفرضية الطهارة للصلاة.

And ablution important of Arts in Islamic law; because it has great benefits, as the nose, for example, farm ground for the growth of bacteria, and then it was reported on inhalation induction in many conversations, including what Narrated by Al-Bukhari from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet PBUH, he said: «Of Todo Vlistnther, and Astjmr can pray»([66]).

Including what was narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH he said: «If any of you woke up of pajamas Vlistnther three times, the devil will spend on Khiahimh»([67]).

The judge said Ayaz God's mercy is likely to be saying PBUH: «The devil spend on the Khiahimh» for what it is, the nose of one of the body's ports which reach to the heart… And is likely to be a metaphor, what takes place from dust and moisture gills Dirt Devil agrees([68]), And frequent washing removes this filth and protects the rights of its damages.

This illustrates the extent to which the ablution of the etiquette of considerable aimed at maintaining the cleanliness of rights, where hardly attached body some secretions or something from dust or dirt, but comes ablution hastily Vinzaaha the human body greets his body and familiar from يجاوره not hurt from Qmarth, and so we find ([69]).

In addition to the ablution washing age of Islam, and make it obligatory in some cases كالغسل the congregation in the mosque for prayers, and menstruation and nifaas, and sometimes in between the mixing of people and situations meeting كغسل Friday Ihram and Umrah.

And returns panning care because of that man exhibition day in different parts of his body to pollution, has been attached to these parts of the microbes and what kills germs If you do not get rid of them, so the request of Islam Muslim remove all Mstqdhir the suspended([70]), And this is our greatest when mixing with people, so that no one gets hurt and the other, in the interest of the emergence of the Muslim community beautiful view.

Therefore urges the conversations came to wash when mixing(·), Has Bukhaari from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah PBUH said: «If one of you came Friday let him do ghusl»([71]).

Muslim narrated from Urwah ibn al-Zubayr from Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, she said: People were Antabon on Friday from their homes Awali shall come in Alaaba and suffer dust let them come out of the wind, came the Messenger of Allah PBUH them, a man I have said,: «If that you are Ttehrtm to this day»([72]).

It also focused on Islamic Sharia everything related to politely behavior and Oweidat to love the cleanliness and fitrah, which is what the good body hygiene, where he gets them to stay out of perfection that God created man in it, and the survival of these things and leave the removal may distort the rights and Ikbha so Istqdhir and avoid Vijrj ([73]).

The induction responded to these qualities in the hadeeth narrated by Muslim Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Ten of instinct: Clipped mustache and beard, using the inhalation of water and cut nails and wash البراجم the plucking the armpit hairs and shaving the pubic hair and diminution of water ». Said Zakaria: Said Musab al-and forgot tenth only be rinsing([74]).

Khattaabi said: البراجم: The contract that the emergence of the fingers, Alroajp the: Between البراجم, which means cleaning dirty placements where the dirt meets([75]).

And to the Arts Imam Ghazali pointed out when talking about the phenomenon in terms of waste cleaned, she said, and parts dirt, and dirt and Alrtobat the candidate is eight:

1- Meet in the hair of the head of tuberculosis; Valtnziv, it desirable panning and Torgal and Altdhen remove Shaath.

2- What meets the dirt in the ear and coats Removes survey shows him.

3- What's in the inside of the nose meets of Alrtobat and removed by inhalation.

4- What meets the teeth and eliminate the siwaak.

5- Meet in the beard of the dirt and recommended removal of panning and demobilization.

6- Dirt البراجم the the emergence of enamel coats.

7- Cleaning Alroajp, which heads enamel and under the nails of dirt.

8- Tuberculosis, which meets on all body برشح race, road dust and eliminate the washing.

He also ordered Islam Muslim avoiding the unpleasant odors and not to harm people, especially when meeting. Muslim narrated from Jabir ibn Abdullah that the Prophet PBUH, he said: «Eat from this البقلة (Garlic) He visits: From eating onions and garlic and balls do not come near our mosque, the angels are offended than hurt by the sons of Adam »([76]).

Even though it is a clear signal that smells where harm to people, and this in itself is useful should be avoided, and to protect the human environment, including, if this is contained in the smell of garlic, فبلا doubt it includes other all his smelly. And to avoid unpleasant odors, means a whole protect the environment from air pollution.

That Islam is keen on the cleanliness of the human body and clothes, to ensure the cleanliness of the home, and the environment in general.

It avoiding the evils:

In the context of evaluating an individual's behavior towards the environment, you want Sharia law in all good Halal, and Rhpt of all Mstqdhir haram, and alienated from the things malicious, and ordered Bajtnabha whether Mtauma or drink, and this is out of the assets of Islamic law, and the verses contained in this many, said : ) They ask why has permitted them to tell you the good things permitted (([77]).

Tabari said in his commentary on this verse: ) Permitted Say you good things (ie: What not Boukbeth ones, which did not come forbidden in a book or a year or measure the hard-working, or lawful you what Estelz and coveted when the people of virility and morality.

I know that the origin of objects solution; they have created for slaves and benefits excluded from the assets:

1-What's the text of the book is forbidden.

2-What year provided for the prohibition, كتحريم donkeys, mules, and donkeys.

3-What is the meaning of stipulated كالنبيذ the heady it such as alcohol.

4-What is killing animals like a serpent, mouse and crow and the dog and buzzards.

5-Reportedly forbidden to kill him is haram.

6-Alasttabh, Alastakbat and honorable Asttabh.

7-You may not eat unclean objects in the event of choice, as well as eat Taher if unclean campaign against unclean.

8-You may not eat what hurts as glass and poison.

Thus, Islamic law prohibits the each malignant harmful based on the verse: ) They ask why has permitted them to tell you the good things permitted (and also what is stated in the year for the Prevention of damage and damage,. Whether it is harmful to the hull or religion Mtaumat and drinks, whether it deprived him of a sample emergency or for some reason it.

On this originally denied eating contaminated food and drink; it enters under eat what is harmful, and in the protection of the environment, in an atmosphere of diseases, which also preserve the public health.

And it has deprived the Islamic Sharia dead, blood, pork, and deprived eating whatever hurts, and if we look at these taboos and found to have a great relationship the subject of pollution, Islam forbade some for health reasons and preventive purely, as the dead proliferate where germs and blood also quick damage, ([78]).

Islam also forbade eating the meat of animals that feed on the impurity and filth with it originally, and in order to protect public health, this prohibition came as narrated by Abu Dawud in his Sunan from Mujahid from Ibn Umar said: «The Messenger of Allah PBUH eat Majesty and milk»([79]).

If the Sharia has denied that feeds on garbage such as pork agreement, or have more food garbage Kaljellalh with the difference between say inviolable and say hate him, this is useful alienation from the accumulation of garbage in the streets and roads; because it Mstkhbut the every Mstkhbut should avoid it. This means the need to maintain the cleanliness of the environment, in addition to that Islamic law had ordered save the foods and drinks and you want to clean.

Food is a necessary and important part in the continuation of human life, and has a significant impact on his health, that was pure, clean strengthened by the Health and Human Awfi, though malignant dirty Hazelt it by the public health and sickness because of.

The Islamic law has developed considerable etiquette, including they نهت for blowing it and breathe in the pot, and you want to cover the pots and save them for fear of stepping out the scourge of hurt in this owner of Arts and received the following conversations:

Muslim narrated from Abdullah bin Qatada from his father, «that the Prophet PBUH forbade to breathe in the pot».

Anas, may Allah be pleased with him «that the Messenger of Allah PBUH was breathing in the pot three times».

It was narrated that Abu Sa'eed al may Allah be pleased with him said: «Messenger Allahsalam forbade drinking mug of indentation, and infuses the drink».

Notch mug: Position fraction of it, but forbade it; because the place does not bestowed full cleaning, and several modern etiquette, including:

That breaths mustache frequency earns water Zhoma and smelly Iev for her, and that drinking from a mug and puffing notch in the drink which several evils.

It is stated in the report narrated by Ibn Majah in his Sunan from Abu Zubayr from Jabir, said: «Commanded the Prophet PBUH that Nuki Osagatna and cover Antona»([80]).

And narrated by Muslim from Jabir bin Abdullah, said: I heard Messenger Allahsalam says: «Covered pot and Okioa the waterskins the year to come down the night B does not pass a pot does not have to cover, or Saga not upon كاء only it came down from the epidemic».

* * *

Section VII:

Intellectual environmental pollutants

Environment intellectual terms is not only a center of intellectual, who is moving where ideas and interact with the reality of life in all its components, and affect the formulation of ideas and decisions, and identify situations of life and its problems on the diversity of Menahiha and themes, whether this position is connected to reality or separate him as dictated by perceptions .

That will remain the intellectual environment of the most important elements to create the objective conditions; to create the model envisaged humanitarian.

From this perspective, showing the importance of talking about environmental contaminants and intellectual question that imposes itself, is how to be a human individual is an important element of the foundation of the intellectual environment and a barrier to pollution.


Manifestations of intellectual pollution:

We can not limit all components of intellectual, but the following should be noted:

1- Confusion of ideas and disorder الأفهام, Stir disagreements and disputes between people in a way that might lead to the deployment of enmity and hatred among them, he says about these: ﴿هُوَ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ في قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاء الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاء تَأْوِيلِهِ﴾([81]).

It turns Him to follow the pseudo-similar from the Koran but the intent behind it is) in order to sedition (ie: Request for sedition believers in their faith and skepticism in their faith and raise partiality in their hearts illusions throw them around of Like that brought him the Quran(* ), Is meant by the wording of sedition in this verse is to raise doubts about the truth, and the confusion of ideas and concepts and disorder spread all leads to conflicts and differences.

2- False rumor, In order to differentiate your community, and cast doubt on the intentions of members of the nation which would inevitably lead to psychological defeat, political, security and economic development, he says the right to do so: ) If they went out what you زادوكم the only خبالا and أوضعوا through you Ibgonkm the sedition and in you Smaon them and God knows بالظالمين * I've plotted sedition before, and upset matters for thee, until he came right back the command of Allah and they dislike (([82]).

And meaning: If it came out of these hypocrites with you, O believers to foray (Tabuk) زادوكم only (خبالا) Any: However, disruption in the opinion and havoc at work and most vulnerable in the fighting.

This is the case with every patient souls that hate good and want to pollute the environment of intellectual such things.

3- Out of the group with a view to the heart of public order: These Almighty said in their right: ) May God knows who infiltrate you to Oma should beware who violate ordered him to acquire a sedition or suffer a painful doom (([83]).

The meaning is that God knows who are coming out of the condition of the Prophet PBUH Council in subtle and so latency out of the group a little bit veiled with each other to get out all.

Should beware all hypocrites all the time and when to get out on the Muslim community fair, than to acquire a pandemic and calamity and catastrophe entail exposed ordered them, and the exposure of their wickedness, HTC their families, and the disappearance of their behavior, and having them replaced abhorred all sane and contempt for all his thinking properly.

4- Follow the self-Hui: The follow self Hui and private interests prevail over the public interest is one of the intellectual environment pollutants, and God has hit us in the Qur'an are examples of this, he says: ﴿لَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ رُسُلاً كُلَّمَا جَاءهُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنْفُسُهُمْ فَرِيقاً كَذَّبُواْ وَفَرِيقاً يَقْتُلُونَ * وَحَسِبُواْ أَلاَّ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ فَعَمُواْ وَصَمُّواْ ثُمَّ تَابَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ثمَّ عَمُواْ وَصَمُّواْ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ وَاللّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ﴾([84]).

And meaning: God sent messengers many to guide people, taking the Charter of them to believe them, but the children of Israel broke covenants and disobeyed the Apostles, were the more came to them Messenger including not desire them naughty, and that does not tend to their hearts evil, Nasaboh hostility Vkzbwa some of the Apostles, not content with with others بالتكذيب .

Thus, when the spoil Nations-controlled minds and ambitions and desires on some of them until you see the ugly Hassan. Whereupon the fight Rashad people, and graduated symbols of the nation and trying to impose its views by force, it is polluting the environment intellectually.

5- Profile altruism when you talk on the subject of what: The intellectual environmental pollutants, so he did not give the opportunity for others to express his opinion, VIA would be better if everyone gave others a chance to express his opinion.

6- Out for accuracy: Is contaminated with pollutants intellectual environment. Therefore, taking into account the accuracy and honesty in the modern human earns the love and respect of listeners.

7- To say without knowing: Is also considered intellectual environmental pollutants) do not stop what you have no knowledge that the hearing and sight and heart of each of those it was responsible (([85]).

8- Excavation of Ahaurk: Out of the ordinary in the talk is of environmental pollutants, especially intellectual and wisdom says: “My right is likely wrong and the opinion of others likely correct error” If a person in a dialogue with others, even if a mistake from the interviewer, not trying to Egerha or Ikhgelh not يتهكم it, but draws its consideration of the positive without regaining, human successful is that the object of debate statement right, but not the intention to defeat including interviewer.

9- Exposure to the peculiarities of people: Is also of the intellectual environment pollutants, should be on everyone not to intentionally expose what he wants others conceal or hide; because this may affect the same general temperament and works to disturb described.

10- Fallacy: Is also of the intellectual environmental pollutants; because chicanery lose rights to respect people, and the human Esquire is the one who draws the attention of the other in a calm, far from defamation.

11- Unnecessarily prolong talk: Is also of environmental pollutants intellectual For every person that maintains the time interlocutor, it prolongs the speech on the subject is not worth prolonging it, not prolong the conversation with a man busy may stop him shy of pieces of the modern way that might injure the speaker, especially if the listener intelligent and understands quickly, .

12- The distinction between citizens on the basis of religion: The intellectual environmental pollutants; because it strikes at the heart of unity between the sons of one homeland.

13- Clutter fatwas who are not eligible for an advisory opinion: Considered as well as from environmental pollutants intellectually; because it undermines the doctrine of the half-educated towards jurisprudential developments (Banks rental returns organ transplant wombs) As well as the abnormal build consensus in the ancient books of fiqh some schools of Islamic jurisprudence scholars.

Accordingly, the most Aljalbh features of intellectual security and his clipboard at the same time, it can be summarized in these points: –

1- Understanding of religion through partial texts and purposes of the college… Do not sing stand at the details of the texts without awareness of the purposes of religion and visions of college.

2- Account the inferred sources considered when scholars (And that the availability of imams bones) In understanding Shara Bashmulhe and colleges integration and balance without means this stand when issues notables partial, but the rule in this link the original and communication era.

3- The introduction of our heritage without تبخيس or reverence. In the very aspects of the heritage of enlightenment and the ability to enlightenment, as it is also like every human product deficiencies and privacy does not fit our time.

4- Understanding of reality and dimensions of the givens, with the distinction between the requirements of the times and the whims of the times, so do not live strangers in our time does not fall into the (Trap realism) Sterols which يشدنا to the present without prospect for change and reform.

5- Taking into account the interim, pheasants, and cultural traditions scramble God I being set up and laws on this, the greatest prophet PBUH dish divine approach within a few twenty years and taking into account the conditions of the people and their conditions and نفسياتهم.

6- Care priorities and identify priorities, it offers a delegate on duty, nor precedes Altkamilat and improvements to the basics, does not begin footnotes and الفرعيات before straightening texts and assets.

7- Care coalition jurisprudence, and politely difference commitment.. Cooperation between citizens and the nation duty, without this mean people poured into molds or social intellectual deaf, not including differentiation, فليست so the will of God in creation. Even.. Cooperate with agreed it, and understand the different aspects, Ntezer and recover among us.

8- Distancing from falling into the clutches of atonement and misinformation, then the door of all evil, and correct cooperation and collaboration between equals atone each other, one of them does not recognize the other's right to think and differences.

9- Differentiate between the jurisprudence condemns the individual, the community and the state and the nation.. Each attributes, properties and areas, each with his place in terms of right and wrong, and wills and licenses.. And to this thought and movement controls.

10- Differentiate between religion and religion, and between law and jurisprudence, and between Islam and the Muslims gain Religion is the law of God Almighty and the religious experience of human beings in the understanding and application.. But it is no argument against Islam and Shara, but two Islam and Shara حاكمان of the religiosity and his Mqoman.

* * *

الخاتمة والتوصيات

Environment is the habitat in which they live rights, they include the land on which they live, and the air we breathed, the water we drink it, as it includes everything there on the floor of the living and the plant, animal and bird.

God has created the universe integrated and balanced not a failure or lack of, he says: ), Which created the seven heavens one above another, what you see in creating Rahman disparity refer sight you see from the breakfast (([86]).

This great universe had forced God for the benefit of man, so man should keep it, and do not overdo it, not commonly where corruption and evil, he says: ) Not confusion in the earth after the repair and invite him in fear and hope (([87]).

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi said in the interpretation of the meaning: ) Not confusion in the earth after repair (([88]) Meaning: Mischief nothing in the earth enters the prevention of corrupting souls murder and cutting members, and corrupting the minds because of alcohol, and the corruption of genealogy, and so on; because interests prestigious five, money and self descent and religion and reason.

Thus terminated Islamic law on corruption in the earth, in the sense it is forbidden to enter the nature of corruption to exist, whether this presence by land, sea or air, and the prevention of the introduction of what corruption to exist requires the prevention of all types and Osnavh. He says: ﴿وَإِذَا تَوَلَّى سَعَى فِي الأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيِهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الفَسَادَ﴾([89]).

And Prevention of corruption in the land determined by the principle of Islamic law even in the case of war, it was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH if sent his armies said: «اخرجوا باسم الله تعالى، تقاتلون في سبيل الله من كفر بالله، لا تغدروا ولا تغلوا ولا تمثلوا ولا تقتلوا الولدان ولا أصحاب الصوامع»([90]).

وعن يحيى بن سعيد: That Abu Bakr sent armies to Syria went out walking with Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, and was more than Emir quarter of those quarters and came Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him with him يوصيه, and increase passenger and Abu Bakr walks, said more than: O successor of the Messenger of God, either to ride and either be sent down, he said: “ما أنت بنازل وما أنا براكب، إني أحتسب خطاي هذه في سبيل الله، يا يزيد، إنكم ستقدمون بلاداً يؤتون فيها بأصناف من الطعام فسموا الله على أولها واحمدوه على آخرها، وإنكم ستجدون أقواماً قد حبسوا أنفسهم في هذه الصوامع فاتركوهم وما حبسوا له أنفسهم، وستجدون أقواماً قد اتخذ الشيطان على رؤوسهم مقاعد يعني الشمامسه فاضربوا تلك الأعناق، ولا تقتلوا كبيراً هرماً ولا امرأة ولا وليداً ولا تخربوا عمرانا ولا تقطعوا شجرة إلا لنفع، ولا تعقرن بهيمة إلا لنفع، ولا تحرقن نخلاً ولا تغرقنه ولا تغدر ولا تمثل ولا تجبن ولا تغلل، ولينصرن الله من ينصره ورسله بالغيب إن الله قوي عزيز، أستودعك الله وأقرئك السلام”([91]). These texts have shown that Islam is keen to protect the human environment of change and corruption, even in the event of war, and this means that the legitimacy of resorting to means which lead to environmental destruction and sabotage, such as the use of nuclear weapons, and resorting to the methods of chemical warfare, and that destroy the environment and pollution.

وإذا كانت الشريعة الإسلامية نهت عن الفساد في الأرض فإنها من ناحية أخرى أمرت بحسن استثمارها والعمل على تنميتها، وقد جاء الترغيب في الشريعة بصفة خاصة على نوع معين من النشاط البشري في استغلال الأرض، وهو الترغيب في الغرس والزرع وزيادة المساحات الخضراء، مِمَّا يعتبره المهتمون بشئون البيئة اليوم وسيلة هامة من وسائل حمايتها من التلوث، وترجع هذه الأهمية في أن النباتات الخضراء تعمل على حفظ التوازن البيئي، حيث تمتص ثاني أكسيد الكربون الموجود بالجو وهو من الغازات السامة.

The start of the year in many conversations in tree planting, Muslim narrated from Ata Jaber said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «There is no Muslim instills Garcia was only what it ate his charity, and robbed of his charity, and what it has eaten seven charity, and ate the bird is a charity, not a Arzah only was his charity»([92]).

If there are conversations that you want to plant trees, were the other novels forbids unjustly cut. Of the report narrated by Abu Dawood from Abdullah ibn al-Habashi said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH: «Pieces of Sidra towards God head in the fire». Abu Dawood said means of pieces of Sidra in the wilderness unwilling to avail himself of a Wayfarer and beasts in vain unjustly and without the right to have them, towards God head in the fire([93]).

And incentives to invest in land and planting trees is one of the methods advocated by the states now to address the pollution of the environment, as it was logging environment and depriving them of the factors that led to the increase in the problem of pollution of the human environment.

I've decided to Islamic law a fundamental right for a person in a healthy environment appropriate to ensure that its good health, and ensure him to live in security and stability, and we find that right entirely clear in Islamic law for the following reasons:

First: The law does not oppose reform, which could lead to any laws; because they are based on interest, and where I found that interest cable release God's law.

Secondly: The Islamic jurisprudence at the extraordinary ability to diligence using sources and evidence of knowledge assets, which enables scholars to find a legal judgment for each new situations by resorting to the Qur'an and Sunnah and the consensus, then the use of measurement and Arbitration interest and Alastsahab plug loopholes.

Thirdly: Islamic law is full of rules and provisions to protect the environment from pollution, it also recognizes the need for cooperation and solidarity among all who live in this universe to achieve safety and security and the protection of human beings. ولذلك مثل الرسول صلعم الكون بسفينة في البحر، لا يمكن أن يترك لأحد العبث بها؛ لأنَّه بذلك يعرض سلامة كل ركابها للخطر.

The preservation of the environment and the safety of humanitarian value Semitic her roots in the depths of the values ​​and teachings of orders and texts and heritage of Islam, which supports the Islamic perspective of the environment on the basis of architecture environment with proper compatibility with influences surrounding this environment, taking into account into account the dimensions of social and cultural development of that environment, through : Protection of living resources, and the reasons for its existence and preventing corruption, leading to the development and construction and development; Do not you see that the Hadith invited us to the reconstruction of the Earth said the Messenger of Allah PBUH: «لو قامت الساعة وفي يد أحدكم فسيلة فليزرعها»([94])، كما جعل الغرس والزرع حتَّى بدون بعد اقتصادي من الصدقات يقول صلعم: «ما من مسلم يغرس غرساً أو يزرع زرعاً فيأكل منه طير أو إنسان أو بهيمة إلا كان له به صدقة»([95]).

It also adopted the Islamic view on the theory of the ecological balance, and that each creature role that takes advantage of it for himself, and at the same time serving others to take each other سخريا.

Islam when he spoke about environmental issues, it does not limit the pollution physical environment in forms multiple, but intended pollution moral and intellectual, considered Islam to be tampered with in any way, both released this tampering of an individual or group, and whether the small this tampering or large, : «Saw of you an evil let him change it with his hand, the he could not Vbulsana, the could not فبقلبه, and that is the weakest of faith»([96]). The relationship between man and the environment is a close relationship, but the man tried to conquer the environment and tried hard to change, and tampered with, and the impact of the negative impact and proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that if a person is involved in something created by God, but spoiled, and discovered something new but trying : ﴿ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ﴾([97]). لذا نطالب بضرورة العمل على إنقاذ البيئة، وذلك من خلال: –

1- الحد من تصاعد الغازات والأدخنة من المصانع باستخدام الطرق العلمية.

2- منع قطع الأشجار والعمل على تشجير الصحارى؛ لأنَّ ذلك يساعد على نقاء الجو وتقليل تلوثه.

3- الكف عن إلقاء النفايات في مصادر المياه مع منع التلوث المائي بكل أسبابه وصوره بقوانين صارمة.

4- التقليل من حجم الضوضاء وكل ما يجرح شعور الآخر.

5- الترشيد في استخدام المبيدات الحشرية سواء استخداماتها المنزلية أو الحقلية (رش الفاكهة).

6- التقليل من استخدامات مكسبات الطعم والرائحة والمواد الحافظة التي تضاف إلى الأغذية بغرض تحسين الطعم والرائحة وزيادة فترة الصلاحية، واستعمال هذه المواد حسب النسب المقررة.

7- التقليل من استخدام الأسمدة الكيماوية بعد أن ثبت أنها مواد ملوثة للتربة والمياه، ولها آثار سيئة على صحة الإنسان، والعمل على العودة إلى استخدام الأسمدة الطبيعية في تسميد الأراضي الزراعية.

8- لابد من وضع البرامج العلمية لتقليل انبعاث الغازات من المصانع وعوادم السيارات.

9- المحافظة على الأراضي المزروعة من التدهور بسبب الأبنية السكنية.

10- استخدام طرق غير ضارة بالبيئة لمكافحة الآفات، مثل النظافة العامة والتخطيط المعماري للمساكن بما يقلل من دخول الآفات وتربية النباتات المقاومة للحشرات والأمراض، مع اختيار المواعيد المثلى لزراعة النباتات ومقاومة الحشائش.

11- توعية الأفراد بالمفاهيم البيئية الخاصة بالتربة وطرق المحافظة عليها.

12- تنمية المهارات في متابعة القضايا البيئية والتنبؤ بما قد يحدث من مشكلات.

13- تشجيع إجراء البحوث المتعلقة بمختلف النواحي البيئية.

14- تشجيع استثمار رجال الأعمال في مشروعات تحسين البيئة والعمل على تذليل كافة الصعوبات أمامهم.

15- العمل على القضاء على ظاهرة المقالب المفتوحة (Garbage) Because of its adverse effects both on human or animal health.

16- إنشاء هيئات متخصصة للتعامل مع القمامة من الجمع والنقل أو التخلص.

17- حث الناس على الإقلاع عن التدخين لما له من آثار ضارة على الصحة والبيئة.

18- تنمية الوعي البيئي في مناهج التعليم.

19- تجريم كافة الأفعال والتصرفات التي تحمل أية أضرار بالبيئة أو إساءة إليها عن طريق إصدار التشريعات اللازمة لذلك.

20- الإكثار من الصناعات (Environment-friendly) And support in all possible ways.

21- البث المنظم لمخاطر البيئة في وسائل الإعلام.

22- التخطيط السليم لإنشاء المصانع في أماكن بعيدة عن المدن المزدحمة أو التجمعات السكانية.

23- خفض معدلات إلقاء الفضلات والمخلفات في الصحارى حتَّى لا تلوث الجوّ في حالة الرياح.

24- ينبغي التنبيه والاحتياط للتقليل من تأثيرات الكوارث الطبيعية على الإنسان والبيئة كالفيضانات والسيول وغيرها.

25- تنمية الوعي بخطورة المسكرات والمخدرات في وسائل الإعلام، وفي كل وسائل التوعية الدينية.

تنمية الوعي بضرورة حماية الحيوانات والرفق بها في كلّ وسائل الاتِّصال.


[1]) Fads: 56.

[2]) Al-Isra: 70.

[3]) Sura: 30.

[4]) Hud: 61.

[5]) Al-believers: 71.

[6]) Al Stone: 19.

[7]) Surat Roman: 41.

[8]) Surat Spider: 58.

[9]) Al-Anbiya: 33.

[10]) AL BC: 38.

[11]) العلامة الألوسي، روح المعاني في تفسير القرآن الكريم والسبع المثاني، 26/129.

[12]) Al cattle: 38.

[13]) صفوة التفاسير، محمد على الصابوني، ص389.

[14]) سيد قطب، في ظلال القرآن الكريم، 1/ 56.

[15]) Al Stone: 22.

[16]) Fads: 57.

[17]) Sura iron: 25.

[18]) AL Almariaat: 49.

[19]) Sura: 22.

[20]) سورة النازعات: 23-33.

[21]) Surat Abs: 24-32.

[22]) Sura Luqman: 10.

[23]) Thunder: 8.

[24]) Sura Moon: 49.

[25]) AL BC: 6-11.

[26]) Fads: 85.

[27]) Sura: 205.

[28]) سنن البيهقي، 6/139.

[29]) Bukhari, 3/135, Musnad Ahmad, 3/143.

[30]) Bukhari, 3/147, C 8, p 11.

[31]) Universal Declaration on Environment.

[32]) Protection of the environment from pollution in Islamic law, Dr.. Raafat Abdel Fattah sweetness.

[33]) Surat Ibrahim: 7.

[34]) Surat ants: 12.

[35]) Sahih Muslim, 1/63 Number 58/35.

[36]) Hamdi al-Saadawi: التلوث البيئي والإعجاز العلمي في القرآن الكريم، مجلة الوعي الإسلامي.

[37]) Sura Moon: 49.

[38]) صحيح البخاري ج2 ص155.

[39]) D. أحمد فؤاد باشا: البيئة ومشكلاتها من منظور إسلامي، مجلة الأزهر، الجزء السابع، نوفمبر/ديسمبر 1996، ص9-10.

[40]) Ibid, p 102.

[41]) سنن الترمذي، رقم 1860

[42]) سنن ابن ماجه ، 1/119 Number 328 من حديث مطول.

[43]) Sura: 11.

[44]) Sura Moon: 28.

[45]) جاء في مختار الصحاح للشيخ محمد بن أبى بكر عبد القادر الرازي ص535 أن (القسم) بالفتح مصدر (قسم) الشيء (فانقسم). وقاسمه المال (وتقاسماه) And(اقتسماه) بينهم والاسم (القسمة) It is feminine.

[46]) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan attribution true.

[47]) Al-Hajj: 18.

[48]) Sura: 190.

[49]) Yunus: 101.

[50]) Surat decoration: 9.

[51]) Surat Spider: 61.

[52]) Al-Hajj: 46.

[53]) Fatir: 27-28.

[54]) Sura: 14.

[55]) Hussein Hamed Hassan: Legal judgment when fundamentalists.

[56]) Erysipelas: Birdie bird. And the meaning of carpeted: Flapping their wings.

[57]) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Book (Jihad), No. (2675) In the book (Literature) Number (5268).

[58]) Bukhari Book (Musaqah), No. (2234). Muslim Book of Peace, No. (2244).

[59]) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi in his interpretation of the Koran, no (3114) And Ahmad in al-Musnad, as well as a number of (25656).

[60]) Bukhari and Muslim.

[61]) Bukhari single in the literature, Tabaraani and well-Albanians in the right of the Whole (6261).

[62]) رواه البخاري في المساقاة برقم (2196)، وفي الشهادات برقم (2476) وفي الأحكام برقم (6672)، وفي التوحيد برقم (6892)، ومسلم في الإيمان برقم (157)، والنسائي في البيوع برقم (4386)، وأبو داود في البيوع برقم (3014)، وابن ماجه في التجارات برقم (2198) وفي الجهاد برقم (2761)، وأحمد في المسند برقم (7131), And(9836).

[63]) رواه أحمد في باقي مسند المكثرين.

[64]) رواه أحمد 5/82، وأبو داود (29) والنسائي 1/33.

[65]) Thunder: 11.

[66]) صحيح البخاري، ج1، ص42.

[67]) صحيح البخاري ج4 ص153.

[68]) صحيح مسلم بشرح النووي، ج3، ص127.

[69]) A. D. Abdel-Fattah el-Sheikh, interest in Islam and water hygiene, Journal of the Faculty of Sharia and Law, second edition, 1986, p 13.

[70]) Ibid, p 16.

  • ·) Mixing: Meeting people.

[71]) Sahih Bukhari, vol 1, p 157.

[72]) True Muslim nuclear explain, vol 6, p 132.

[73]) Abdul Rahim Bin Al Hussein of Iraq, put Tathreeb in explanation of rounding, the Arab Thought House, c 2, p 73.

[74]) True Muslim nuclear explain, c 3, p 147.

[75]) Abu Abdullah bin Qudamah, singer, pp. 87-88.

[76]) True Muslim nuclear explain, vol 5, p 50.

[77]) Surah: 4.

[78]) ابن قيم الجوزية، الطب النبوي.

[79]) الحافظ ابن الأشعث السجستاني الأزدي، سنن أبي داود، ج3، ص 329.

[80]) الحافظ بن عبد الله القزويني، سنن ابن ماجه، ج1، ص 129.

[81]) ) Sura: 7.

*) Look: موقف المسلم من الفتنة في ضوء الكتاب والسنة، د. Mohamed Sayed Tantawi, Sheikh of Al-Azhar.

[82]) Tawba: 47-48.

[83]) Al Noor: 63.

[84]) Surah: 70-71.

[85]) Al-Isra: 36.

[86]) Al King: 3.

[87]) Fads: 56.

[88]) Fads: 56.

[89]) Sura: 205.

[90]) Shawkaani, Neil Awtaar, c 9, pp. 151-154, as directed by Haythami in Zawaa'id, c 5, p 316.

[91]) Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in Sunan Kubra, 9/9, No. 17929.

[92]) True Muslim nuclear explain, c 1, p 215.

[93]) ابن الأشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، ج4، ص 361.

[94]) مسند أحمد ، 3/191.

[95]) مسند الإمام أحمد ، 3/147، صحيح البخاري ، 3/135.

[96]) Sahih Muslim, 1/69 Number 78/49.

[97]) Surat Roman: 41.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان “ الفقه الحضاري، فقه العمران”

Held during the period: (18-21) April 1431 / (3-6) April 2010:

Oman- The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

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