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Ibn Khaldun and Human Development

Ibn Khaldun and Human Development

From the perspective of jurisprudence policy

Preparation: D. امحمَّد مالكي

(Director of the Center for Constitutional Studies and Political Rights, Faculty of Law, University Cadi Ayyad Marrakech, Morocco)

Introduction:

No chance of ever ” Ibn Khaldun”([1]), Or Haylh, or came after him, and bountiful as he received “His submitted”([2]) Search, and excavation and analysis, both by his own people from the Arabs and Muslims, or of Europeans and Westerners([3]). With the exception of addresses is limited sought to highlight Mazan weakness in board, unanimously gel writings, east and west, the brilliantly this Faqih al-Maliki, and Raadath scientific ways areas of knowledge did not Ikthmha predecessors scholars, historians and philosophers, but the certificates of many masters of Western thought modern exempt researcher ([4]).

The study is not intended to consider the overall board ” Ibn Khaldun” And what serious pen, but the purpose of detailed persist in the joints of the idea, any ” Omran” And its associated ramifications him of issues and problems. While ample literature and many in this particular area([5]), The pursuit purports to highlight the contribution of ” الخلدونية” In rooting this concept, تقعيد the created by science Borhani, has four corners agreed Almnatqh the ancients, any: Subject, subjective symptoms, issues, principles and introductions([6]). Then the search, in the views of this science, it is envisaged to focus on the aspects that are relevant to the knowledge not seen ” Ibn Khaldun”, But contributed in dealing with a range of concepts, it comes”Political Science”Perhaps, text ” Submitted” Convinces the reader enough owner contribution to the enrichment and development of ” Population” From the perspective of jurisprudence policy.

This is how, lead study estimated the importance of contributing to this scientific forum featured approach that received treatment aspects related to the methodology and cognitive jurisprudence Politics and Achkalath, since it is known that ” Ibn Khaldun” Devotes chapters authentic and deeply about “States and conditions, development, and acquisitions and overcome types King and how it applies decay”([7]), Which is an advantage over his predecessors who produced political texts from the state, such as Plato and Aristotle and the Persians, and most make it unique for them in terms of moving the political writing “The level of duty or supposed to the level of reality in the historical experience”.([8])

Intending to study considered three problematic from the perspective of ” Science Omran”, As the rules of origin Ibn Khaldun. The first problem concerns”The need for political meeting”, A globe of the earth [First], And belong to the second ” The need for policy, any state, regularity Omran ” [Secondly state]The third problem concerned the b”The role of neurotransmitters in moving the effectiveness of Urbanism” [Thirdly].

* * *

First: In the human need for the meeting

عَنونَ ” Ibn Khaldun” The first section of the first book of the introduction b”Population on the introductions sentence”, Initiated by saying: “That the meeting is necessary humanitarian. Elders reflects on this by saying:”Civil rights nature”, Ie, he must of the meeting, which is in Astalaham a civil sense Omran” ([9]), Citing the statement of God's creation[Man] ([10]), And his nature Find Vute by daily, which can not be achieved personal ability, but its need to unite much of his skin brown([11]). Moreover, the togetherness in the collection of sustenance in order to permanence and survival, requires cooperation from for replies damage, any ” Use” And” Advocacy”, Ibn Khaldun words”([12]), But it while conscientious happens, and is safe for people to use and advocacy, gets perdition ” And invalidate the type of human beings”, And vice versa:”If you happened to him Cooperation [Man] Sustenance of food and arms of a defender, and has the wisdom of God in the survival and conservation of its kind. So let this meeting is necessary for human kind, but did not complete their presence and God intended اعتمار to the world their and Astkhalaffhm him, and this is the meaning of urbanization, which made him the subject of this science”([13]). Therefore, proves Omran, straighten, and checks the destination of succession it, while strengthened the use among the people and make sure defending them.. Omran, however, in terms of is intuitively human meeting of necessity, needs to “Scruples” CMO, Welded social fabric, and strengthens شوكته, he “King” Ibn Khaldun words.

The frequency of the use of the term “King” In more than a shrine in the foreground, but it's more procedural concepts in understanding Ibn Khaldun treatments for human Imran angle jurisprudence policy. In the context of the emphasis on crisis “King of Imran”, Says Ibn Khaldun:”Moreover, this meeting if there is to humans as قررناه was Imran world of their own, must be scruples paid from each other, because in the temperament of aggression and oppression and not a machine gun that made driving aggression animals Persians them enough to pay aggression against them because they exist for all. There must be something else pays aggression from each other… So that is one of them morals have them prevail and the Sultan and Cairo hand, so no one reaches the other aggression, and this is the meaning of the King ..”([14]). The “King” In الخلدوني Metn “Property of a normal human being must have them”, As it is for the animal, but the King is to the latter under the instinct, while checks for Bode”The idea and politics”([15]). The king permission ” Is a natural end and does not get by choice but by nature gets”.

Allows read the relevant sections b”Meeting human”, Conclusion was that the approach presented the idea ” Omran” Institution ” Use ” And” Advocacy”, And Almeddh by”Scruples”, Any king, do not find the record in the field idiosyncratic theologian, nor in the ideological preoccupation([16]), But derives its spirit of nature and society, but its interactions. People in need of each other and those years of God's creation, hence generating use, and stems defender, but people need to from Isoshm, which manages their affairs strongly persuasion and coercion, and thus have scruples, no king, crisis inevitable about them, to complete construction, . The” King” Here is nothing other than “Authority”, Ie, the ability to post grievances that plague among the people, and create the necessary balance to continued معمور of the land. But if the power which stems from the nature of human beings and falls within the supplies Omran ضروراته, they require credentials to justify the need for its existence, identified by the Ibn Khaldun ” Muslim human nature”([17]) On the one hand, and social purpose [Balance] On the other hand. In fact, the owner provided when the new foundations of knowledge [Population] These concepts are not lulled into the field idiosyncratic theologian Viatmayor the source of his thinking, as did predecessors, but based on the preview, Phoning, and experience, the form of which promised the methodology and the knowledge to read the history of the Arabs and Muslims over seven centuries [S 7/14 m], Ayesh personally chapters delicate and sensitive it. It is well known that the mobile Ibn Khaldun lived among the tribes of the Maghreb 1365 Until 1372, In the Castle of Ibn Salama, where he found refuge at “Corporal boys” انزوى into isolation for three and a half years [March 1375 October 1378], Was the author mayor “Submitted” The fruit of deep thinking, combine mastery idiosyncratic and historical understanding, and practical experience in matters of politics and power and dominion([18]).

If we left the details of the sources of Ibn Khaldun in rooting the concept of the King [Authority] In the body of the introduction, and we sought to examine supplies achieve in the form of power and make it a pacemaker for the balance required for the sustainability of construction, we find Faqih link between the restraint and the imperatives of social complement to him, and enhanced effectiveness in refractory people and the achievement of use and advocacy have, it comes specifically to the concept of “Prestige”, Who knew him “San Arabs” That “Site and soil dating back to someone in the vicinity of the Sultan”. In spite of the limited trading floor [Prestige] In the literature of contemporary of Ibn Khaldun, and twice used by modern and contemporary historians, many sections of the introduction adopted “Prestige as a procedural concept, and made the relationship between him and King Tlazmih, and can not be inextricably. The king is achieved for dignitaries folk without others of people, that is “Social condition for the exercise of coercion, which is the need to live in the community”.([19]) This is how, eating Ibn Khaldun ” Prestige” In the context of his analysis of the physical life of the community, earning any livelihood, and considered it a means of pension, and pointed out that multi-functional, and defined as follows: “Prestige is the load-bearing capacity of human beings to act in those who under the hands of the sons sex authorization and prevention and oppression and domination prevail, to hold them to pay Mdharhm and bring their benefits to the provisions of the laws in justice and politics and for the purposes only”([20]). Ibn Khaldun, however, distinguishes, in the place of another, between the wealth and مراتبه levels, he says,: “The prestige Mtozaa in people and consequential them layer by layer: Ends on high, to the kings who is not above them hands high, and marasmus to who does not have to harm or benefit between the sons of sex, and between multiple layers”.

يبدو الْمُلك إذن، كما أسلفنا القول، ضرورةً للاجتماع البشري، بل إن كلّ تجمع بشري يخلق بالطبيعة السلطة اللاّزمة له. Then the king, or the authority trendy words St., strengthened Paljah, any such capacity for attracting compulsion to obey and acceptance. It is worth noting that the concept of “Prestige” Differs from “Honor” In الخلدوني Metn. Vacharf on my own, but it is a truth to the people of nerve([21])Or, as outlined in the foreground “Honor and blue-chip but Balkhalal, meaning that the House is a man in his fathers supervision are mentioned, have Poladthm him Tglh in the people of his race, the revered in them Tglh the predecessor and honor Bouklalhm ..”. ([22]) Then the king of recipes and supplements, perhaps the most important honor and glory and what distinguishes the landlord of the most beautiful moral and political qualities, which Ibn Khaldun looked great recipe saying: “If the king was very nervous, he is very subsidiaries and their accessories, namely Khallaal; because his presence without متمماته as the existence of someone lump Members, or appearing naked among the people”([23]). Ibn Khaldun adds a third recipe “Luxury”, As King linked inherently lavish, and”Contrary result with the nomadic life that only necessarily”, And the case that Ibn Khaldun This WISP فيصلا supports to distinguish between “Nomadism”And civilization”, Has elaborated provided in a statement that in more than one place of([24]). In Chapter XVIII of Part II of”Omran al-Badawi and brutal Nations and tribes”, Go provided that “King obstacles for such luxury and indulge in bliss”, Fterdja reason to the fact that ” Such if GLBT Baspetha some Outsmarting captured grace Bmekdarh, and the people of the blessings and participated fertile in نعمتهم and _khasbhm, and beat them in that RISE share by Gelbha the memorization of State. If the state of the power so that no one tempted to grab her and their participation in it, acquiesced in such jurisdiction, and Alguenua including Asugon of نعمتها and associate it levied…”([25]).

* * *

Secondly: The need for the State to regularize Omran

Constitute state in Metn الخلدوني the incubator construction and stable, they are central to a meeting of the human, and is organized in scope destination succession of land and architecture. According to the state to such a degree of importance, the Ibn Khaldun summed up many chapters in the text submitted ([26]). On the one hand, criticized the owner ancient historians who contented themselves down news states without questioning its origins: How do arise and flourish, and become pyramid, asthenia, and extinction?([27]). On the other hand, it was considered state-denominated Imran, and a portfolio of its existence, they “The greatest market, or all markets”, But she and the Sultan ” The world market, to bring science and goods Trades, and requesting that all governance… The tunnel where the tunnel when omnes”([28]). Therefore, associated boom Omran, and her, إثماره development objectives desired [Succession and architecture of the Earth], The existence of the state, and durability, and confirmation of the Ibn Khaldun says: “And civilization in the regions of the state, and it establishes for the state and the connection رسوخها”([29]). However, the State when the owner offered unimaginable idea and presence without neurological. Therefore considered ” Spatial and temporal extension of the rule of neurological”([30]).

1 In terms of spatial extension, widening the scope of the State or narrowing according to the power of عصبيتها P”State actors truth in Omran material but is nervous and fork”, Which means that the state, which gives the ability to stay and permanence and breadth is a nerve, with its fusion of the word, and many in number, and the power of the gag. The nerve in this context to roam the standard for judging the “The influence of the state and the breadth رقعتها”. In fact, it's not about nervously state, but also for also عصبيات areas governed by. Therefore, the equation of state in the Metn الخلدوني linked organic Tlazmi Baspetha, ie, that the degree of the State act in Omran depends strongly عصبيتها, and poor neurological counterpart countries intending to Asttballa and subject, and vice versa down the state, and become debilitated and decay, then disappearing while diluted شوكتها, [Double the number and docking, the prevalence of convenience and luxury, injustice and corruption]([31]).

It is important to note that Ibn Khaldun acknowledges that for”Each state's share of kingdoms and nations”, Due in appreciation due to the inability of the State and its inability to continue the natural invasion and expansion to no end.. As each order book. Therefore, we see says: “The reason for this is that the ring state and her people, those who facilitated for them to be deployed on stakes and stomata kingdoms that shall be to them, and seize them to protect them from the enemy, and spend the provisions of the state of the collection, deter and otherwise. If Asaib were distributed to all the kingdoms on the stomata and must be access number, then have reached the kingdoms to the extent be Tgra the state boundary to the homeland and scope of the Centre for king. The cost of the state after an increase on what her hand remained without a protector and was subject to seize the opportunity of the enemy next door, and come back and pal on the state, including where Daring and breach the fence Charisma ..” ([32]).

This is how, we must not go our understanding of the above to believe that Ibn Khaldun's talk about premium States from the regions and nations, is talking about ” Border” Geographical and political as we understand it today, any selections that draw the structure of the state and geographical رقعتها recognized legally.. فشتان between what is headed for the words “Kingdoms and nations”, And reinforce our border since the concept of the Arab-Islamic to our circle, exclusively since the sixteenth century. فبلاد Morocco, for example, which is devoted Ibn Khaldun installments fraction of his writings about its states and tribes did not know the phenomenon of the border, but with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into their territory, before the works of French colonialism in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to confirm the existence legally and politically. In fact, the Ibn Khaldun not connecting wide geographical area, any place is a key element calculation to form the state, nervous, but also calls attention to the type of nerve gas state on the one hand, any size of its power, and the reality of home or neurological homelands to be subject to the dominant state. The more nervous the first [Invasive] Strong gags and meat, and neurological second [المستتبعة] Weak and limited, check subjugation, and completed the terms of his success, and vice versa. For more information refer to the convergence provided few details pampered on the difference between the underlying nerve typically referred to in this place. This is how, if the people of the state of the nervous “Arabs and type in معناهم” King was wider than the king of neurological Bedouins living in the hills and plains, despite what may be enjoyed by those from the large number ..”([33])The reason for that goes back in the eyes of Ibn Khaldun to be nomads “Better able to overcome tyranny ..”, And because of the roughness of living and hardship their conditions “Better able than others to withstand the rigors of the invasion poof stages ..”, In addition to that “Not them homeland attend it, no country tend to him, ratio of diameters and citizen them both, hence not confined on Queen قطرهم what Georhm of the country, nor stand at within أفقهم, but Azvron to remote regions and overcome the remote Nations ..”([34]), Ibn Khaldun, however, not only binds to the expansion of the state frequently associate, but added to it given the conservative thorn docking, and the generator of prestige, the more docking was achieved strong state power. Therefore, the nerve is necessary for the birth of the state incubator construction, and protector of continuity and permanence.. It is noteworthy to emphasize that not nervous influence on the horizontal extension of the state, but also controls the temporal evolution, so we see the owner provided says: “The aging state has also natural for people”, Any pass بأطوار, also live stages in human life, which ranges from childhood to youth and adulthood and aging, any pyramid.

2 Been the case “Phases of the state” Or ages of the flood of interpretations in متون writings dealt with by the system of intellectual الخلدونية. It is seeking to understand the words of Ibn Khaldun: “The state has a natural such as people ages”, On the basis that there is a cycle Cycle, start by birth and upbringing, and ending with aging and the pyramid and extinction, has been used in this context, the adoption of the concept of ” Historic session Cycle historique”, To follow the succession of phases of the state in time, and explain the merits of moving and include them. There are, however, in contrast, ruled out of this understanding, the issue of boat “Phases of the state” From a different angle of knowledge, as is the case “Mohammed Abed al-Jabri”, In his thesis on “Nerve and the state at the thought of Ibn Khaldun”.([35]), Which ruled out the theory “Historic session”, Stresses that “It relates only to b”Neurological cycle”, Ie the transfer of power and authority from one nerve to another similar nerve within one general”([36]), And the case that many passages of his thesis analyzes included to demonstrate the deep “Neural session”, Not “Historic session” He also went to so many of the writings([37]). Therefore, we see Jabri emphasizes the need to develop “Phases of the state” In the historical framework that embraced science Ibn Khaldun put it, any window “Presidential transition and the King of nervous to other similar within the nervous gathered and wide”([38]), To add “The realistic and historical content of the theory of Ibn Khaldun valuable phases of the state, is an Islamic state in the sequencing and Tzahmha and partisanship difference institution have since the beginning of Islamic history to the era of Ibn Khaldun”([39]).

This is how, if we sense that defended “Jabri” On historical Rjaanh and science, and we go back to the Metn الخلدوني, the “Submitted ” Tsafna stand on many of the texts that this approach tends to explain the phases of the state, and sequencing in time. What can be inferred from the متون provided, that the owner “Science Omran” Distinguishes between two levels of development of the state. The first is the development of the state as “People” Owns, and the second for the state بحسبها “Neurological control”. The five phases of state when people Malka, They are undergoing “Nail Balbgah and defeated guns, Almmana and grab King”, And then “Be the owner of the state in this phase like his people to gain fame and money collection and defending the estate and protection…”([40]). Transmitted in a second phase states to “Upgrade tyranny”, Ie, the tyranny of the ruling “On his people, and unilaterally without them King, and reined insulting to contribute to and participate. And be the owner of the state in this stage concerned synthesize the men, and take pro Sanai, Begrudging that to mutilation the noses of the people temper and his clan Almqasameen him in the lineage, الضاربين its share in the King such ..”([41]). Ibn Khaldun characterizes the third phase of the age of the state by”Vacuum and complacency developed to collect the fruits of the King, which tempers humans tend to him to collect the money and perpetuate the after effects of renown, Fastafrg [Hurt] And power in the collection and adjust the income and expenditure statistics abscess and its intent, bus and construction of buildings, factories widening and elevated structures…”([42]), A qualified owner Omran fourth stage of the age of the state by”Core Alguenua and peaceful. And be the owner of the state in this content with including structures Ol, peaceful sights of kings and Oqtale [His enemies], An emulator for ماضين of his predecessor, follows the monuments example soles Balnal the… He believes that in the tradition checkout his corruption and they saw what they built with his glory”([43]). He concludes the fifth stage of life by saying by the State “Upgrade extravagance and waste. And be the owner of the state in this phase Mtlva what Ol collection in order desires and sanctuary and generosity on his entourage in boards, and synthesis Okhman [Singular Khzn, which Intimates] Bad and green Waldman [Any beautiful in appearance debased in origin] The tradition ossicles things that are not riding in her pregnancy, and do not know what come and Ivron, [Leaving] Them, Mstvsda to senior saints of his people and his predecessor صنائع, even Adtgnoa the [Ihnqgua] Accordingly, and Atkhazloa for victory… In this phase gets in the state the nature of the pyramid, and seized a chronic disease that hardly get rid of him, and have him acquitted [Healing], To be extinct…”([44]).

Ibn Khaldun lives a kind of parallelism between the phases State, بحسبها person Malka, and between generations “Blue-chip”, As required to complement her nervous. P”King also very normal neurological”He, too, “Very Per glory, and the end of each according to”. As explained by Faihddh saying: “…But this was the extinction of blue-chip in the fourth generation, as passed in the glory and blue-chip but is in four generations. The Otinak the ببرهان naturally enough on what Mahdnah before the introductions…”([45]), To add “These three generations old one hundred and twenty years on what passed. Not merely states mostly in this age closer before or after it, but the width of another bidder loss of demands, so pyramid holder Mstolea and student did not Akhaddrha the… This Age of the state as a person's age from Altazad to the age of the stand, and then to refer age, but this is being done on the tongues of the famous people in that age Location hundred years ..”. ([46])

We conclude from the foregoing statement link Omar state, any extension in place and permanence in time, nervous or partisanship, which benefit dependence “Omran” Building land this force that took in Metn الخلدوني name “Neural” And enter into their meaning. The evolution of the state permission based, positively or negatively, on the neurological and blue-chip. However, the ” Blue-chip”, An expression of the calculation Khallaal [Qualities] Offices and its embodiment, stays glued nervous, that effect extends to “Assemble the whole nervous system, any neurological those public university by the claim and the revolution”([47]). In fact, the ” Neural”, As a collective force and based on the common interest, the “Blue-chip”While get which Balafona and corruption, weakens the nervousness, and infects شوكتها weakened and sag.. It is in all cases the beginning of the decline in the state indicators and entry process of extinction, any extinction Omran, Ibn Khaldun words. This is how, this conclusion leads us to wonder about the concept of “Neural”, And the centrality of its role in moving the effectiveness of construction, any land Building, Ibn Khaldun's words?.

* * *

Thirdly: The role of neurotransmitters in moving the effectiveness of Urbanism

No different researchers that “Neural” Basis Metn الخلدوني and vested in, and they detailed revolved around him look his introduction to the history, the source of his interpretation of what happened in the Arab and Muslim countries, since the seventh century and until the fourth century it. Therefore, there were many interpretations aimed at understanding the Ibn Khaldun see this driving force of the state and Urbanism, any nervousness, and associated([48]). It signals raised by Ibn Khaldun, and should be monitored and studied to determine the central role in activating the neural architecture, you can select the following matrix([49]):

Neural elements

Neurological movement

Very nerve

King signs

Relations with partisanship

King natures

Neural

Woof

Ratios

Gadfly

Nasra

Loyalty

NATO

Synthesis

Nasra

Sport

السؤدد

Roughness

Valor

Fork

Claim

Protection

Advocacy

King

Tyranny

Call

Religious

Destination

Foresight

Scruples

Policies

Government oppression

Renewed state

During good

Taking into account the

Interests

Meet

Contracts

People landing

Homes

Justice

And equity

Succession

King types

Policies

Institutions

Decals

Rote

Synthesis

Alasttba

During good

Cities and the regions

Monopolize the glory

Luxury and complacency

Once Omran

Phases of the state

Mercenaries

Levies

Science

Industries

Education

Cultures

Luxury

Stillness and complacency

التأنق

Humiliating

Tractable

Amoarm

Injustice

Cunning and deception

Corruption

Lost hope

Foote work

Omran ruin

Allow to read the above matrix, to extract a set of elements that emphasize articulated ” Neural” In intellectual الخلدوني construction, not from the angle ” Meeting human” And the need to continue only that, but in terms of restoration “Location”And sustainability framework for co-existence. Valasbah generate a deterrent to configure “Community”, Coherent and solidarity, and the group calls, in turn,”Location”, Sponsored, and maintain a strong and victorious. Indeed, according the matrix above, involves the concept of “Neural” On a network of moral and formative elements, also includes goals, relationships and drives the logic Population in the direction of the construction and construction, or vice versa, some demolition, corruption, decay, and then extinction. The fact they are elements of the University of [Interest to individuals and groups], And integrated in terms of social and economic functions, cultural and religious. , And انطوائها to a basket of standards [Khallaal], If completed in a human group achieved Architecture earth, though absent spoiled construction, cracked the state and hit the pyramid and extinction ([50]).

Perhaps striking at the Ibn Khaldoun modified his theory in the science of urbanization on the concept of nervousness, focus on elements that strengthen the state [Omran], And kept her development and sustainability, or that, otherwise, constitute source and Henha, and retreat, and then mess it up and decay. This is how, not neurons, as important, is sufficient in itself to state-building and the achievement of construction, but you need to complement signals, ie, the so-called in Metn-Khallaal الخلدوني, any qualities and attributes, which may be benign, dirty or bad. Therefore, we see stresses, in more than one place of, the need for completeness “Neural”, بحسبها and natural presence, through “During good”, Such as “Morals and take down the people in their place, justice and fairness.. In the estimate provided to each owner” Folk and neurological category no matter how موغلة the savagery and primitive isolation entrance to participate in the humanitarian Omran, either through natural existential merits or what was done through good or more importantly from the secretariat of the religious call”([51]). In fact, Ibn Khaldun, from this particular angle, does not distinguish between nomads [Sport] Attended [King]However, the door of the power not only nerve. Valasabiyat weak and vulnerable remain within the Bedouin its development, while envisages strong partisanship [Urban] King and the glory and the States General.. Perhaps so, prompting researchers such as Mohammed Abed al-Jabri to say that Ibn Khaldun “Looked at the Urban Nomad not that the opposite of urbanization, but that out of him, the issue for him included in the ladder of civilization and civil rights, there is the issue of conflict between the two types of life”([52]).

Ibn Khaldun smartness lies in its monitoring of the factors leading to nerve weakness, and their negative impact on urbanization and the decline of contraction State representing Hadhanth of basic. Mismatch of natural factors, relevant to compete on social connotations, such as wealth and fame and prestige and status, and the resultant necessarily from ميولات to the luxury and convenience and stillness, some of which has to do with the state itself, as it seeks owner [Governor] To install the pillars, and reinforced, openness to other non fanaticism temper, استمالتها to be Edda him, and pursuant to fork anger. Obviously, when you read Metn الخلدوني, that this happens with a background in “Urbanization”, Can not be achieved in his Bedouin. Therefore, the first [Urbanization] Need to hire human stability requirements of the meeting, and regularity, and its lifetime, or we can call it the language of contemporary politics and policy instruments functioning mechanisms of control and regularity, conquer and obliging.. She mechanisms of persuasion and subjugation, which entrusted the modern nation-state. However, the reading of the system's viewfinder cognitive الخلدونية, show that the natural nervousness بحسبها engine for the state and a producer of Imran be “Strength دافقة and driving” Imran, wasteful and not him. They create, through benevolent Khallaal that supplemented, governing the behavior of its owner [The ruler or rulers] Acceptance collectively, the so-called day “Joint will to live, which is welded nervousness the predominant Balasabiyat General affiliate, is what he called the owner provided “The mood in the formed”. Therefore, says Ibn Khaldun:”And that the king but it is a nervous, nervousness monolithic of many عصبيات be one of them stronger than other all Vtgelbha and seized by… Thus, the meeting and Outsmarting the people and nations. The secret that the general nervousness ahead is like a mood for Formation…, Has been shown in its position that the elements If unequal met there is which originally mood, but must be one of which is dominant over all even is Talvha and collected and Tserha nervous one comprehensive all Asaib .. the”([53]).

Understand the permission of the section above that parity between partisanship is contained in the perception الخلدوني, as it is defended in the direction of activation Omran, any strengthening of the meeting of the human, and the strengthening of its production, but to be a nervous dominant decay partisanship least of them the power, and manages affairs of their owners… However, the owner provided was a conscious awareness of the seriousness of ” Prevail” And”Overcome”On sustainability Omran any on the continuation of the same State. When fade Khallaal the benevolent, and replace them through the bad, spoil construction, crumbling pillars of the state, and authorizes God extinction. Therefore, to understand the logic of Ibn Khaldun vision for the role in the activation of neural architecture, that there is a delicate balance between “Prevail”, Any neurological overcome public, and the continued acceptance by the other partisanship, any subject states, and to maintain this balance is to ensure the sustainability of standard neurological effective in human architecture, which means that “Standard separation between politics towards urbanization or orientation towards a waste, subject to the establishment and note and follow up on that delicate and fragile balance between variable fact diversity of wills constituent community [Omran material] On the one hand, and between finding the basis of the social base underpinning the state [Omran image] In a manner beyond which the conflict around, and then turn to the legitimate authority to find the basis of the achievement of the common good of the community on what degree of homogeneity ..”([54]). And the concept of the offense, the loss this balance or Tadhirh of the productive source of ruin, any reason in the calcification of construction and contracting, and when the state and extinction. This is how, helps Maten الخلدوني the extraction criteria to judge the role of the nerve in the effectiveness of Urbanism: The first criterion relates to the existence of “Benevolent Khallaal” Driving toward Omran, through ” Ensure that the values ​​of justice in Omran [Succession right and to ensure the right and interests, both physical and moral]. While the second criterion relates to the prevention of corruption in the earth through the concept of the stampede and advocacy, high power struggle for the lead role in the urbanization”([55]), Which was clear from the matrix below([56]).

Relationship standards

The first phase

Last phase

Moral values ​​of justice

Take down people's homes

Prestige and influence

(Prestige / descending)

Take down people's homes

Mercenaries

Physical values ​​of justice

(Injustice / Justice)

Refraining from people's money

Distributive justice

Levies

Crowding out of people's livelihood

Occupation source of livelihood

Scramble relations

(Peaceful صراعية)

Post conscious of the benefits of sound and power

Tyranny and arbitrariness and oppression of the people

Rote and nervous synth

Omran indicators

(Hope / work / Urbanism)

Jeddah Hope

Seek and gain

Urban expansion

Go hopes

Failure to pursue

Omran ruin / chaos

The matrix above clearly demonstrates the importance of ” Balance” And its role in maintaining the continuity of the State Building land, which was intended to balance the reference to the nature of the relationship between the Sultan and the parish, or more modern relationship between the political community and civil counterpart, which highlights the cognitive value of board الخلدوني in approach “Population” From the perspective of jurisprudence policy. Can we today, and we are after more than six centuries on the death of the owner provided, recognizing برجاحة his mind to look at the policy as it was practiced among the Arabs and Muslims, at least during the era that shaped the field of his history [S .7 BC 14 AD], In particular, he criticized the methodologies of his predecessors to pay attention to the political world, but in terms of advice and support, as is the case الطرطوشي, the owner of “Siraj Kings”؟

We use in answering this question is important as it went of Moroccan “Abdullah Laroui”, In more than one place of([57]). He pointed out that “Ibn Khaldun look not only display the rational of the three attempts Empire, not an explanation of the previous history of the eleventh century”.. Valqsour theoretical adds Laroui to the put الخلدوني in the interpretation of this era in the history of the Arab Maghreb [The mid-14th century AD] Outstanding بالانفصام clear of political power of the civil society is due to the fact that Ibn Khaldun was unaware of the history of other peoples to the Mediterranean countries, while you can not understand the dichotomy only being put in the context of two types of reasons: Internal and external. The former is not the conflict with the Bedouins, and lies in other determinants: Demographic situation, agricultural, trade across the Sahara. The second one, it can be understood by revealing the balance of power in the Mediterranean during the intervening period between the eleventh and fourteenth, one of the: Weakness of the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea [Eznth and the Muslim world], Compared the growing escalation of Western Europe ([58])This is how, and to read it unless it is contained in the writings of Ibn Khaldun inventory Abdallah Laroui determinants schizophrenia political power of the civil society in the two self-directed workers: Crisis of political organization, and the issue of the army. Valmzar first interpreter of the rupture raises essentially the legitimacy of the political system [Authority], So that the scholars of that period did not hesitate to justify the argument bilateral governance: Succession theory [What is contained in Shara]And authority derives legality of the size of its defense, a fact easily preview of the States that came to govern through centuries thirteenth and fourteenth century, they no longer justify itself only on their own, with natural tendencies and social psychology([59]). Besides this group, there are other specific, so that the failure of military organization the State's national Almohad, the impact of developments in the events later, where you can not states subsequent organization of military force defensive ongoing, the thing that led to the appeal to mercenaries and pirates, led by Arabs Alhlallion and other foreigners . So, the failure in the military field and defense, coupled with a political organization embodied in the crisis of legitimacy, to form the essence what code to Ibn Khaldun balance, any modern words “Inextricable political power of civil society”.

* * *

Sources and references

  1. Equitable and people, Limits of the contemporary discourse الخلدوني, Journal of Arab studies, year 24, Issue 11 September 1988.
  2. Equitable and people, Social thought الخلدوني a: Approach, concepts and cognitive crisis, A series of books of the Arab Future 31, the Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, March 2004.
  3. Abu express Marzouki, Meeting theoretical الخلدوني and the contemporary Arab history, Arab Book Publishers, Tripoli, Tunis, 1984.
  4. Ahmed Hamed, Ibn Khaldun impact in social anthropology, anthropological reading Introduction, Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 3, Fall 1987.
  5. Idris Khudair, thinking Social الخلدوني and its relationship to some theories Social, Office of University Publications, Algeria, 1992.
  6. Good saati, Sociology الخلدوني the rules of the curriculumKnowledge House, 2006.
  7. Samia Watchmaker, Ibn Khaldun creative, The Supreme Council for Culture, 2006.
  8. Incandescent exclusive, Studies on the introduction of Ibn Khaldun, Khanji Library, Cairo.
  9. Salah Bassiouni Ruslan, Politics and economics at the Ibn Khaldun, The House of Culture for Publishing and Distribution 1992.

10. Taher erythema, Ibn Khaldun's life and activity, Translation: Isaac Obaid, (Without publishing house).

11. Abdul Salam Shidada, Ibn Khaldun world/Abdul Salam Shidada, translating Khaled Azab.

12. Abdul Majid Sharafi, Social Analysis of the Ibn Khaldun, Translation Ahmed Nabil.

13. Ali أومليل, Ibn Khaldun and Contemporary Arab Thought, Ibn Khaldun sources of knowledge and endoscopy, Arab Culture Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 1981, Tunisia.

14. Ali pink, Ibn Khaldun logic in light of his or her own personality, Tunisian Company for distribution, 1988.

15. Ali Fahmi, Analysis الخلدوني in social sciences between reverence heritage and renovation Attempt: Intellectual vision, Journal of Social, Volume 4, Issue 13, Spring 1987.

16. Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun, Neurological state, Shaping In Islamic history, January 1992.

Group of authors, Ibn Khaldun, the Mediterranean in the fourteenth century, the And fall of empires, the versions of the Library of Alexandria, 2007.


[1]) Many references exposed to his autobiography, see: Abdullah Laroui in: Ibn Khaldun Makiavlli the Saqi, translation Khalil Ahmed Khalil, i 1, 1990.

[2]) There are many editions of the introduction, different investigations. However, we adopt in this study the text by the investigator “Darwish Jawada”, Published by the Modern Library in Sidon, Beirut, Lebanon, CT 1, 1995…

[3]) Note that Westerners were two races to Ibn Khaldun definition translates presented first in the nineteenth century, and Balachtgal the implications from the perspective of contemporary social science.

[4]) Among researchers and many thinkers, we refer to “Emile Durkheim” And” Arnold Toynbee”..

[5]) Decline in the list of references accompanying the study, for example, which accounts for only a limited sample of the literature and abundant and they are many..

[6]) Look: A detailed explanation of these elements in: Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun, the nervousness and the state, The Shaping of the Islamic history, Beirut, Center for Arab Unity Studies, 5th Floor, 1992, pp. 103 et seq.

[7]) Compare: Mohamed substantial and Mohsen Youssef and others, Ibn Khaldun renewed intellectual achievement, [Alexandria: Bibliotheca Alexandrina, i 1, 2008], Pp. 92 and Beyond.

[8]) Ibid, p 93.

[9]) Look: Introduction Ibn Khaldun, achieve: Darwish Jawada, m, o, p 46.

[10]) Ibn Khaldun says in the introduction:” And his statement that God created man and his knees in the image of a healthy life and not only survival food, هجاه to petition Baktrth, including rode it the ability to be collected ..”. Refer to the same source, p 46.

[11]) Ibn Khaldun emphasizes the total amount to get enough sustenance and pension, and inferred Poivre examples from everyday life.. Look: Provided, the same source and source page.

[12]) Using the provided term “Advocacy” In the context of his talk about synergy among animals, and the human need to draw a lesson from them, he says,: “As the natural aggression in the animal to make each and every one of them are specialized Bmdafth member up to normal other ..”.

[13]) Introduction of Ibn Khaldun, m, o, p 47.

[14]) Introduction Ibn Khaldun…M, o, p 47

[15]) The same source and page.

[16]) Compare: Abdul Salam Shaddadi, Ibn Khaldun from another perspective, Mohamed Hilali translation and Bushra الفكيكي, Datopqal for printing and publishing, i 1, 2000, pp. 28-29.

[17]) Where power appear in all groups at all levels of human development.

[18]) Look: Aside from his autobiography, compared with “Makiavlli”, In: Abdullah Laroui, Ibn Khaldun and Makiavlli time, social research, translation Khalil Ahmed Khalil, Saqi, i 1, 1990.

[19]) Abdul Salam Shaddadi, Ibn Khaldun… M, o, p 26.

[20]) Quoting Ibid, p 26.

[21]) Look: Introduction Ibn Khaldun, achieve: Darwish Jawada…M, o, p 127.

[22]) The same source, p 126.

[23]) Quoting Abdul Salam Shaddadi, Ibn Khaldun from another perspective…M, Q, p 31 32.

[24]) See, for example,: Part II of the introduction in the Bedouin Omran and brutal Nations and tribes and displays the status of the chapters and overtures: Introduction Ibn Khaldun…M, o, p 114 et seq.

[25]) Look: Introduction Ibn Khaldun…M, o, p 131.

[26]) Look: Part III of the first book of the submitted [In the States General, King and the Royal succession and mattresses and displays the whole way in which the rules and supplements].

[27]) Compare: Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun, the state of nervousness, Shaping of the Islamic history, [Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 5th Floor, 1992], P 119.

[28]) Quoting: Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun: State and nerve…, P 119.

[29]) Quoting the same reference and page.

[30]) Ibid, p 211.

[31]) See the introduction, especially Part III of the first book, in:Darwish Jawada, Ibn Khaldun Introduction…M, o, p 143 et seq.

[32]) The same source, p 150 151.

[33]) Quoting: D,Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun…M, S, p 213 214

[34]) Look:, Introduction, c 2, achieve: Ali Abdel Wahed Ave, 2nd Floor, Cairo, the Arab Commission statement, c 2, p 447. Quoting Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, Ibn Khaldun's thought .. m, o, p 214.

[35]) From among many editions, see: Edition of the Center for Arab Unity Studies, thought of Ibn Khaldun, nervousness and the state,…PG, 315 P.

[36]) Ibid, p 216.

[37]) So saying” It is wrong to say that Ibn Khaldun believes that social session [Cultural, historical or], Are as defined by state-of-phase. The question for the owner aware of urbanization does not mean the social session as FICO imaginable, for example, but it means a only partisanship rotation own power in the framework of one general neurological.

[38]) Look:, Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun, neurological and State…M, o, p 217.

[39]) Ibid page.

[40]) Look: Introduction Ibn Khaldun, achieve: Darwish Jawada…M, o, p 163.

[41]) The same source, p 164.

[42]) The same source and page.

[43]) The same source and page

[44]) The same source, p 164 165.

[45]) The same source, p 159 160.

[46]) Decrease the source and page.

[47]) Look: Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun, neurological and State…M, S, 220.

[48]) From among many contemporary writings, see: International Forum on “Ibn Khaldun and the sixth centenary of his introduction”Algeria, the National Center for Historical Studies, 1982. Abdelkader Zaghloul, historical problems of political sociology at the Ibn Khaldun, translated by Faisal Abbas, [ Beirut, modernity House, 1981].

[49]) Quoting: Ibn Khaldun renewed intellectual achievement, providing Ismail Serageldin, the Library of Alexandria, 2000, p 110.

[50]) Look: Ibn Khaldun, a renewed intellectual achievement, provide: Ismail Serageldin, the Library of Alexandria, i 1, 2000, p 110

[51]) Quoting Ibid, p 111.

[52]) Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the thought of Ibn Khaldun…M, o, p 120.

[53]) Introduction Ibn Khaldun, achieve: Darwish Jawada… ملحق بسير *الشماخي,Q, p 155.

[54]) Ibn Khaldun: Renewed intellectual achievement… M, o, p 114.

[55]) Ibn Khaldun, a renewed intellectual achievement… M, S, p 116 117.

[56]) Ibid, p 117.

[57]) Look: For example, the concept of mind, our culture in the light of history, and the history of Morocco, Part 1.

[58]) Laroui, Maghreb history, test summary, T1, P 202.

[59]) Ibid

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان “ الفقه الحضاري، فقه العمران”

Held during the period: (18-21) April 1431 / (3-6) April 2010:

Oman- The Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

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