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Imam Jabir bin Zaid and his handling of problems jurisprudential

Imam Jabir bin Zaid and his handling of problems jurisprudential

Jurisprudential model of fatwas early

Preparation: Alhaji Suleiman bin Ibrahim Babziz

(Researcher in Islamic Studies and Heritage Ibadi, Republic of Algeria)

Introduction:

Praise be to Allah, and peace be upon the Prophet Secretary, and the guided followers Wastin Psonth to the Day of Judgment.

وبعد؛ فإن الحياة لا تخلو من حوادث وعقبات تعترض الأمم والشعوب، فتجعل البشر يبحثون عن حلول لإشكالاتهم، ومخارج لِـما يقضّ مضاجعهم ويؤرِّق لياليهم؛ فيلجؤون إلَى العلماء والحكماء يفكُّون ألغازهم ويستبصرون لهم الحلول؛ ومن رحمة الله تعالى علَى هَذِه الأمة أن جعل لها أئمَّةً يهدون إلَى الحقِّ، وأعلاما يستنبطون لهم الأحكام من أدلّة شرعية تجول فيها الأفهام وتصول، وكأن تلك النصوص جُعلت لترويض العقول علَى البحث والاجتهاد، فصارت تحمل في طياتها أكثر من معنى حتى تتماشى مع متغيرات الزمان، وتزدهر مع متطورات الحياة، مستظلة تحت القواعد الشرعية الكبرى، ووفق أصول وضوابط تمنع من التخبّط والانحراف في فهم النصّ أو تحميله ما لم يحتمل؛ فمن ذلك ظهرت المدارس الفقهية تبرز ديناميكية الإسلام في التنوع والتجدد، وقابلية لاستيعاب كلّ جديد، باسطا هيمنته علَى شتى مناحي الحياة، وشاملا لجميع المشاكل والمستجدات، دالا علَى عالميته وصلاحيته لكل زمان ومكان.

وعلى هذا المعنى كانت جهود أعلام الأمة المجتهدين في تفجير ينابيع النصوص الشرعية، واستخراج دررها ومكنوناتها حتى يوجدوا حلولا للمشكلات التي تعترض الأمَّة منذ انقطاع الوحي ووفاة الرسول e، فنشأت مدارس ومذاهب تركت لنا ثروة علمية هائلة، لتبرز لنا المسالك والطرق المتبعة في استنطاق الأدلة، واستنباط الأحكام، ولم يكن ذلك ناشئا من فراغ بل مر عبر أطوار ومراحل حتى بلغت مرحلة النضج والكمال، فكيف كان تطورها؟

First: The evolution of Islamic jurisprudence and schools

The jurisprudence in the era of prophecy called on all understood the texts of the Quran and Sunnah, whether matters of doctrine or legislation and practical arts, where Islam was in Mecca heading to the fight against paganism and repair doctrine, then turn in the city after the migration to the legislation and practical application, and people were ([1]). Then the evolution of the concept to the definition المشتهر the jurisprudence on the tongues of scholars today that: Islamic rulings science gained from the process of detailed evidence.

When contemplating follower of idiosyncratic movement of history finds it has passed through several stages and phases of time until he reached maturity and perfection, which is([2]):

1- Preliminary stage: And include two:

The first: The era of revelation and the message: From the beginning of the revelation to his death PBUH, where Legislation adopted in the present Covenant to the Quran and Sunnah, And was characterized by simplicity and realism in dealing with accidents and provisions, and it was utter “Jurisprudence” Called on all understand the texts of the Quran and Sunnah.

Second: Prince companions and Caliphs: من وفاة الرسول صلعم إلَى منتصف القرن الأوَّل الهجري، وفي هَذِه الفترة بدأت الحوادث تترى علَى الأمة، أولها مشكلة الخلافة ثُمَّ رِدَّة بعض العرب، وخروج مانعي الزكاة، وجمع المصحف وغيرها، مِـمَّا دفع مجتهدي الصحابة إلَى حلها بالتزام معالم الدين الكبرى في حلِّ القضايا، وذلك باللجوء إلَى القرآن لإيجاد الحكم، فإن لم يوجد فبالبحث في السنة، فإن لم يوجد فباستنباطه من خلالهما بالاجتهاد الجماعي فِيما يشبه المجامع الفقهية المصغرة من فقهاء الصحابة وكبارهم، إذ كان الاجتهاد جماعيا في تلك الحوادث السابقة -مثلا-، مسترشدين بالقواعد الكلية للشريعة، مع اختلافهم في التضييق والتوسيع في الرأي والقياس؛ لتجدد الحوادث وكثرتها مع محدودية النصّ، وMind start to work companions, and إجماعهم as a source of legislation.

2- Foundation Stage: وهي عهد التابعين وتابعي التابعين من منتصف القرن الأوَّل إلَى أوائل القرن الثاني حيث لوحظت فيه الخلافات الكبرى بين المسلمين بسبب الأوضاع السياسية والاجتماعية المتقلبة، وكثرت المشكلات والنوازل علَى الأمة من كل مكان في ذلك العصر، مِـمَّا أدى إلَى تباين اتجاهات الفقهاء في فهم النصوص الشرعية، واختلاف التعامل معها باختلاف البيئات والعادات، وانحراف الحكم عن مسار الخلافة الراشدة؛ فاستقلَّ من أجلها علم الفقه بنفسه وأصبح فنا واختصاصا ينصرف إليه الطلبة، فبدأت المدارس الفقهية في الظهور والتبلور، Which began as a legislative reference diligenceAt this stage three basic trends emerged, a: Modern School, a school of opinion, and combining the two schools School.

3- Perfection and maturity stage: وهي مرحلة الأئمة والمجتهدين، حيث بلغ الاجتهاد الفقهي أوجه فِي التدوين والتفسير والتفريعات الفقهية، وظهور خلافات عميقة وآراء متضاربة بين الفقهاء في المسائل الفرعية رافقت خلالها بروز المذاهب الفقهية المختلفة، وتم فيه وضع علم أصول الفقه واتساع مباحثه، وتنتهي هَذِه المرحلة إلَى منتصف القرن الرابع الهجري، ثُمَّ تليها مراحل أخرى نشطت فيها حركة التحرير والتخريج والموسوعات، ثُمَّ مرحلة عهد الجمود والانحطاط والضعف والتقليد واجترار الخلافات السابقة حيث انزوى الفقه Away from the issues of the ages.. And so on.

Through the foundation stage (2) -They replace our study- Began the emergence of so-called school of jurisprudence, the most important: مدرستا talk and opinion([3])، حيث نشأت من انتشار الصحابة في البلدان الإسلامية قضاة ومعلمين ومفتين وتأثيرهم التوجيهي في تلاميذهم الذين أصبحوا قادة تلك المدارس وأئمتها، كسعيد بن المسيّب في المدينة، وعطاء بن أبي رباح في مكة، وإبراهيم النخعي في الكوفة، وجابر بن زيد والحسن البصري ومحمَّد بن سيرين في البصرة، ومكحول في الشام، وطاووس في اليمن؛ فبهؤلاء دارت عجلة الفقه بعد ذلك متأثرة بشخصية ومشارب أساتذهم واجتهاداتهم، وعند تتبع الحركة الفقهية نجد أَنَّ هاتين المدرستين بدأت جذورهما منذ عهد الصحابة حيث اختلفوا في فهم النصوص الشرعية، وتفاوتوا في استنباط الأحكام علَى اتجاهين، ثُمَّ انبثق منهما اتجاه ثالث، وهذه المدارس هي:

A- Modern School and impact in the Hijaz (Mecca and Medina): Characterized by the commitment of literal text and stand at the phenomena, without searching for the circumstances surrounding them, or consider علتها and motivation and purpose, and hung up effects, and the Thibam of Fatwa and scruple in to say they did not know the text, particularly the texts Hadith which is characterized by a sense of privacy more than . This trend has spread in the Hijaz to the large number of narrators and novels, and the simplicity of life and not having to diligence and opinion, and it was they actually jurisprudence default jurisprudence did not find them a way. And carrying the banner of the trend of the Sahaba Abdullah bin Omar Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, and a student on their hands of the Taabi'een Ksaid bin Musayyib.

With- School of opinion([4]) And to consider in Iraq (Kufa and Basra): Characterized by the realization of thought, opinion and research in the understanding of the text and the search for the ills of texts and wisdom, and to look at the purpose of the street in which to achieve it, in light of the general purposes of the law, as the legal provisions are reasonable sense, and they came to realize interests of people to the fullest, and ward off evil, and that the origin of . This trend has spread in Iraq; lack of narrators, and the complexity of civilian life and exotic ideas, diversity of customs of nations, and the many temptations and the situation. And carrying the banner of the trend of the companions Omar ibn al-Khattab and Ali ibn Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Masood, Omar has developed for this school explained in his approach to the elimination to the Ash'ari: “His case does not prevent you spend yesterday Fradjat today where your mind and guided it to رشدك be traced back to the right, the right Old , And reviewing the right is better than persisting in falsehood ; Understanding understanding relating تلجلج in the chest, which is not in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His , Then I know proverbs and likes ; And measure things counterparts”([5]), And walked on their manner of a student with them and follow their approach of followers كإبراهيم Nakha'i and other.

جـ- There is another school combine the two schools: The third trend, where it takes the owners texts explicit when its existence and proved, is to look at the ills, nor violate the first two in the work book and the year what they find to afford it, then they do not resort to an opinion, except when there is no text, or doubt its authenticity and after the match (ت204هـ) He says: Muslims are unanimously agreed that it identified the his Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah e did not have to let her to say one, and contrary of violating the Year Fdhirhm where he was untouched talk, or and connect did not trust him to double the narrator, or the presence of قادح another who does not see other Qadha, or because ([6]). He holds the banner of this Aisha direction or the faithful and Abdullah bin Abbas and studied at Adahma of Kekremh and Jaber.

Through this school was founded Jabriyah trends and put their daughters at the hands of the imam basic Jabir bin Zaid (T. 93 e), And later renamed the school Ibadi([7]), And crystallized by his disciple landmarks Abu Obeida Muslim ibn Abi Karima Al-Tamimi (T. 145 AH) وتلاميذه ومن جاء بعدهم، حيث سطَّرت المدرسة منهجها وشقَّت طريقها منذ عهد مبكر، واستطاعت تخطي المدلهمات التي حلَّت بالأمة، إذ سبقت المدارس الأخرى في وضع قواعدها، واستطاعت التكيُّف مع واقعها رغم الحرب الإعلامية التي شُنّت ضدها من قبل المغرضين، والحصار المفروض عليها من قبل السلطات الحاكمة، غير أَنَّ الحقّ قد يخبو ولا ينطفئ، فبرزت هَذِه المدرسة للوجود حاملة لواء التطوير والتجديد والتنوُّع منذ نشأتها، ولم تغلق بابها يوما أمام الاجتهاد؛ فاتخذت منهجا واضحا في التعامل مع المشكلات والقضايا الفقهية المختلفة مِـمَّا كتب لها البقاء إلَى يومنا هذا، إنه الثبات علَى المبدأ، والمرونة في التطبيق.

It is the founder of this school? .

Secondly: Definition Imam Jabir bin Zaid and its jurisprudence

His name and lineage([8]): Is a brand-Faqih piety Abu الشعثاء Jaber ibn Zaid اليحمدي Azdi Omani underground, belonging to the sons of Amr Ibn Alihamd, a branch of the tribe Azd; Born b”Teams” Amman year 18 AH / 639 AD([9]), And received the principles of science, then his family moved to Basra, one of the capitals of scientific and political science and scientists kiss then.

Request for information: He settled in Milky Hollow Basra is and his family([10]) And he grew up between the application of science, and strive harder to scoop science employers minds of the companions who pitched in Basra as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and Anas bin Malik and others; and was moving them in Basra and the Hijaz combines what they have, and more Altrdad and sit at the senior companions and disciple on their hands draws their help … And many others, and in this atmosphere that was packed with scientists and science students won the Imam Jabir honor to sit seventy Sahaabah who witnessed the Great Battle of Badr, and encompassed what they have of science and novels that were يحفظونها for the Messenger of Allah PBUH, even said himself: “لقيت سبعين بدريا -أو قال: سبعين رجلا من أهل العلم-، فحويتُ ما عندهم إلاَّ البحر، يعني عبد الله بن عباس”([11]); Ibn Abbas has been the most prominent elders note Ousahm, and the closest it status, try to collect what ink حواه nation and interpreter of the Koran it was not able to anything except what bestowed bumper of luck which had collected himself and these الأفذاذ who were with him.

Jaber has made every effort in the application of science and sayings of the Prophet PBUH collection of companions with whom he met in the city of Basra and Mecca, the pilgrimage season was one of the most important opportunities were exploited for it, so it was said that he “Movement between Basra and Mecca pilgrims at least forty times”([12]).

Its inception: Amid discord storm Basra and معاصرته to the vagaries of political and social complex since his youth earned him statesmanship well-established, and a clear understanding of the affairs of life, and aspirations Mushariba towards a bright future filled with peace and security, he chose to stay away from confrontation and to beware of mixing rulers Umayyads, devoted his time and his life to the composition of the ground good, and teach people good .

Qualities and personality: Imam Jabir knew of was a devout and pious, pure, ascetic in the world “Granted when the dinar and dirham”([13]), Shows contentment and satisfaction to his companions, revealing them for the real wealth saying: “Not you one of the richest me, I have no DH and not on religion”([14])And focuses all his letters, which was put to the owners to fear God and prepare for the day to leave, did not have security in the life of the world except what is necessary with a toilet and plugging Joath, says: “Asked the Lord three things, has given me: Believing wife, and deceased valid, and they had day-to-day كفافا solver”([15]). It is humility that beholder to say: It does not improve anything, do not think that Fakih world([16]).

The Asked Ayoub Alschtiyanj, - one of his students- Did you see the Jabra? : Yes, it was for Pipa Pipa pipa([17]), Calling in favor of paint, he said: “Was not WiMax in three: Rent to Mecca, in the neck bought for the aged, and in sacrifice. Said: كان جابر بن زيد لا يماكس في كل شيء يتقرب به إلى الله عزّ وجل “([18]).

Abu Naim increased in describing saying: ” ومنهم المتخلي بعلمه عن الشُّبَه والظلماء، والمتسلي بذكره في الوعورة والوعثاء جابر بن زيد أبو الشعثاء، كـان للعلم عينا معينا، وفي العبادة ركنا مكينا، وكـان إلى الحق آيبا، ومن الخلق هاربا”([19]).

And was severe in the right not afraid of God to anybody as long; was narrated that Hajjaj bin Yusuf writes and Jaber was present for him, the pen fell from the hands of the pilgrims said Jaber handed me the pen, Jabir said to him,: The Messenger of Allah e: «May God curse the oppressors and their supporters and their helpers agents even if the duration of the Registry»([20]), And all his main concern was the call to God and to please Him work.

Its scientific: No one in the like shrine Jaber and leave the impact in the hearts of all extended to him or know him to forget the grace and knowledge, it has saved us so much history, leaving the effects of great scientific, and students and writing novels.

As for Disciples Some: Abu Obeida Muslim Ibn Abi dignified, accession bin bulk, and Hayan lame, Jaafar Al-Sammak, Amr ibn Dinar, and Ayoub Alschtiyanj, and Tamim bin Hois Azadi, and Qatada Alsdosa Sheikh Bukhari, Atkp girl Abi zero, and Abdullah bin Zaid reus… And many others more than seventy students from senior science and novel campaign.

As for his novels and coauthored: He left a valuable scientific encyclopedia known as 'Jaber Court' in seven loads, and is one of the first without his novels and his views, has lost his office([21]) And remained his opinions and answers reserved in the stomachs wrote the novel and recorded by the jurisprudence requested, and was not in favor of codification opinions initially, since the transfer of that because aware that his students are doing it said: “God, they write to me views have been attributed by tomorrow”([22]).

Although it has reached us of his novels and his views of the two roads: First: Using students الإباضيين the Kdmam bulk bin, and Abu Obeida Muslim ibn Abi dignified, and my father Noah in favor of Paint, and Hayan lame, and others; second: Students الإباضيين the Kamr bin pyramid, Qatada bin pillar Alsdosa, and Ayub Alschtiyanj and others.

It arrived us from جواباته and his letters and texts attributed to him, the following([23]):

1. «Datum spring bin Habib»: Combine the spring Ben Habib recounted conversations from Abu Obeida and accession Jabir bin Zaid, and is healthier when Ibadi book after book of God.

2. «Accession novels»: Zero narrated by Abu Abdul Malik bin zero for spring bin Habib accession, Jabir bin Zaid.

3. 'Prayer Book': (Brain) Balbaronih in Djerba, narrated by Habib ibn Abi Habib Harami Amr ibn pyramid Jabir bin Zaid.

4. 'Book of Marriage': (Brain) Jerba, includes provisions regarding marriage, quoted Jaber.

5. «Correspondence and correspondence»: (Brain) It is eighteen message in a variety of cataclysms answer where his disciples and his companions in response to questions sent to him from inside and outside Basra.

6. «Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir bin Zaid», The collection and investigation, Mr. Yahya Baccouche. Print House West, Beirut.

7. «Answers Imam Jabir bin Zaid», On a variety of doctrinal issues in worship and sales and Marriages… Sort Sheikh Saeed bin behind Kharousi. Printed in Amman.

8. «Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jabir bin Zaid jurisprudence» Collect and collate and comment Ibrahim Ben Ali Polruah, printed in Amman.

His death: Historians disagree Sir owners in determining the year of his death - God's mercy -; Some of them stated that he died in 103 AH([24]), And went to nuclear he died in 104 AH([25]), Shammakhi years: 96E([26]), And weighty what the most and they went to him that he had died in 93 AH, and quoted on that evidence is not here replaced([27]).

After mentioning this tract short of the life of Imam Jabir, before we enter on how to deal with the problems jurisprudence, we must highlight the scientific status enjoyed by Imam Jabir between the elderly and the center of his peers, and his followers after him even realize the extent of vulnerability and the impact that he has done inside .

Imam Jabir jurist and diligent mufti

Imam Jabir graduated at the hands of senior companions and their flags and was able to find out the meanings of the Koran, and collect as many novels, and various directives fatwas, until he became an imam in the modern interpretation and and testimony jurisprudence everyone, and was touted as the most informed people in the field Fatta ([28]), He received several certificates showing high heel and foot footing this area, said bin Muawiya menopause (S 2 e): “I realized that the people of Basra and Fiqiham Jabir bin Zaid of the people of Oman”([29]).

Then there was no greater than the certificate certificate Sheikha ink his nation and interpreter of the Koran, which was sticking people by Abdullah bin Abbas, where he said: “If the people of Basra pitched when you say Jabir bin Zaid to Ousahm note what is in the book of God”, Was contained both asked him for his opinion on the issue of the people of Basra to Jaber says: “Ask me and you, Jabir bin Zaid?!” ([30]), And admire from both ask and leave the question Jaber says: “عجبا لأهل العراق كيف يحتاجون إلينا وعندهم جابر بن زيد، لو قصدوا نحوه لوسعهم علمه”, This is the first certificate Sheikha see him recognition on the strength of his knowledge and his ability to solve the dilemmas, There is sponsoring another certificate and a guide put him controls Altzmha in his fatwa, which is what came to him, he said: “Over my Ibn Umar while I was wandering, and he told me: “O Jabir, you're from the scholars of the people of Basra, You Stsfy, there Fan only spokesman Baqran, or years ago, you did not have perished and decimated”([31]). It was: That Saeed bin Jubair asked Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari for his opinion on the question of what, and when he found that the liquid from the people of Basra said to him,: “Ask me and you in Abu الشعثاء?”([32]).

It has reached the Son of virtual packages (ت456هـ) That does not count unanimously that it is not Jabir bin Zaid is mentioned; said: “F-Per consensus out with him: Ali ibn Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Masood and Anas bin Malik, Ibn Abbas and companions Baham }, Then Affiliates Levant and Ibn Sirin Jabir bin Zaid And other isnaads in the very health, and claims other than the consensus these isnaads and flimsy, it did not know who these released!!…”([33]).

Enough of these certificates, which he received from his teachers honor and a certificate to be eligible for diligence and sit among the people for Issuing Fatwas, and proof of his status high among his peers and his followers, not to mention the testimony of his contemporaries and his followers and came after him, arguing his statement praising his views, did not differ where two because one of the flags belonging prominent .

Thirdly: Imam Jabir approach in the presentation of the problems and resolve doctrinal

As it is known that Imam al-Jaber - like other companions and followers- لم تصل إلينا مدونته لتحفظ لنا آثاره كلها، وتذكر لنا منهجه وطريقته في استنباط الأحكام، إِلاَّ ما وصل إلينا من رسائل يجيب فيها بعض أصدقائه وطلبته، أو ما دوَّنه لنا تلامذته وأتباعه من روايات حديثيَّة، وأقوال منثورة في مصنفات مختلفة، ومن أهم ما وصل إلينا مجموعا مراسلاته التي كانت بينه وبين أصحابه حيث تعبر ـ جليا ـ عن الأوضاع الاجتماعية والمشكلات الفقهية التي لا يُدرَك حكمها إِلاَّ بالرجوع إلَى أولي العلم من الفقهاء والمجتهدين، وقد تكون آنذاك أغلب الأحكام الفقهية ـ التي لم يرد فيها نصّ ظاهر من كتاب أو سنّة ـ نوازلَ لا يدركها الناس لجهلهم بحكمها، أو اشتباههم في الرأي الذي يأخذون به ويطمئنون إليه، فيبحثون عن حكمها فتعدّ مشكلات بالمعنى اللغوي، وإفتاء بالمعنى الاصطلاحي أَي: “The answer is what constitutes provisions”([34]).

And we will try to discover the method([35]) And his way in the advisory opinion through these works, and then mention how to deal with the problems jurisprudence, and extract its origins in the handling of the branches of jurisprudence, and general features that printed his understanding, “And Btaatbana the doctrinal heritage that is left for us Imam Jabir note that the plan may follow his teachers companions in Rjohm to the sources of legislation, and general principles that Raauha in تشريعهم”([36]).

It will be our focus here on the monuments major through جواباته and his letters to his friends, and below pupils school after him often; because those answers represent a model and clear of accidents and problems occurring at the time, especially when issued from the jurist or scholar or a seeker of knowledge are consistent, then mention his way of dealing with the . There is no dispute that the sources of legislation, which extrapolates original provisions when all Muslims are: Quran first, then the Sunnah correct II agreement, then right audience by consensus, and then come sources dependency other in class the following, according to the word companion, measurement, and Alastsahab, interests sent, closing arguments, and the plaudits, custom, and proceeded by us… And other (Which is called diligence).

Prior to that, it is worth to mention some of the literature that should be characterized by the Mufti, should the viewer in the things people consider when issued a fatwa; because it offers is a dangerous sign for the Lord of the Worlds.

* -Imam etiquette Jaber issued a fatwa:

A- Stick to fold debt to abide by the ethics of the Koran And instilled in the hearts of people, and bring those meanings and practical applications in their lives, and this is what to do with architecture - of his companions- As sought permission days, he said to him: Return, and then his reply said: “I see you found yourself in, but it is purer for you as it returned”([37]), Referring to the verse: ﴿وَإِنْ قِيلَ لَكُمْ ارْجِعُوا فَارْجِعُوا هُوَ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ﴾([38]).

With- Self chastity and asceticism than in the hands of the people;, Where he was given all he wanted to improve him or extend him a helping hand from the pleasures of this world, but what was really him, as a response to Nafi bin Abdullah - one of its correspondents- Saying: “As for what is said to be divided write Bhajta and tell me you delighted; Fsadk the God of grace, and Ouvak who gave you the fullest faithful; Vhajta to heal and recognize kind Bbakaúk in love”([39]).

C- Progress in the use of terms, And not daring to God in the analysis and prohibition, but what proved to text conclusively from the book spokesperson or a year followed; because they do not Akunan except from God, and fear that is located in Altcol to Allah without knowledge is permissible for what Allah has forbidden or denied what Allah has permitted, Visthoudr and holiday : ﴿قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُواْ بِاللّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَاناً وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾([40]); Vengda sentenced inviolable not called unless it is proved in clear text from a book or a year, as inviolable said in buy-Ahrar: 'That is haram'; in combining the two sisters of breastfeeding… And other.

When weighted to say what used to say: «Loved to», or «impressed», or «it should not be him that, as he said in circumcision owned: «Circumcision of the Muslim year due should not be left»([41]), With it goes to that uncircumcised not eaten his sacrifice is not permissible to his testimony, and does not accept him no prayer pilgrimage([42]), Says in foolishness condition: «Is not fit for a man»([43]), In response adulterated from the exchange said: «Do not like it»([44])… Thus, in all matters covered by.

* – Method and controls in dealing with fatwa:

First: Approach in dealing with the original religious texts (Quran and Sunnah)

1- Quran:

A- See the great prestige that attaches to the Book of Allah and memorizes accommodating and application In جواباته even became mixed with flesh and blood, not how an interpreter School graduate Quran and commentators Sheikh Ibn Abbas; which was expressed by Dr. Zarka saying: “Therefore the Koran when scholars of Islamic law is a major argument and the first reference; promise some scholars even the only source of legal provisions, and other sources, but a breakdown of the whole or clarify his or graduation assets or for the development of the rule and gloss coherent mutually supportive”([45]);, We find that applies in جواباته where the stems in answer to Saúlah through verses book, يستفتح the words including strengthens the faith of the respondent and tightens his heart to what is purer and purer directives of the Koran and then answer him what he asked, in his letter – For example - to wholesome bin Abdullah says: “I advise you to fear Allah the Great Lord who teaches you what is unaware of yourself, who briefed on what holds your heart, and eyes Takhtan, and show or hide in yourself, which is closer to you than his jugular vein…” ([46]), And so on voyager in an extensive Totith of the preaching and reminders and guidance in a beautiful Quranic hurt in the content of what استفتي.

With- Correct understanding of the texts of the Koran and questioning the meaning of verses, The deep understanding of the language of the Arabs was visible in جواباته, and gives great proportions to language فيحملها on what must bear it; Qurtubi said: The whole of the transfer in the interpretation “Heirlooms” In the words of the Almighty: ﴿لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ مَسْكُونَةٍ فِيهَا مَتَاعٌ لَكُمْ﴾([47]), Said: “Not mean machine Balmtaa, but what else needed, either bring him down house some of the day or night, or Khirbet enters the man an errand, or Dar seen this baggage, and all the benefits of minimum baggage”. Then Abu Jafar commented copper (ت338هـ) This sense, saying: “This explain the good of telling Imam Muslim imams It is OK to language”([48]). It also gives also for أخبية, Alfassasat the houses must rule authorization and delivery; and Aallaha as houses; holds utter houses contained in the verse: ) If you enter houses Vslmoa, to yourselves greeting from God bless the good (([49]) Upon its release.

جـ- Download Quran words at face value and commitment to the true meanings, And zero tolerance to abandon the left explicit text or tolerance in compliance, although bucking the sheikh;, in the application of verse: ﴿وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرّاً إِلاَّ أَن تَقُولُواْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفاً﴾([50]), And this is what he did in which a man said: “Do not marry someone else” Before the expiration of the kit, and saw that the Charter of the contract should not نكاحهما, “The نكحها after the expiration of preparing their teams did not dislike reviewed - and not be married- I swear to leave her beloved to”. He reviewed the opinion sheikh Ibn Abbas as saying: “The left of the Charter and went in several around the first of many, there is nothing wrong Pennekahaa”, And then followed by saying: “And leave confusion impressed to”, This commitment to the text and not to go out on the phenomenon; destination because of legislation that is clear there is no room to manipulate it, and to say other than what has put him, and it also cut ways to accelerate somewhat premature.

D- Knowledge of the dimensions of the legislation and the development of goals and applied by any Quran, , بديهته speed evoke the rule when accidents and calamities, and the ability to act proper in the darkest circumstances; which is what you do when people are confused when they enter the House of God has burned Sacred House (6 April 64) In order to spark flew out of the wind; went to people in the Grand Mosque are parking, and the house demolished, and they do not know what they are doing; said Jaber: ) But was ordered to serve the Lord of this town, which deprived it has everything that I ordered the Muslims ( ([51])، ثم طاف حول البيت، فلما رآه الناس طافُوا كما طافَ.

In the novel: Came in effect: أن الكعبة هُدمت لِتُبْنَى في زمن عبد الله بن الزبير، وتحيَّر الناس والفقهاء لما أُخِّر حجارها عن الأساس لتبنى، ولم يدروا كيف يطوفون؛ أمِنْ خلف الحجارة حيث وضعت أو من حول الحيارى حتى دخل أبو الشعثاء، فلما رآهم لا يطوفون وقوفا عرف الذي بهم، فمضى أبو الشعثاء حتى أتى الأساس؛ فقال: ) But ordered to worship the Lord of this town who campus…(Then roaring as the supernatant([52]).

2- Sunnah:

Did not differ one from scholars in the fact that the year is the second source of the sources of legislation after the Quran, which is: «Issued by the Prophet e is the Koran say or do or report»([53]); But they differ in the modern proven or not, or in understanding the text and explanation, or in opposition to the text stronger than him, or his violation of a rule or destination of the purposes of the legislation; Abu summed allergen (S 2 e) - A student Jaber students- The reasons for the dispute after mentioning the issue of copy Re peace in prayer, saying,: “The sayings of the Prophet u burner and copy, and the Koran may copy each other, and he did the Prophet u things like this and returned it, and he did his companions like that many things, and returned it, and has said the predecessor of the leaders of the Muslims talk of many and returned it, and they said without أقاويلهم ”([54]), But the strength Faqih appear in the know mattresses evidence and must be submitted, delayed, and one on another, and as such put Imam Jabir rules Tasm thought and Skip by his followers in dealing with the many novels Hadith, including:

A- Application of the supply base to the Book of Allah: One of the basic rules that have characterized the approach, based on the verse: ﴿لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ﴾([55]), And to the stories told by the sheikh Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet PBUH said: « إِنَّكُمْ سَتَخْتَلِفُونَ مِنْ بَعْدِي فَمَا جَاءَكُمْ عَنِّي فَاعْرِضُوهُ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَمَا وَافَقَهُ فَعَنِّي وَمَا خَالَفَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَنِّي»([56])، فيعد هذا الحديث من أصح الأحاديث عنده وعند مدرسته ومدرسة آل البيت، ومن أهم الركائز التي صبغت منهجهم في التعامل مع الرواية، رغم تضعيف جمهور أهل السنة لهذا الحديث وإغفالهم له، بل يعدونه حديثا لا أصل له أو موضوعا، مع اشتراطهم في الحديث أن لا يكون شاذا ولا معلولا، والشاذ ما رواه الثقة مخالفا به الثقات، فما بالك إذا خالف الثقة نصا قرآنيا صريحا مقطوعا من كتاب الله، فكيف يؤخذ به؟ أو كيف ينظر إليه أصلا؟، وهذا المنهج أخذه من أساتذته كرد عمر t لحديث فاطمة بنت قيس، وردِّ عائشة لحديث سمعته عن عمر بن الخطاب وابنه عبد الله يحدثان بحديث مخالف لكتاب الله، وهو ما رواه الربيع بسنده عنه: «Aisha - may Allah be pleased with her- Said: I heard that Abdullah ibn Umar says: «The Dead to tortures crying neighborhoods, said Aisha: God will forgive my father Abdul Rahman, but he did not lie but forgotten or made a mistake, and perhaps it was heard from the Messenger of Allah e what he said while over the Jewishness died and her family wept, he said: «إِنَّهُمْ لَيَبْكُونَ عَلَيْهَا وَإِنَّهَا لَتُعَذَّبُ فِي قَبْرِهَا». قَالَ جَابِرٌ: Aisha said - God bless them -: Do not punish one crying his family, but tortures doing bad »([57]), And said - in the novel -: Where you of the words of God Almighty: ﴿وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى﴾([58]).

We see the application of this approach in dealing with the many doctrinal issues, including, for example,:

– The issue of wiping over the socks: It is not valid has conversations that watered it though attained frequency limit moral to the majority of the Sunnis, even Imam Ahmad said (ت241هـ) Survey advantage on the washing, reached Ibn al-Mundhir (ت319هـ) That said: “And chosen the best for the survey of stabbing the people of innovation from outsiders and Raafidis. Said: And the revival of what stabbed Violators of Sunan better than left”([59]); However, the Jabra and his followers, the family of the house (Imami and Zaydi) Unanimously agreed not to survey; to display these novels on the verse: ) And wipe برؤوسكم and your feet to the ankles (([60]), Where the opposition did not accept the text incised year; because God Almighty has enjoined enforcement of the so-called man, can not be called a sock man, and told in so many novels from Ibn Abbas and Aisha Ali ibn Abi Talib prove what went([61]).

– The issue of drinking whilst standing: The two novels opposing the prohibition and action; Faragh the approved book, so as narrated by Jabir shaykh Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet e «that forbade drinking whilst standing, and Roy: «أَنَّهُ شَرِبَ مِنْ زَمْزَمَ قَائِمًا». Said Jaber Ibn Abbas said: A reference to the Book of Allah, which is saying: ) Eat and drink (; This verse allows eating and drinking anyway, but in a position summed up the prohibition of the Prophet PBUH ([62]). The display of novels differed on the Book of Allah and settled on his.

With- Obligation to Comply year in the broadest sense, And lack of acceptance of what Khalvha when it receives the nation accepted, and there is no her opponent from a book or a year or base college major;, the Imam Jabra takes them and considers the argument must be followed and work out; because the nation does not meet the astray, was directed Saúlah to work year fixed; : “, Those dearer to me to repeat what breached the year, the than leaving Rkoaa or سجودا or sitting is not correct for people violating the order of the year”([63]). It was also recommended repatriation for those who leave recites with light in the prayers aloud; it “Had left the year”([64]).

C- Consider what it is work in the argument followers, and in the acceptance of the novel contained therein, though aware of other proven from the Prophet and To work out: But working as found by the flags and agreed upon by scholars, shall not be taken otherwise until proven with certainty, such as Bakan upon which that of the Prophet صلعم, which is close to the meaning of consensus; as did his disciples in the Zakat cow they Iqissounaa zakaat camels; because it is proven they have in a year, and what : “Impact when فقهائنا who take them and dependent on them that year in zakat cow كالزكاة in camel, taken from what is taken from the camels, and employs what works in camel, not including a difference, has Vrat you this question before this and interpreted by you; Either talk From Moaaz Prophet e took him and adopted him, but our companions Abu Obeida and Jabir bin Zaid do not take as I mentioned, has بلغهم say who described”.

D- It was the most radical people in the nation to follow what it is from the biography of the Prophet and, And disclaims all updated violates an order from religious orders; Was asked days “For qunoot in prayer; said: Prayer all channels, said the Almighty God: ) Is قانت of security in the night prostrating and standing warns Hereafter (([65])… I: O Abu الشعثاء, not for this I ask you, but rather ask you about who is doing these after bowing, they claim and يتهللون they do? : This is an updated, we do not know nor نأثره who went from the choice of this nation”([66]), And this went to his school unanimous and considered the copied works, which went to a great collection of companions and followers including teachers Ibn Masood and Ibn Omar and others([67]). Despite of the majority of Sunnis that qunoot desirable in the morning prayer, whether descended Muslims coming down or not, to them otherwise misplaced.

D- Stricter compliance obligations and zero tolerance against God AlmightyAnd not taking licenses only when you can not bring Baezzaúm; has استفتي in man realize Imam day Friday was not cleared, no water, and if so requested by the water misses the prayer with the imam, Can he do tayammum in Upper Egypt and pray with him? : “Do not - I- In the village level where the water?! But at in Filoat the level where it is not [Where] Water,, ask water, then pray first, not God, what I Bmr_khas him in a level is [متوضئ], And Pal comes Friday, a man is [متوضئ]” ([68]).

E- Scruple in proportion to the Prophet novels and What is not certain of the authenticity him, Will be well placed word: “I heard”Or “Reached”, As he did when asked about the best night prayers; said: «He heard that best first sleep ', and' We have heard that first Hdjah for the people caller cries: Call upon Vistjab of him? ([69])And, as he did in preferred Friday and early. This approach his teacher Ibn Masood where Athrz was a lot of proportion to the Messenger of Allah novels e fear of Altcol the it unless at least, was often evokes those novels in his answers Lefty whereby but does not say attribute to the Holy Prophet e.

Secondly: Diligence in access to power through legitimate sources of dependency.

These sources are for the most part, to examine good and proper understanding of the texts and not to stand on professionalism, and consideration to know the interests and objectives for an explanation of the legal provisions, or search for a destination to consider the text Vastenbt him governance كالصحابة and others. We will see some of the rules and the basic features in its approach to the provisions dealing with it, and how it was inferred these sources discretionary.

A- The main landmarks in his view of the legal provisions: Bearing Imam Jabir some of the parameters that can recognize which on his view of the provisions, the order of levels, and how he dealt with it, as did not want the text, or clear the directory, or signed difference where among the scholars; Vengda after discussing the issue of the marriage contract : “Things may be similar ways: Which at the license, and other licenses, and the scholars they desire from that description and they hate to wear them, but there may be other things resound with hates amounting to not be forbidden, nor insulted his family”([70]), Ie, be a matter of who hated stroll about the people المروءات. And if it is on a judgment which it يرجعه to the judge for consideration by the authority which it deems.

With- Inference statements companions and their actions and follow the strongest evidence: Takes Imam Jabir views companions and spending in matters that did not want the text if approved principles and minor discretionary, or have not seen him, etc., and elect between their statements that there were many, and be more satisfied on the basis of them, and see that the best views of his mostly. And found them all was the veneration and reverence, and knows the right and صحبتهم the Messenger of Allah and their closeness to him, was to say in appreciation: “And the opinion of us better than we have seen that we see, [And]The other was still known as the first, and they were more deserving of this [Migrants] مع رسول الله صلعم و[Affiliates] Them in truth; has witnessed and learned, assuredly, we have intercourse with their feet and follow their impact. I know he did not destroy people never even disputed the other first in science if scholars stuck their knowledge”([71]).

However, this reverence and respect that holds them not dissuaded from making what he sees right respectfully and bouquet; says the woman who divorced her husband when the presence of death had not entered it? : “Were it not for the words of Ibn Abbas in so pleased - though she married- If you knew the damage that requires the whole thing did not go her inheritance”([72]), Then remember his other novels in his school also states that “Her half the dowry, and her legacy, and several”([73]).

It was not differentiate between the companions in opinion; Taking what he sees closer to right يرجحه, even if it were contrary to the opinion of his teacher Ibn Abbas; In this he was inclined to the view of Ibn Omar says: “The view of Ibn Omar dearer to us than Ibn Abbas said”, And the one who divorces his wife and thrown in the kit that “If divorced three times and inflicted skin boy did not يلاعن, though divorced one to Aanha the”, And was the son of Abbas says: “The divorced three times and then thrown in preparing to Aanha the”([74])And so was the approach advances in the knowledge of the truth and his followers, there Igtron opinions, nor يستغنون who preceded them, the minimum fine is still what is known as one of the first virtues and value.

جـ- Clarify what confused people understand some companions texts and passed it without knowing the cause, And he did between the with Sheikha intended to Ibn Abbas as saying: «Ole serial killer and the end fuck», as occurred when the confusion and delusion and misunderstanding among the scholars who came after him as attributing to him to say that permits the fuck pannus man this to say, but explains Jabir that he was saying the man who weight a woman in Cherkhma then they became Muslim after that, ([75]), And Jaber was quoted as saying: “It never marry her, and makes them green sea”([76]). Then he followed Jaber prevent the marriage of the assets of and branches Msenath the birth or breastfeeding, and this is what I went to school without contention, which is based on jurisprudential base: «Accelerate somewhat prematurely punished by depriving». However, the non-Ibadi attributing it to the opposite narrated by Ibn Abbas, and even up their command to transfer the novel completely contrary to that, where “Asked about the man blowing women and then marry her? : Is right to her is marred”([77]), And this is the important dimension of rigor in dealing with Alabdhaa, and intense passion to preserve the sanctity of the family as over.

D- The use of measurement in its simplest form: So that a man came to him and said: “My father kept me to the obligatory hajj, what do you say? : How many prayers? : I: Five, he said: Tell me if Nhak to pray and you're the one who Abandons one? : No. Said: Straddle”([78]), Which is the same approach the Prophet, which was used by the Messenger of Allah e; because Jabra he saw ordinances whole is like one does not let one of them, there is no obedience to any creature in disobedience to the Creator, and therefore consideration to the question of the respondent in restricted prohibition in the ordinance was not in Sunan or redundancy, .

He was also a free nation on measures to combine the two sisters, and does not see the difference between them to the general prohibition in verse: ) And gathered between two sisters (([79]), Said: “It is fit collection sisters if they were Mamluks of what possessed the right, and preparing the same, including the man quite a bit;, I would argue that it Knho free if divorced, but take the confidence and leave suspicion to her family, the likes that Iatzelha these deaths as if on ”([80]) Taking the generality Allaft and went to free speech and slave.

As well as he could see the differentiation in the man treading ongoing was his father had intercourse with her without knowledge, he said: “Filipaha it is not permissible for him Mjamatha”([81]), Interpretation of the meaning: ﴿وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاء﴾([82]), Was often يتشدد in and Alabdhaa of Marriages and never tolerate.

E- The emergence of a precautionary base, and out of contention, leaving what يريب to no يريب: Especially relation to Marriages door, where she stated that in جواباته, when those who rule and promising woman promised, they never replace him, and then said: “And leave confusion impressed to”. It is also having discussed the issue of marriage without a guardian and prevent it said: “And the scholars they desire from that description and they hate to wear them”([83])، وهذا منهج نبوي سليم علمه رسول الله صلعم أصحابه: «Let the doubt for that which does not make you doubt»([84]), Said: «O Abesh استفت yourself mainland reassured him heart and reassured him self and sin which wavers in the heart and frequency in the chest The أفتاك of the people»([85]), And this is the approach that characterized his later school until he accused others emphasizing hyperbole.

He believes that if it considers fledgling rugged son or his father's touch is not to have intercourse with her, as well as vice versa? : “Loved to to Ittensha about it, and Atercana to non-suspicious”([86]).

He was also hated it and his teachers Ibn Abbas and Ibn Omar, «to fast today which there is doubt of Ramadan, and arrive Ramadan fasting»([87]), Which is upon the public his companions.

He often calls for hiking on the Grand money and keep away from him, not allowing the participation of the Muslim idolater nor for the people of the book in trades and businesses; ills by saying: “As يستحلون which deprives them”([88]), Which is the view of the majority of his companions, but I'm blessing from his companions, and the public scholars on Krahtha of the prohibition cautioned, however, from the introduction of usury and condemn the analysis, because it is located close contact with money, being this provision - in the investigation- Also on both punk and a hypocrite who does not shy away from people's money([89]).

And- Block the roads leading to the corruptive unrealized or مظنونة to be considered interest, which is called bridging excuses, And this behavior is dominated by family-related issues and Marriages; because that of Alkhtor and mixing of lineages, and caused to individuals and families of the evils urgent and futures; and it was originally with him Alabdhaa the prohibition and prevention.

Vengda يتشدد in chastity command and sees the marriage contract is done at all, access and non-access, or collector does not have intercourse, Muslim or written, or free nation, launched from the hadeeth narrated from him by his disciple Abu Obeida: «أَحْصَنَ مَنْ مَلَكَ أَوْ مُلِّكَ لَهُ »([90])([91]); Only that the owners school violate Cikhm in that it does not even Ihsnha intercourse([92]), And differed in the clerical and the nation Do تحصنه or not?. The most beautiful Sheikh Salmi (ت1334هـ) Terms of chastity in the following verses on the opinion of Ibadi non-Jaber and went Doctrine([93]):

شروط الحصانة ســـتّ أتت إذا كنت عن ذاك مــسـتفهما

بلوغ وعــقــــــل وحـــــريــــــة ورابعها كونه مــســــلمــــــــــا

And a valid contract and intercourse is permissible when the requirement will not be disturbed bade stone them

Then we find my daughter hates to combine my daughter's uncle and uncle in marriage; ills saying: “Those estrangement, not suitable estrangement”([94]).

وفي باب الصيام فإنه يرى منع الرجل أَن يباشِر امرأتَه في ملحفةٍ واحدةٍ وهو صائمٌ رغم أَنَّهُ يرى أَنَّ النبيَّ صلعم قد فعله، إِلاَّ أَنَّ سؤاله لأستاذته جعله يطمئن علَى تعليل ذلك المنع؛ فقالت له: «The Prophet u was I own you necktie»([95]), And more than that reasoning: “But hated it awe that invalidate his fast; because it is not secure for himself”([96]). Commenting on his disciples after him that if human security on himself, he may, it is a concept of Talilhma so.

The- To look at targets in legislation, governance, and rule it without the text stalemate; Where he sees that the woman who touched the boy said light is not invalidated; because it is not as men, and this is due to the illness in prohibitions PBUH about Miss broiler is savoring, or it Kaldaph not worship him not veto of touch. Some of the approval of his friends and some of them alone, and some of them goes against the son pond (S 4 e) Where requires veto on all of the Miss Chicken boys; standing on the apparent meaning of the text, or that they saw the sanctity of cassation said.

ح- Abra purposes and not words and meanings of buildings; refer to the intention when the difference: Opines that the Talbiyah pilgrimage فلبى the wanted Umrah or wanted Umrah فلبى the pilgrimage to “He does not mistake something”([97]). Imam went further than this, he said in the wrong divorce his wife, it is not something, it is not a mistake is not tied to a Muslim is no divorce we should not عتاق at, where Abu الشعثاء have been a man asked him,: Otzojt so and so on in Allah and His Messenger? : نعم يا أبا الشعثاء قد طلقتها على سنة الله وسنة رسوله، فقال جابر: لا غلط –لا غلت – Muslim([98]); And origin of this saying e: «Raise my ummah for mistakes, forgetfulness»([99]) It elevated the nation's compassion and mercy of their.

It was not longer dislocation divorce, says: “No divorce for those who take off”, Even if deceptively and Ngrara;, because what counts purposes and dislocation they have located a divorce irrevocable, not help someone who divorced divorce does not have, is the view of sheikh Ibn Abbas and more imams. The woman told him she wanted divorce from her husband thought; she said to him: Into Ttliqh the thousand dirhams he did it, did not want to take it off; answered: I see a woman tricked her husband and became what was taken from them of a few wear, and hero of his divorce after that which I have on their own”([100]).

Ø- Original him in contracts Almradah and lack of difference and Gain only what is stated otherwise text: Where business allows companies (Chilling) In agriculture if built on compromise, clogging the door of the difference from the beginning, it was not see anything wrong regarding the image of the farmer if used the Lord of the earth workers perfumed themselves to work with him, and provided them with all they need, and then gives them what perfumed by themselves; this is not nothing wrong with him([101]), And hates the other farmers in the form of a case of a man to a man pays land and oxen working in the land, and it has grown a third or a quarter, “That is also what hates only man learn his wages “([102]).

In the lease it is due to the understanding and lack of ambiguity in the beginning of the decade;, was that it did not matter lessor or profit is lost; but the employee is given the full right, said: “The man who reported rented man fifty Jeriba the owner said Nakhl: I أستأجرك Bfum or righteousness or just that of the fruit that give the fruit of land fifty Jeriba or just that of the number, and claimed that it cut the fruit perished, it does not go his reward, albeit on condition of fruit given his reward but did not come out fruit that ”([103]).

The- Considered critical to lifting platform, AndHardship brings facilitation: Vengda ease and convenience features in his opinions, especially in terms of worship; because they are inter-related between a person and his Lord, and not on the rights of the people, so it was easing him closer to Altasir; depending on a lot of evidence of the Qur'an and Sunnah, including the verse: ﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ﴾([104]), And «that this debt will not be pleased hailed a religion but drop»([105])For this rule found excused illiterate and Alogtm([106]) In return for prayers if left to read Sura year with light in the prayers aloud; “God does not burden any soul beyond its power”([107]).

It is facilitated in the prayer he was standing to his companions imam prays them sometimes just a verse from the Koran as he read them day: ﴿مُدْهَآمَّـتَانِ﴾([108]) Then knelt([109]), Even shows them that year in reading a verse or passport like her; verse: ﴿فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ﴾([110]);, But differed in being narrators read alone or with light; Frwayat the school says that he read with light based on the stories told by him in his Musnad spring([111]), While others say that he read alone reasoning that it is permissible to read the flow from the Quran without light must be a remote base in not violate the text that has proven.

Q- Decides to base estimates exaggerated necessities: In prayer with excuses, where he says: “It is not able to do from a disease or on a ship or mud or water, he should pray sitting and nodding and prostrate”([112])This is the view of his school.

As well as from the janaabah water but did not find easy and understood prayer and feared Fouatha; answered him, saying,: “I tell you that if a man with whom he had water walking had a license that was afraid thirst Fletamm صعيدا as God had commanded him, and did not hide his thirst and he has not a washed whole; the Muslims were accepted was the man wash his private parts and then purified Thorh to pray and then pray his prayer, if reached ”([113]).

P- Understanding of reality and taking into account the circumstances, customs and environmental variables and temporal conditions; Because the ruling on a thing Branch for his vision, and knowledge of the conditions of the people and the conditions fatwa of the most important duties of the Mufti, so that it can consider the incident in all its aspects, and affects the issuance of his reign; was Imam Jabir allows free fuck slaves in the absence of height, or fear hardship : “Does not fit today's fuck slave; because long to find free”Both found that preventing marriage of the nation.

It was seen to people's habits and customs in relation to matters of marriage Friendship and fun and others, and that the court in the habit is the dowry, and the command to “What people are termed them”([114])And sees the fun Women should not have a limit known قليلها the nor Kterha, and that is due to the custom([115]), And perhaps evokes a novel shaykh Ibn Masood from the Messenger of Allah e: «What the Muslims think is good is good God»([116]).

And goes Imam Jabir beyond that and provides an order highlights the strength in understanding the texts and their application, and so to see that necessity a virtue in some situations, it was sanctioned in the case of what is not sanctioned in the other, so that the reality of the Umayyad witnessed and what it of corruption and injustice : “What we found in the days of Ibn Ziad in the days of Ziad nothing is more beneficial than bribes”, Says: ” What we found at the time of the pilgrims nothing better than Rasha”([117]), And that the depth of his understanding of the situation prevailing at the time of the robbery rights, it is the situation strive passport bribery in taking rights and retrieval does not take people's money, and malfunction age limit theft in Alrmadh, and this sense Nstanbth also in the women's Negro, which was stolen and they said: Spoke about it? : ” Drove Varashwa them”, And the dire situation in which they lived, and he knows that he intercede in the extent of the light of God is a major sin, and tells the newly placed the Messenger of Allah e he said: «مَنْ حَالَتْ شَفَاعَتُهُ دُونَ حَدٍّ مِنْ حُدُودِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَادَّ اللَّهَ فِي مُلْكِهِ، وَخَاضَ فِي سَخَطِهِ، وَإنَّ لَعْنَةَ اللهِ تَتَابَعُ عَلَيْهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ»([118]).

It is also his understanding of the reality that he had to say: “It's okay to Issana man for himself and his property if he was afraid of injustice”, Which indicates to absorb the reality in which they live, and this is one of the largest missions Mufti to recognize the fact, and learn to act where the realization of strings in place without prejudice to its purposes.

* – Results:

After this quick tours and lightning flashes of doctrinal development and the emergence of schools, and the lives of Imam Jabir bin Zaid - God's mercy- Approach, and how to deal with the fatwa and issues that were before him, and practical air conditioning, whether in novels or difference in understanding of texts, it can be for us to draw the following:

1- لم تكن هَذِه المداخلة في حقيقة الأمر إِلاَّ مقدمة لدراسات أخرى موسعة ومعمقة للبحث عن الإشكالات والمستجدات التي مرَّت عبر التاريخ الإسلامي، وكيف كان تعامل الأعلام معها.

2- اتضح لنا من خلال منهج الإمام جابر أَنَّهُ لم يكن ميالا إلَى مدرسة بعينها، بل كانت له مدرسة خاصة يتميَّز بها حيث تجمع بين مدرستي الرأي والأثر، والذي ساعده علَى ذلك نشأته بين العراق والحجاز، وتفقهه وجمعه ما عند أصحاب المدرستين مِـمَّا أكسبه القدرة علَى تطوير مدرسة جامعة بين التمسك بالنص وإدراك مقاصده التشريعية، حيث “The fatwa and issue judgments in accordance with the principles and origins convinced their health and senses, and has appeared which is daunted opinion all timidity, not daring when all boldness, as you do not accept the talk of all transmitted by people, not given him what is true with him, but was afraid ”([119]), Which is the same approach that it Shafei marched from the beyond, have erred from the emergence of this school due to Imam Shafi'i, and perhaps it is due to clarify the Shafi'i method without other scholars before him.

3- وجدنا أَنَّ الإمام من أكبر أئمة الفتوى في اعتماد الأصول الكبرى، والصناعة العملية المركبة التي كان يقوم بها في إصدار الفتوى، والتي لا يحسنها إِلاَّ من امتلك آليات التعامل مع النصوص، واستمسك بالأركان القائمة عليه الفتوى، وهي: – Take Bmadark of the legal provisions and the mattresses and the correct understanding of evidence. – Accommodate the colleges and the major purposes of the law. – Recognize reality in all its details and merits. – Trust and confidence in the religion of God, and the control of God U.

4- من سماته الميل إلَى التيسير في فتاويه ونبذ الحرج في الدين، من غير إفراط ولا تفريط في الحكم، فييسّر فيما يتعلق بمسائل العبادات والمعاملات، ويشدِّد في أمور الدماء والأنكحة والفروج؛ لِـما في الأولى من التوسّع، والخطورةِ في الثانية.

5- نلاحظ خلوّ فقه الإمام جابر ومدرسته من الفقه الافتراضي، فلم نجد من فتياه شيئًا من ذلك، وهو ما يعبِّر علَى اهتمامه بالفقه العملي الذي لا يعطي المجال فِيه للترف الفكري في ذلك الوقت.

6- نرى أَنَّ مدرسته قد أخذت مسلك التحرّر وتأثرت به كثيرا ودرجت علَى أغلب آرائه إِلاَّ بعضها حيث خالفته فيها، أو خالف فيها بعضُهم بعد ذلك؛ لأَنَّ الاجتهاد لم يغلق عندهم أبدا، بل يتخيّر الفقهاء بين آراء الأئمة ومناهجهم دون غضاضة أو تكلّف، أو يحدثون آراء أخرى تخالفهم أو توافقهم أو تجمع بينهم، ويعدون ذلك من الثراء الممدوح، وليس لهم تقديس لشخص أو تقديمه علَى ما يرونه ثابتا عندهم؛ فصار المذهب الإباضي من أوسع المذاهب وأكثرها ثراء من حيث التنوع الفقهي وتعدد الآراء، وهذه هي المدرسة الجابرية التي تركت لأصحابها أبواب الاجتهاد منفتحة من عهد الصحابة إلَى يومنا هذا، رغم ما أصابها –كما أصاب الأمَّة جمعاء – Of recession and stagnation and underdevelopment, given the situation deteriorating different passed out over the times, but publicly today in the era we must on the word of one man to arrange rows and unify the efforts to save the nation than they are, and keep pace with the development of civilization to combine commitment to Islamic rulings and meet the needs of the nation.

7- Finally: Can get out in this seminar by calling:

1) Heritage idiosyncratic collection of Imams diligent in specialized encyclopedias, and study their curricula, Astdalalathm and problems before them, to gain access to their curricula and their bases in reaching the decision.

2) School Jabriyah in dire need of extracted heritage is set, and the development of the facts to be defined for the world to take a look at what the statements and opinions and approaches.

3) Establishment of an advisory opinion centers in each city, and the synagogues of jurisprudence that gives its opinions and contemporary developments, where keep pace with the developments of different cultural, and published by clear evidence exporter, overseen by scholars Mtsfin science and piety and control of God Almighty, and involving scientists in different disciplines.

God and the Crown, and able to do that, and Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

The most important sources and references:

  1. ابن أبي شيبة أبو بكر؛ عبد الله بن محمَّد بن أبي شيبة: The book workbook in conversations and effects, achieve: Kamal Yusuf Pisces, (7 Parts), Ø 1: 1409هـ، مكتبة الرشد، الرياض، دار الفكر، ضبط وتصحيح: Mohamed Abdel Salam Shahin, Scientific Library, Beirut, i 1/1416 -1995 AD.
  2. Ibn Qotaiba Aldeanora: Knowledge, entitled: Mohammed Ismail El Sawy, Arab Heritage Revival House, Beirut, i 2/1970)،
  3. ابن قيم الجوزية الزرعي؛ محمَّد بن أبي بكر أيوب: Zaad in the guidance of the best subjects, Scientific Library, Beirut, distribution: Baz Publishing and Distribution, Mecca.
  4. Alosbhana, Abu Naim, Ahmed bin Abdullah, ornament and layers الأصفياء, the Arab Book House, Lebanon, CT 4/1405.
  5. Isfahani, Raghib (ت502هـ): Vocabulary in a strange Quran, Dar Quran.
  6. Imam Zaid bin Ali: Total book newborn and idiosyncratic, achieve: Abdullah Izzi, i 1/1422 -2002, Imam Zaid Bin Ali cultural, Sana'a, Yemen.
  7. Baoshi, Abdullah: His Masters at the University of Jordan, entitled: “Approach jurisprudence at Imam Jabir”.
  8. Baccouche, Yahya Mohamed: Jaber School and its impact on Islamic jurisprudence, a lecture at a seminar of Islamic jurisprudence, i 1/1409- 1989M.
  9. بكوش، يحي بن محمَّد: Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir bin Zaid (Deliver and collect and graduation), I 1/1407 -1986 AD, Dar Muslim West Beirut.

10. Polruah, Ibrahim Ben Ali: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jabir bin Zaid jurisprudential, 1/1427-2006 i, library, Muscat, Oman.

11. Altewagena, vocational bin Omar: Rays of Islamic jurisprudence, (3) Jurisprudence and Legislation input and history, (I 1/1417 -1996 AD, stretching Renaissance, the Sultanate of Oman), P 70.

12. Jabir bin Zaid: Imam Jabir messages, Islamic library, the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, Oman, registered number in: 9192 And a special 216 c.

13. Heritage Society (The Scientific Research Committee): Lexicon flags Ibaadis of the 01 century to 15 AH- Morocco section, i 01/1420 -1999, the Arab press, Ghardaia, Algeria.

14. Khorasani, humans bin Ghanim al-Khorasani: Code, achieve: To Assaker Ibrahim Yahya al-Nabhani, promising generation library, Sultanate of Oman, i 1/1427- 2006M.

15. خليفات، عوض محمَّد: Origination movement Ibadi, printed in 1978, the People's House Press, Oman.

16. Golden, Mohammed Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din: Maintaining ticket, correct: Abdul Rahman Teachers, (I 1374 AH, Scientific Library, Beirut), Nuclear Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin bin Sharaf: Refine the names and languages, (Printing press Almneryh the Egypt).

17. Rashidi, d. Mubarak bin Abdullah: The emergence of blogging and continuity jurisprudence over the centuries, i 1/1422 -2001.

18. Ben Habib Spring: Whole right, Musnad Imam Ben Habib spring, set out his speeches: Mohammed Idris, probity library, Oman, i 3/1424 -2003.

19. الزرقا، مصطفى أحمد: Entrance idiosyncratic, Dar pen, i 1/1418 1998.

20. Salmi, Abdullah bin Humaid, explain the whole spring right Musnad Ibn Habib, a library of Imam Noureddine Salmi, the Sultanate of Oman, i 1 / 2004.

21. Sami Saqr holiday Abi Dawood: Imam Jabir bin Zaid and its impact on the intellectual and political life, edition of the Sultanate of Oman.

22. Shammakhi, Amer bin Ali Abu inhabitant: Book illustration, the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, Oman, i 4/1420 -1999.

23. Shawkaani, Mohammed bin Ali bin Mohammed, Neil Awtaar of conversations master of the good explain selector news, Dar generation, 1973.

24. العوتبي، سلمة بن مسلم، كتاب الضياء، وزارة التراث القومي والثقافة، سلطنة عمان، 1411هـ-1990م.

25. القرطبي، أبو عبد الله محمَّد بن أحمد: Inclusive of the Koran, to achieve: Ahmad Abdel Alim Bardouni, i 2/1372, the People's House, Cairo.

26. Alqnobi, Said Ben Mabrouk, Imam spring stature and kickstand, library Aldhamra, Oman, i 1/1416 -1995 AD.

27. الكندي، محمَّد بن إبراهيم، بيان الشرع، وزارة التراث القومي والثقافة، سلطنة عمان، ط1/ 1993م.

28. مجموعة من الباحثين، معجم أعلام إِبَاضِيّة المغرب، قرص مدمج.

29. Abdul Majeed required: Entrance in the definition of Islamic jurisprudence, history and founded and its characteristics and its sources, the Arab Renaissance House.

30. Developing, Amr Khalifa: Ibadi studies, translation: Michael Khoury, the Muslim West House, Lebanon, i 1/2001.


[1]) Look: Mustafa Zarqa: Entrance idiosyncratic year, 1/165-166.

[2]) See the different divisions of the authors of these roles in each of the: Mohamed vegetative Bey: History of Islamic legislation, pp. 101-108. Mustafa Zarqa: Entrance idiosyncratic year, 1/159-256. Abdul Majid is required: Entrance in the definition of Islamic jurisprudence, history and founded and its properties and sources, p 51-98. D. Rashidi: The emergence of blogging and continuity jurisprudence over the centuries, pp. 56-67. And others.

[3]) It is not intended here a school of opinion that it was decided provisions Baltshahy and fancy or what he chooses mind the abstract without complying with some of the texts of Islam and its purposes, but is meant by considering the bug texts and objectives and why they are received to learn to be done for the proper application of application are true, and it is the view a comprehensive measurement and plaudits . Look: Zarqa: Idiosyncratic entrance, 1/195-196.

[4]) It is not intended here a school of opinion that it was decided provisions Baltshahy and fancy or what he chooses mind the abstract without complying with some of the texts of Islam and its purposes, but is meant by considering the bug texts and objectives and why they are received to learn to be done for the proper application of application are true, and it is the view a comprehensive measurement and plaudits . Look: Zarqa: Idiosyncratic entrance, 1/195-196.

[5]) Mawardi Ali bin Mohammed bin Habib: Bowl provisions, (Scientific Library, Beirut), P 91.

[6]) Look: الحجوي: High thought, 2/321.

[7]) Relative to Abdullah bin Abad Marri Tamimi (T.: 86E) For his public against power, and debates of the Kharijites and others, was issued by the opinion sheikh Imam Jabir, we do not want to go into the reply to the prosecution, which wants to exclude the Imam Jaber and his innocence of the Ibadi, and its relationship with the son of Abad and other founders of the doctrine Ibadhi?, Has been discussed so clearly a lot of : Awad Khleifat: Origination movement Ibadi, p 93. Yahya Baccouche: Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir, pp. 26-29. Sami Saqr: Imam Jabir bin Zaid and its impact on the intellectual and political life, pp. 56-67. And other. Said Dr.. Developing in his studies (Pp. 120-121): “And the man who was actually responsible for the establishment of a school of jurisprudence Ibadi is Jabir bin Zaid, an updated and jurist; Because of his extensive knowledge of the Koran and hadiths of the Prophet e has been able to establish an independent doctrine, and that attracts a number of learners. In later claimed they develop opinions and published it. And took Ibadi jurisprudence its final form at the hands of his student Abu Obeida Muslim ibn Abi dignified in his last years, and spring at the hands of Ben Habib, a student of Jabir bin Zaid and Abu Obeida together. However, Jabir bin Zaid remains great personal interest in the establishment of this doctrine. In addition to his skill Kmuft exchange most of his life for the issuance of legal provisions and adjust his views to consult companions of the Prophet neighborhoods, and followers prominent, and it was so link the basic build followers of his doctrine and those companions who played the main role in the drafting of opinions on religious affairs and legitimacy and dissemination”.

[8]) For the expansion of the life of Imam Jabir can refer to each of: D. Amr Khalifa developing: Studies on Ibadi, 73-94. Baccouche: Answers, p 11-77. Sami Saqr holiday Abi Dawood: Imam al-Jaber, 71 And Beyond. بولرواح: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jabir bin Zaid jurisprudence, provided. And other.

[9]) Salmi: Footnote right Mosque, 1/8.

[10]) Son Hibbaan,: Trustworthy, 4/101-102.

[11]) Alaotba: Photophobia, 3/211. Curtains: Selected jewels, p 151.

[12]) Developing: Studies, p 75. It was reported Aldrgeni (Layers: 2/208) It was a pilgrimage each year, and had traveled by camel twenty-four trip between Hajj and Umrah.

[13]) I'm Naim: Ornament, 2/54.

[14]) Ibn Sa'd, layers, 7/131 ; Abu Naim, the source mentioned earlier, 3/86 ; Ibn Hajar, refine, 2/38 – 39.

[15]) Aldrgeni: Classes, 2/213.

[16]) Bukhari: History, 2/204.

[17]) Alusi: Spirit of meanings, 3/163.

[18]) Abu Naim: Ornament, 3/85.

[19]) Ibid same.

[20]) Abu Ya'qub Allowargelana,: Evidence and proof, 3/64.

[21]) Said: That a copy of the Court Jaber was in the possession of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (170E), The world has been able to Alnphusi jet Ben Nasr copy then أتلفه for his opposition to the people of the call. It was: That Jaber books were held by Muslim Abu Obeid then Intelguet to spring Ben Habib and then to the Abi Sufyan lovable bin leave and then his son, Mohammed, and it copied in Mecca. Look: Developing: Studies, pp. 79-80. (Quoting from: Sir Abu Zakaria and functioning Alossiana the).

[22]) Ibn Hajar: Refining, 2 / 38.

[23]) Look: Developing: Studies, pp. 78-79. The Heritage Society: Glossary of flags إباضية Morocco, see 230.

[24]) Look: Ibn Sa'd: Classes, 9/182. Ibn Qotaiba Aldeanora: Knowledge, p 200. Golden: Maintaining ticket, 1/73.

[25]) Nuclear: Refine the names and languages, 1/142.

[26]) Shammakhi: Sir, 1/72.

[27]) See the discussion in: Harthy Salem bin Hamad: Silver contracts, p 103. Developing: Studies, p 93. Baccouche: Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir, p 11.

[28]) Ibn Hajar: Refining, 2 / 38.

[29]) Ibn Sa'd: Major classes, 7/179. Abu Naim: Ornament, 3/86.

[30]) Mazzi: Refine perfection, 4/435. Golden: Sir flags, 4/482.

[31]) Abu Naim: Ornament, 3, / 86.

[32]) Ibid same.

[33]) Ibn Hazm: Local effects, 3/350.

[34]) It is a concept Ifta when Raghib al-Isfahani (ت502هـ): Vocabulary in a strange Quran, p 373.

[35]) Has already been the subject some ways researchers them: Professor professional Altewagena in his book: Rays of Islamic jurisprudence, and the student Baoshi Abdullah in his letter to the Master at the University of Jordan entitled: “Approach jurisprudence at Imam Jabir”, Has indicated the first and the most beautiful, the second and singled out some models, Sndjeml of what some said, and increase as much as we can access it through our reading of this heritage.

[36]) Altewagena: Rays of Islamic Jurisprudence, p 70.

[37]) Aldrgeni: Classes, 2/ 212.

[38]) Al Noor: 28.

[39]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 7, p 20

[40]) Fads: 33.

[41]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 2, p 4.

[42]) Canadian: Shara statement, 48/445.

[43]) Shammakhi: Clarification, 2/333.

[44]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 10, p 26.

[45]) Zarqa: Entrance idiosyncratic year, 1/171-172.

[46]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 7, p 20.

[47]) Al Noor: 29.

[48]) Copper: Duplicator and copied, 1/589. Qurtubi: Provisions of the Koran, 12/221.

[49]) Al Noor: 61.

[50]) Sura: 235.

[51]) Surat ants: 91.

[52]) See these novels in: بولرواح: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, T 804, 1/713.

[53]) Salmi, explain the sun sorties, 2/2.

[54]) Khorasani: Blog Abi Ghanem 256.

[55]) Surat separated: 42.

[56]) Spring: Holder, Door in the nation…، ح40. Another novel (ح945) Using Jaber sent the Prophet e said: «مَا مِنْ نَبِيءٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ كُذِبَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ أَلاَ وَسَيُكْذَبُ عَلَيَّ مِنْ بَعْدِي كَمَا كُذِبَ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِي، فَمَا أَتَاكُمْ عَنِّي فَاعْرِضُوهُ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَمَا وَافَقَهُ فَهُوَ عَنِّي، وَمَا خَالَفَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَنِّي». This is the right of the conversations at the School of each house, and their major bases in the modern acceptance, which shows striking similarity between the first schools in many of the accepted rules of the novel. (Look: Introduction Abdullah Izzi to achieve total book newborn and idiosyncratic Imam Zaid bin Ali, pp. 9-10. The detail of these views and discussed at: Alqnobi: Imam spring stature and kickstand, p 110- 112).

[57]) Spring: Holder, a door in the graves, H 483.

[58]) Al cattle: 164.

[59]) Shawkaani: Neil Awtaar, 1/196.

[60]) Surah: 6.

[61]) Look: Spring: Datum, Bab (19) In wiping over the socks, H 121-128. Blog Abi Ghanem, pp. 63-64. And see Astdalalathm in: Qurtubi: Provisions of the Koran, 6 /92-94. Baccouche: Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir, pp. 155-158.

[62]) Spring: Datum, Bab (63) Literature food and drink, H 381.

[63]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 5, p 14.

[64]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 5, p 14.

[65]) Al al: 9.

[66]) Abu Ghanem al-Khorasani: Blog Abu Ghanem Khorasani, p 84.

[67]) Mayor reader, 7/23. Baccouche: Jurisprudence of Imam Jabir, pp. 195-196.

[68]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 4, p 11.

[69]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 3, p 9. This talk Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (ح1265) Abu Said and Abu Huraira that the Prophet e, he said: «The God GIVES even if the first third of the night went down to the lowest heaven and says Is Moustaghfir to repentant Is Is Is it means farewell so explodes dawn».

[70]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 17, pp. 41-42.

[71]) Imam Jabir: Letters, T 17, R 42.

[72]) Imam Jabir: Letters, T 17, R 42.

[73]) Stories of the spring for accession from Abu الشعثاء, and Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated that the full dowry, and ruled it out; for it is contrary to the text of the book in the rule of divorced before Touch. See these novels in: بولرواح: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, R. 1394, 2/1084-1085.

[74]) See this issue in the novels: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, R. 1275, 2/1019-1020.

[75]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 4, p 11.

[76]) Khorasani: Entries major, 2/28.

[77]) Ibn Abi Shaybah Workbook, t 904, 3/528. And see all these novels approval and foul: موسوعة آثار الإمام جابر، ر 917، 2/784-787.

[78]) Spring, archeology, t 291.

[79]) Nisa: 23.

[80]) Imam Jabir: Letters, T 11, R 21.

[81]) ( 1550/3691 )

[82]) Nisa: 22.

[83]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 17, pp. 41-42.

[84]) Narrated by al-Hasan, R. 2442, 9/58. Women in the Book of drinks, the urge to leave the door suspicions, R. 5711, 8/328. Ahmad, 1/200.

[85]) Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad, 4/228.

[86]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 2, p 4.

[87]) Khorasani: Entries, p 149.

[88]) Imam Jabir: Letters, T 17, R 43.

[89]) Look: I'm Pond: Whole, 2/368. Zaid bin Ali: Total, p 197. Ardabili: Compound interest and the proof, 10/204.

[90]) Spring: Predicate, Bab (36) In stoning and borders, H 603.

[91]) And went to the Imam Hadi (ت298هـ) Zaidi they تحصنه بالخلوة. Look: Explain flowers: 4 /343.

[92]) Look: Khorasani: Entries, pp. 387-388.

[93]) Salmi: Explain right Mosque, 3/ 280.

[94]) Issues presented of the total, the paper 362.

[95]) Khorasani: Entries, p 145.

[96]) Salmi: Explain right Mosque, 3/280.

[97]) Spring: Effects, t 268, pp. 68-69.

[98]) See these novels in: بولرواح: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, T-970, 2/831-833.

[99]) Narrated by the spring, from Ibn Abbas, as stated in the dissimulation, t 794, 1/301. And Ibn Majah, Abu Dhar and Ibn Abbas, Book divorce, R. 2043, 2045.

[100]) Imam Jabir: Letters, T 17, R 42.

[101]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 15, p 36.

[102]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 8, p 22.

[103]) Imam Jabir: Messages, t 3, p 9.

[104]) Al-Hajj: 78.

[105]) Women's narrated in his Sunan, H-4948, 15/248.

[106]) Algtma: Agamh in logic. , Man اغتم and Gtmi, any: Do not disclose anything. Look: الفراهيدي: Eye, substance: غتم.

[107]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 5, p 14.

[108]) Ar-Rahman: 64.

[109]) Ibn Abi Shaybah Workbook, R. 3631, 1/318. Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, T 490, 1/509-512.

[110]) Al-Muzzammil: 20.

[111]) روى الربيع عن أبي عبيدة عن جابر بن زيد عن أنس بن مالك قال قال رسول الله e: « من صلى صلاة لم يقرأ فيها بأم القرآن فهي خداج». Said spring: Prematurity missing a non-cosine. Spring: Predicate, H 222.

[112]) Shammakhi: Sir, 1/108.

[113]) Imam Jabir: Messages, R. 5, pp. 13-14.

[114]) Bajo, diligent approach, p 575. Quoting from the book Jaber, 22.

[115]) Ibn al-Qayyim: Zaad, 4/ 146.

[116]) Narrated by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi: Faqih and consistent, 1/422, and Ibn Abd al-Barr: Statement of science and collector bounty, 2/855, and reported Haythami: Zawaa'id, 1/177, 178, and said,: “Narrated by Ahmad and Bazzar and Tabaraani in the Great and his men Trusted”.

[117]) See these novels in: بولرواح: Encyclopedia of the effects of the Imam Jaber, R. 1263, 2/1011-1013.

[118]) Spring: Predicate, H 979.

[119]) Altewagena: Rays of Islamic jurisprudence, 71.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان ” فقه النوازل وتجديد الفتوى”

Held during the period: 13-16 April 1428 / 1-4 April 2007

Oman - Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

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