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Issues of calamity in the jurisprudence of the transactions and the renewal of the fatwa

Issues of calamity in the jurisprudence of the transactions and the renewal of the fatwa

Term approach *

Preparation: A. D. Mohamed Kamal El Din Imam

(Professor and Chairman, Department of Shariah, Faculty of Law, University of Alexandria Egyptian Republic)

Issues of calamity in the jurisprudence of the transactions between the schools of Islamic jurisprudence and the renewal of the fatwa

First: In the sense of the jurisprudence of calamity:

Perhaps it is appropriate from the outset set term for Balnoazl - in perspective this research -; because the breadth of the concept and conceived and ambiguity sometimes led to the widening perception of calamity to include Islamic jurisprudence whole, and to limit the concept when some even barely accommodate the incident judicial, and public opinion have to - Astute phenomenon began to market a separate note his rules and mechanisms, with his notes and his works, at the stage of calamity as “Phenomenon” Accommodate the jurisprudence of Islam, which is shifting from text to reality, but at the stage of science has moved in the concept from the general to the particular, and all the restrictions, whether in the area of ​​control of the term, or build knowledge bases or authoring a singular.

The download judgments on the facts is the beginning of science sharia and its statement to the people, which in the age of the message task Apostle basic, it is a question and answer, a question from a Muslim as expensive in the circle of faith, and the answer of the Prophet as sending costs by carrying out rights, in this light that understands the meaning: ) يستفتونك tell God Evticm in الكلالة (([1]). In the verse: ) And يستفتونك in women Say God Evticm the deeds (([2]).

The question may be offered directly from the charge as stated in Surat argument from verse: ) Has heard God say that تجادلك in her husband and complains to God (([3]).

We are here to question expressed by the confusion, the first road to knowledge: The descent of the legal provisions as a tip, and download them to the facts as a rule, are not elements of “Calamity”, Before the established jurisprudence, which is the science of the provisions acquired legitimacy process of detailed evidence, and before the science of calamity arises, who are looking for idiomatic meaning, and its place in the map of Islamic jurisprudence sciences.

Here distinguish between two things:

The first command: تنزيل الحكم على الوقائع، وهذه مهمة قام بها الرسول e، ويقوم بها علماء الإسلام في كلّ العصور؛ لأنَّ في مقدمة الوظائف الشرعية صنع الوقائع على عين من أحكام الشريعة، فالعلماء يأخذون الأحكام التي جاءت بها النصوص، وينزلونها على الوقائع التي يستغرقها حكم النص، وليست المهمة هنا سهلة بل هي مزلة أقدام؛ لأنَّها تحتاج إلى علم دقيق بالحكم، وهو في المستوى التجريدى أمر ونهي يستوعب الزمان والمكان، وفي المستوى العملي وقائع تحدث في دنيا الناس لها تاريخ ولها جغرافيا، وترتبط بأشخاص وأفعال وأحداث، وإذا كان العلم بالنصِّ هو توثيق للنصِّ -متنا وسندا-ومعرفة لأمره ونهيه تبدأ من بنيته اللغوية وتمتد إلى أنواع التكليف الواردة فيه، ولا تغفل عن مصالحه المحمية ومقاصده المرعية، وهذه المهمة أيضا تحتاج إلى فقه بالوقائع حتى يمكن وصفها وتحديدها، وإدخالها تحت حكم النصّ الذى تخضع له، وإذا كانت المهمة الأولى شرعية بحتة فإنَّ المهمة الثانية تدخل فيها علوم كثيرة ليست من الفقه بمعناه التخصصي، ومنها العلوم الاجتماعية سياسة واقتصادا واجتماعا وغير ذلك، بل والعلوم الطبيعية مثل: The science of medicine, especially mental scientific medicine, forensics, and this is what some called: “Jurisprudence of reality” All elements and components, all this regard “Download the text”, At any stage and in any era, a jurisprudence begins where it ends the text and diligent or alive, and based jurisprudence download four: Imam, the judge and the Mufti and designate in their respective fields; judgments that need to rule are downloaded Imam governor and judge, and provisions that do not need to rule inflicted the Mufti and Governor designate. All of these fields have tapes and rules in theory diligence when Muslims.

The second thing: ” Calamity that need to text, and this is “Developments” That does not find jurists have ruled “In abstraction script” Return directly to him and walk under his speech, and here is moving the individual and collective endeavor, to take his mind idiosyncratic play harder than just download to work Two phases:

The first phase: Access to the rule of the incident can be dealt with through the mandate contained therein, a mandate becomes an obligation on the industrious before it becomes binding on the doomed.

Phase II: Download discretionary rule on the new incident.

This second task that runs from the generality of the law, and the fact that the facts may not be entered under the rule stipulated circle, or even in the known evidence inventory, which refers to Shaatibi “Approvals” Saying: “The facts in existence is not limited, there is no right to enter under the evidence Almnhsrh, so احتيج to open the door of ijtihad of measurement and others, must be of facts not be provided for a ruling, and there's Olin where diligence, and when it will either be based Faqih work, or that ”.

And my opinion that in this circle, circle “Jurisprudence developments” Old and new moves “Aware of calamity” And rules of jurisprudence, where the “Jurisprudence Downloads” Wider than the “Jurisprudence of calamity”; Because the former accommodate the text, and accommodates diligence with no text, download Vvgah - on the importance and difficulty of- Is a movement with text in order to applied, Vafiqih the detector here do not Builder, either in “Jurisprudence of calamity” Vafiqih Builder of the provisions according to the vision and diligence, a task most dangerous and difficult, and carried out by al-Faqih in response to the necessities of reality universe, away from the otherwise fundamentalists on the facts and the possibility of freedom from the rule of God, which is otherwise assured the scientists assets in the doctrines different that the provisions can not be free from the rule of God .

The jurisprudence of calamity in the light of this analysis to حمته and stamen new calamity that impose new diligent, do not fall under specific text, but يستمده the industrious of all the sources of law, and legitimate purposes; because as scholar Tahar Ben Achour: The ” More diligent injury and more right Mujtahed in the diligence Akunan the on غوصه scale to the requests of the purposes of Sharia”, Which is aware of no fighting as the guardian of Allah Dahlawi “God argument amounting”: “However, of the kindness of his mind and unbend understand”, And stalactites jurisprudence jurisprudence select some of its properties in the local realism, and it is broader than that; because Faqih here in the commissioner access to power, and the Commissioner to be informed of the people; «Scientists and heirs of the prophets».

In “Jurisprudence Downloads” Moves assigned to him is known a text or interpret it into the unknown, an incident that approach should be used to achieve assigned to improve the download commissioning is true, but in the “Jurisprudence of calamity” Faqih does not require text, but Aogda the Astenbata then bring him down Manata.

The “Jurisprudence Downloads” Found since the era of the Prophet e, and learning companions him e exact approach it, documented and described under, while “Jurisprudence of calamity” Did show Arhasath only after the end of the era of revelation, but he suddenly peered after the departure of the Apostle to the Supreme Comrade, in the same order of succession, and is it shura and the pledge of allegiance? “Jurisprudence Downloads” Regard to the arbitration of the text in the facts, and”Jurisprudence of calamity” The search for the rule of the facts, and”Jurisprudence fatwa” The news by virtue of the facts, because the jurists top were moving on all these areas of their briefing knowledge, and science is objective, it was characterized by these sciences, and did not appear borders and definitions minute for a lot of vocabulary that is built upon the concept of science and the fields blogs, and perhaps this seems as quoted : “No one should have to issue fatwas to be a scientist to different people”, And others say: “Of scholars did not know the difference is not بفقيه”, And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi”Jurisprudence of calamity” Not being in the transactions, but also includes Islamic jurisprudence whole worship and transactions, and to say that acts of worship, then, and transactions divorced not being released, perhaps as expanded the use of evidence of mental and foremost measurement, when most of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence and Ojrōh in the area of ​​worship, jurisprudence Oman “Input jurisprudence and legislation”: “لقد ذهب الإباضية مذهب الكثيرين من غيرهم إلى التوسع في استعمال القياس، ولم يكتفوا بمسائل المعاملات والحوادث المستجدة، كلّما تبيَّنت العلة التي قام عليها حكم الأصل، فاستعملوه في العبادات، فأوجبوا التتابع في قضاء رمضان قياسا على التتابع في الأدَاء، ومن ذلك أيضا قولهم في المسافِر والمريض إذا أخَّرا القضاء حتى يدخل رمضان وقد أمكنهما القضاء، يصومان هذا الحاضر ويطعمان على الماضي لكلِّ يوم مسكينا غداء وعشاء، ويقضيان بعد ذلك قياسا على وجوب الإطعام على المفطر تعمُّدا؛ لأنَّ كليهما مُنتهك لحرمة الشهر، وفي “Islam rules” For Jatali and”Clarification” شماخي many examples of the use of measurement in worship “.

Secondly: In Ta Rech jurisprudence stalactites and blogs:

There is no doubt that the harbingers “Jurisprudence of calamity” Started since the first moment of the departure of the Messenger of Allah e to the higher ranks, and in the light of directives to his companions on how to work when the dispute, and in light of this approach in the jurisprudence of companions formed schools of law, then the same approach settled ordered schools of Islamic jurisprudence on diversity in the era of stability doctrines began calamity :

1- Despite the early codification of fatwas, where you can return it to the first books in the curriculum, such as a book “Urwah ibn al-Zubayr”, But to the codes, especially since the first century AH if you make sure What historians Alabadion the saying that Imam Jabir bin Zaid collect himself a great book in conversations and is known as fatwas”Diwan Jabir bin Zaid”، إلاَّ أن هذه المدونات الأولى وغيرها من المصنفات التي ضمت مع أحاديث رسول الله e فتاوى الصحابة وأقوال التابعين، مثل مسند الربيع بن حبيب، وجوابات جابــر بن زيد، ومسند الإمام زيد، ومصنفات عبد الرازق، وابن أبى شيبة وغيرهم إلاَّ أن هذه المصنفات لا يُمكن العثور فيها على فقه نوازل بالمعنى الدقيق الذي يقوم على جديد يحتاج إلى اجتهاد، ويتخطَّى الأدلَّة المحصورة، وعليه فإنَّ التأليف في النوازل يعود إلى عصور متأخِّرة في تاريخ الفقه الإسلامي، ولا نزال في حاجة إلى من يُجرِّد “Jurisprudence of calamity” Groups of fatwas huge, which included the work of judges and muftis, and sayings of scholars and governors, which includes provisions for judicial, and opinions, in addition to the cataclysms of any new incidents ruled in the light of the judgment again, an aspect of achievement idiosyncratic to the Maghreb where a great effort, not a special Bamalikih but that .

2- The books of calamity are designated inexhaustible, which was used by orientalists and later a number of researchers to write a social history of Islam; فالدراسة single to cataclysms Fakih one like البرزلي, Ibn Sarraj, or comprehensive study of total chaos make reality more obvious to researchers, and light up in front of the causes of decline and prosperity “Cataclysms'm easy”, And Abu Ammar Abdul Kafi”Cataclysms of Abu Abdullah al-Azdi”, Stood on the richness of Islamic jurisprudence and rules established by the Islamic Fiqh mind to deal with the reality so as not to diminish the rule of law, and even the judge does not deny justice. And my opinion that rooting “Jurisprudence of calamity” The collection of rules of the books of fatwas will paints approach, but several courses in the area of ​​transactions, in the area of ​​doctrinal renewal, in addition to writing the correct date for communities Islamic Bmyate and pros.

Thirdly: Science associated with the knowledge of calamity:

The science of chaos finds its origins discretionary basis in the Quran and Sunnah, they are the two primary sources of Islamic jurisprudence all the sciences, and but Faqih hake not correct approach in thinking idiosyncratic unless hired a group of juristic science, in addition to the science of his time, and in the forefront of this science the following:

1- Study of the legitimate purposes:

And deliberately chose the word Study; because I see a legitimacy Mbgesa the destinations occupies major importance in the science of jurisprudence, whether partial purposes boarded by legislation or rule books legitimate purposes college which was full of books of assets, and the inclusion of this section in the science of jurisprudence Achieves two things:

Meets all the conditions legitimacy – Adjust the legitimate purposes So as not to fly in space passions; to be when many intellectuals of our time approach to override the text and تاريخيته, ie replacing the purposes knowledge of jurisprudence, becomes the legal provisions in worship and transactions under the amendment and change; Valmqasd Study is important to download the texts, is gaining importance, especially when diligence new. And so as not ينفرط the contract renewal فينقلب to dissipate, so as not to fall step-Faqih until it reaches the stage of stalemate.

B - Activation of the legitimate purposes In light sources and suggest to him, and the ills of the provisions and the requirements of the expansion and upgrading embarrassment, Malate acts governed by the standard of goodness and corruption, and perhaps this is why scholars of all times to the modern era Ya'alon would take into account the purposes of the law, without independent knowledge of a special, even if .

2- Politics legitimacy:

It means the authority of a guardian in maintaining the general interests of the religion and the world, and fill the space available, which is no text directly governed, which is the authority of intimate guardian contemporary by scholars of the nation and scholars, is no longer ruling industrious known in our time, but rarely, and rarely is not measured .

The policy legitimacy تنضبط the بقاعدتين to be referred to them:

The first rule: No obedience to a creature in disobedience to the Creator

The second rule: تصرُّف ولي الأمر مَنوط بِمصلحة الرعيَّة، ومهمة السياسة الشرعية في عصرنا، ليس فقط الوصول إلى أحكام شرعية لكلِّ جديد، وَإِنَّمَا أيضا إضفاء عنصر الإلزام على القواعد التي يتمّ اختيارها لتكون جزءا من البناء التشريعي الإسلامي، وهو بناء قد يستدعي تقديم المرجوح وترك الراجح، وفي بعض الأحيانِ يتطلَّب إعمال المصلحة فيما قد يكون مَحلّ نصّ إرجاء وضرورة، أو إعادة توصيف للواقع، وليس إنكارا أو إغفالا، وفي كلّ ذلك يستعمل ولي أمر سلطة أعطاها له الفقه، وتلخّصها قاعدة “Choose a guardian raises controversy”.

3- Aware of the dispute:

Sits at the Higher dispute any disagreement between the sects, or disagreement downlight a disagreement fact in the same circle doctrine between informed or between the applicants and the latecomers, is added to the comparison that we do today between Islamic law and other international legal systems.

4- Aware of legal rules:

A flag stands in the middle between science and jurisprudence assets, and Nt the truth if we say: إنَّه أهمّ العلوم التشريعية التي يحتاج إليها الفقيه المعاصر، وحسنا فعلت أغلب المذاهب الفقهية بتجريد القواعد الفقهية من موسوعاتها، هكذا فعل الإماميَّة فيما صَدر من مجموع للقواعد على المذهب الإمامي من مجمع التقريب بين المذاهب في إيران، وهكذا فعلت سَلطنة عمان فيما تَمَّ تجريده من قواعد الفقه الإباضي من الموسوعات الفقهية، وهكذا يفعل المجمع الفقهي في منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي في مشروعه الضخم عن القواعد الفقهية؛ Because rooting talking to the rules of jurisprudence achieved two things:

First: Reply to Orientalists and their followers to say that Islamic jurisprudence is just not regarded as partial solutions where the general theories, or jurisprudential formats college, and build jurisprudence and ramifications them refunded this lawsuit.

Second: Activating the mind of contemporary jurisprudence and refurbished protection fencing of the ruling college rules that govern its course, and make volumes particles and practical applications of the rules of holistic, or control the majority of the details and branches jurisprudential.

And the important function performed by the rules in the understanding of doctrinal heritage and renew the doctrinal heritage. There are many other enough science referred to as: Aware of the differences, and science graduation branches on assets, and likes science, isotopes, and the authentication flag of legitimacy, and aware of the relevant provisions to other principles, all of them in our library science ancient and modern heritage important books written between print and manuscript.

IV: Stalactites and the jurisprudence of transactions:

The jurisprudence of calamity and related sciences is a natural way to look at the developments, whether it is the renewal of the doctrine, or the development of Islamic teaching in universities, or attached to these new trends to derive the laws of the States of Islamic Sharia.

If the interest jurisprudential rules when devising legislation became a Muslim since the introduction magazine judicial judgments, since the ” Santlana” No “Tunisian Code of Obligations”، فإنَّ علوماً كثيرة لا تزال غائبة عن ذهن المشرع الحديث، وفي مقدمتها مقاصد الشريعة، والسياسة الشرعية، وما يتفرَّع عنهما من مباحث، ولعلَّ من أهمِّ ما ينبغي الإشارة إليه عند البحث عن منهج للنوازل في معالجة المعاملات، أنَّ فقه المعاملات اليوم لم يَعد مغلقا على علوم الفقه التقليدية، بل إنَّه من خلال التطورات المعاصرة سواء في العلاقات الدولية، أو المعاهدات ذات الطابع الدولي، أو في ثورة المعلومات، فإنَّ في ذلك كلّه ما يستوجب تحريك الفقه، وتفعيل قواعده حتى تستجيب للمنهج الذي يعطي للخبرة ولو بِمعناها المادي والتجريبي دورها في توصيف الوقائع، ويعطي لعالم الطبيعة وعلم النفس والاجتماع والاقتصاد والإعلام دوره إلى جوار الفقيه، في بيان كلّ حقائق الواقع الذى يراد للشريعة الإسلامية أن تَحكم عليه، وتساعد الفقيه.

إن القطيعة بين الفقه والعالم ليست في مصلحة الفقيه؛ لأنه ينفصل عن واقعه وعلوم عصره، وليست في مصلحة العالم لأنَّه ينسلخ من عقيدة أمته وهوية مجتمعه، والإسلام يجعل كلاّ منهما على ثغرة، وإنَّهما معا في رباط واحد، والأمة لا تنهض إلاَّ بهما معا، بما يفرض على ثقافتنا المعاصرة التخلي عن ثنائيات مستجلبة، وتقاطعات وهمية لا تعرفها شريعة الإسلام، وتنكرها مقاصده الكلية، من تجديد يستند إلى الأصول ويلائم أحوال العصر، إنَّ الفقه الإسلامي في مجال المعاملات فيه من النظريات العامة مثلَ: The theory of abuse of right, and the necessary theory, and the theory of the damage, and carry liability theory, the theory of interest, and the theory of warranty… وغير ذلك من نظريات قام الفقه المعاصر في أطروحات جامعية، أو بحوث معمقة بتناولها وتطبيقها على موضوعات كثيرة اجتماعية وسياسية واقتصادية، مستخدمة المنهج الواسع الذي لا يهمل المصادر، ويتفاعل مع المقاصد، ويتعامل بالقواعد، بل إن القواعد في ذاتها قامت دراسات مفردة لتطبيق بعضها على المعاملات فهناك دراسات عن المصلحة الشرعية وتطبيقها في نظم الحكم، والمقاصد الشرعية ودورها السياسي، وقاعدة المشقة تجلب التيسير وتطبيقاتها، وقاعدة الأمور بمقاصدها وتطبيقاتها، وغير ذلك كثير.

And recommend it at the conclusion of this paper is not Tiger these studies unnoticed, but make it the object of a lesson, calendar, search and criticism, to become instrumental in the renewal of the mind of contemporary jurisprudence, and its ability to support creativity and innovation.

God is the source of strength.

[1]– Nisa verse: 176.

[2]– Nisa verse: 127.

[3]– Argue verse: 1.

* ندوة تطور العلوم الفقهية فِي عمان ” فقه النوازل وتجديد الفتوى”

Held during the period: 13-16 April 1428 / 1-4 April 2007

Oman - Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs

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